How to make warm water floors in a private house

Imagine entering a room barefoot and feeling the warmth of the floor surround you, providing comfort even on the coldest of days. Warm water floors hold the potential to be an opulent yet useful means of heating residential spaces. Warm water floors can turn your living area into a comfortable haven, whether you’re building a new house or remodeling an old one.

Warm water floors work by circulating heated water through a system of pipes buried beneath the floor surface, as opposed to conventional forced-air systems that blast hot air through vents. Cold spots and drafts that are frequently encountered with other heating methods are eliminated thanks to this gentle heat distribution, which produces an even, consistent warmth from the ground up.

The energy efficiency of warm water floors is one of their main advantages. These systems require lower operating temperatures to maintain a comfortable indoor climate because they heat the floor directly instead of the air. In the long term, this is a cost-effective heating solution because it lowers utility bills in addition to energy consumption.

However, how precisely are warm water floors put in a private home? The procedure usually consists of multiple steps, the first of which is the meticulous planning and design to ascertain the heating system’s layout. This involves deciding on the right kind of flooring, such as laminate, carpet, wood, or tile, and figuring out where the heating pipes should be placed.

Materials needed Installation Steps
Pex tubing, manifold, insulation boards, fasteners, thermostat, heating source 1. Plan layout and calculate tubing length. 2. Install insulation boards. 3. Lay tubing in a serpentine pattern. 4. Connect tubing to manifold. 5. Test system for leaks. 6. Secure tubing. 7. Connect thermostat. 8. Connect to heating source.

Stages of work

The warm floor device in an apartment or private home consists of a series of actions performed in a precise order:

  1. Design – calculation of the necessary heat transfer, stacking steps and pipes length, breakdown into contours. Depending on the type of base (overlap), the composition of the “pie” of the warm floor is selected.
  2. The choice of components and building materials – insulation, pipes, collector with a mixing node and other auxiliary elements.
  3. Preparation of the base.
  4. Installation work – layout of insulation and pipelines, installation and connection of a distribution comb.
  5. Filling the system with a coolant, hydraulic tests – crimping.
  6. Pouring a monolithic screed on a cement-sand mortar, primary launch and heating.

Suggestion made. As the building is being constructed, install the TP right after the room partitions have been built. This will allow the thresholds to reach the appropriate height and allow the "pie" to slide freely under the flooring. If residential buildings already have doorways with low thresholds, try using the suggested solutions to remedy the situation.

Now let’s examine each step of the heating floor arrangement in more detail.

Calculation and development of floor heating scheme

In order to appropriately install the heated floor beneath the screed using your hands, keep in mind several crucial factors and prerequisites:

  • The maximum temperature of the finish coating is 26 degrees, a hotter surface often causes discomfort and a feeling of stuffiness in residents;
  • Accordingly, the water in the floor pipes heats up to a maximum of 55 ° C, so that the apartment cannot be connected directly to the central heating;
  • under stationary furniture, for example, a headset in the kitchen, heating the floor is not done;
  • The length of the pipe of one circuit does not exceed 100 meters (optimal – 80 m), otherwise you will receive an uneven distribution of heat, excessive cooling of water and the cost of a more powerful circulation pump;
  • To comply with the previous rule, the rooms of a large area are divided into 2-3 heating plates, between which a deformation seam is arranged, as shown in the figure.

Firstly, we present a more accurate, albeit intricate, design choice. After reading through our instructions, determine the heating power of the room using its volume, area, or heat loss. Then, taking into consideration the coating, laminate, linoleum, or tile’s thermal resistance, calculate the laying circuit, diameter, and spacing between nearby pipes.

Note: The following guidance explains the process for figuring out the pipe laying step for coatings other than tiles.

Let’s lay out a straightforward approach to creating a plan that many builders use:

  1. If you live in regions with a cold climate, lay a pipe with an interval of 10 cm. For the middle strip and south, a step is taken equal to 15 cm, in the bathroom a tile is enough 200 mm.
  2. We count the length of the pipeline for 1 room. With a distance between the threads of 100 mm per square meter, 10 m pipe will fall, with a step 15 cm – 6.5 m. P. If the total length exceeds 100 m, we break the area into 2 equal parts – two separate heating monoliths.
  3. Among the existing styling schemes – “Snail” and “Snake” – it is better to choose the latter to a beginner – it is easier to mount it.
  4. Determine the number of heating contours and select a collector with the corresponding number of conclusions. Cheaper option – we make a comb on our own.
  5. We place a collector in a convenient place of home (for example, the corridor). It is recommended to withstand the same distance to all rooms, see an example on the drawing of one -story house.
  6. The pipes in the corridor will probably fall too close – they must be insulated with a plastic sleeve.
  7. Be sure to provide in the floor two -pipe wiring from the boiler to heating radiators.

An important nuance. Remember to add more distance from the room to the comb installation point with a pumping mixing knot when calculating the length of the warm floor branches. View the instructional video to ensure that you don’t make a mistake when measuring the loops’ lengths:

Let us explain the rationale behind mounting the battery wiring. Installing pipe loops without doing any calculations means you won’t know ahead of time if the TP will have enough power on the coldest winter days. If the issue occurs, it is more appropriate to turn on the high-temperature radiator network rather than heating warm floors above 55 °C.

The composition of the "pie" of warm floors on the ground

Numerous published schemes that are expanding in composition can be found on the Internet. The use of waterproofing and film steam between the various layers of the "pie" is typically the result of confusion. We will describe each component of the traditional layout of the warm water floor on the earth (layers are listed from bottom to top):

  1. Base – carefully compacted soil.
  2. Pillow-sand or sand-gravel mixture 10-20 cm thick (if necessary) in a compacted state.
  3. Concrete preparation 4-5 cm high allows you to level the base and avoid further subsidence during the installation of TP.
  4. The waterproofing substrate protects the “pie” from the capillary lifting of water from the soil. It is this phenomenon that makes the foundations that are not protected by bitumen isolation.
  5. The task of the insulation is to reflect the generated thermal flow up, so as not to heat the ground.
  6. Hot water pipelines – heat source.
  7. Sand-cement screed-an element of surface heating plus a strong base for the finish coating.
  8. Lateral dampfer tape – a buffer that compensates the thermal expansion of the concrete slab. When heated, the screed compresses the plastic gasket and does not crack. A similar elastic damper is laid in deformation seams between neighboring monoliths.

A crucial aspect. When using extruded polystyrene foam, foam, and polyurethane foam—polymer insulators that do not pass moisture—the scheme described above is accurate. You must place an extra layer of film beneath the screed to keep the insulation from getting wet on top if the fire safety regulations call for basalt wool.

Warm floor designs are frequently simplified by masters, who place insulation directly on the sand pillow rather than filling the black browse. One requirement must be met for the solution to be approved: the sand must be completely leveled and compacted using a vibrating plate.

It is best to decline when laying a wooden floor over the screed lags. Utilize the "dry" method of the TP device, driving from metal scattering plates and boards or chipboard. Mineral wool is a material for thermal insulation.

TP scheme on concrete overlap

It is advisable to use this floor heating method on insulated balconies (loggias) or in rooms above cold basements. While some building owners choose to disregard the prohibition, it is unacceptable to place water TP above living rooms in apartment buildings.

Suggestions. Installing electric heated floors—either via cable or infrared from a heating carbon film—is less expensive and easier to do in multi-story buildings or dachas with intermittent heating.

"Pie" TP is constructed similarly to heating on the ground, minus the black screed and sand pillow, and is placed over a chilly room. Thermal insulation plates are placed on top of a dry cement and sand (1:8) mixture that is 1–5 cm high if the surface is too uneven. It is possible to lay heating contours over heated rooms without using waterproofing.

Creating warm water floors in a private house is a smart way to enhance comfort and energy efficiency. By installing a system of pipes beneath the floor, hot water circulates, gently warming the room from the ground up. The process involves laying out the pipes in a precise pattern, typically embedded in a layer of concrete or placed within specially designed panels. This radiant heating method offers consistent warmth without the need for bulky radiators or forced air systems, resulting in a cozy environment throughout the house. Plus, with proper insulation, warm water floors can be incredibly efficient, helping to lower heating costs over time. Whether you"re renovating or building anew, integrating warm water floors can significantly improve the overall coziness and energy performance of your home.

Recommendations for the choice of materials

The following is a list of tools and materials needed to install a water-heated floor:

  • a pipe with a diameter of 16 mm (internal passage – DU10) of the estimated length;
  • Polymer insulation – foam with a density of 35 kg/m³ or extrusion polystyrene foam 30-40 kg/m³;
  • Demoper"s tape made of polyethylene foam, you can take Penophol without foil 5 mm thick;
  • mounting polyurethane;
  • film with a thickness of 200 microns, adhesive tape for gluing;
  • plastic brackets or clamps + masonry mesh at the rate of 3 fastening points per 1 meter of pipe (interval 40 … 50 cm);
  • thermal insulation and protective covers for pipes crossing deformation seams;
  • a collector with the desired number of conclusions plus a circulation pump and a mixing valve;
  • finished construction mixture for screed, plasticizer, sand, gravel.

Why not use mineral wool to insulate floors from heat? In order to protect the extra layer of film on top, porous basalt fiber will be required in addition to costly high-density slabs weighing 135 kg/m³. The final point is that installing a metal mesh is necessary to fix pipelines to cotton wool, which is inconvenient.

A description of how to use a pantry welded grid made of wire that is Ø4-5 mm. Recall that while building materials serve as a substrate for dependable plastic clamp fastening of pipes in cases where the insulation’s "harpoons" are not securely held in place, they do not reinforce the screed.

The location of the warm floors and the local climate are taken into consideration when determining the thickness of thermal insulation:

  1. Crossings over heated rooms – 30 … 50 mm.
  2. On the ground or above the basement, the southern regions – 50 … 80 mm.
  3. The same, in the middle lane – 10 cm, in the north – 15 … 20 cm.

Note: Refer to the instructions for skin trips if you would like to precisely determine the thickness of the thermal insulation using the SNiP method and learn about the thermal properties of different types of insulation.

Three different kinds of pipes (DU10, DU15) with a diameter of 16 and 20 mm are utilized in warm floors:

  • made of metal plastic;
  • made of stitched polyethylene;
  • Metal – copper or corrugated stainless steel.

Pipelines made of polypropylene cannot be used in TP. The thick-walled polymer is considerably longer after heating and is not very good at transmitting heat. Soldering joints that are unavoidably going to be inside the monolith are unable to tolerate the voltages, get distorted, and leak.

For those looking to use a standalone floor warming device, we suggest utilizing metal-plastic pipes. Reasons:

  1. The material is easily bends with the help of a restrictive spring, after bending, the pipe “remembers” a new form. Sewed polyethylene seeks to return to the original radius of the bay, so it is more difficult to mount it.
  2. Metal -plastic is cheaper than polyethylene pipelines (with equal quality of products).
  3. Copper – expensive material, is connected by a solder with a heated junction with a burner. High -quality work requires considerable experience.
  4. Stainless steel corrugation is mounted without problems, but has increased hydraulic resistance.

To ensure a successful collector block selection and assembly, we suggest reviewing a different guide on this subject. The catch is that the comb’s cost is contingent upon the temperature adjustment method and mixing valve type (three-way or two-way). RTL thermal tires that don’t require a separate pump or subscription are the least expensive option. After reading through the publication, you will undoubtedly select the warm floor management unit wisely.

We prepare the base

Preliminary work consists of making a black screed, aligning the base’s surface, and laying the pillow. The following steps are involved in preparing a soil base:

  1. Eat the ground along the entire plane of the floor and measure the height from the bottom of the pit to the top of the threshold. A layer of sand 10 cm should fit in the recess, the bristal is 4-5 cm, thermal insulation is 80 … 200 mm (depending on the climate) and the full screed is 8 … 10 cm, minimum – 60 mm. So, the smallest depth of the pit will be 10 + 4 + 8 + 6 = 28 cm, optimal – 32 cm.
  2. Out the pit to the required depth and compare the ground. Put the tags on the walls on the walls and pour 100 mm sand, you can mix with gravel. Seal the pillow.
  3. Prepare concrete M100, mixing 4.5 parts of sand with one part of the cement M400 and adding 7 parts of crushed stone.
  4. Having installed the beacons, pour the black base 4-5 cm and let the concrete freeze for 4-7 days, depending on the ambient temperature.

Suggestions. If the threshold heights are insufficient, cut the screed thickness to 6 cm and sacrifice 40 mm with a black floor. In severe situations, use 6-7 cm of sand rather than ten, and use a vibro-plate to tighten the pillow. It is impossible to thin the layer that blocks heat.

Dusting and caulking the spaces between the plates are the two steps in the preparation of concrete overlap. In the event that the plane’s height clearly declines, prepare a gantle, which is a dry mixture that aligns Portland cement and sand at a ratio of 1 to 8. Watch the video to learn how to install a heater on a gartzer correctly:

Installation of heating contours – step -by -step instructions

Initially, a waterproofing film measuring 15 to 25 cm (the thickness of thermal insulation plus screed) is applied to the base. Neighboring canvases overlap by at least 10 cm, and the joints are taped together. After that, the insulation is firmly installed, and polyurethane foam is inserted into the seams.

Next, we look at the following aspects of creating the warm floor:

  1. Pour the walls with a dumpfer strip to the height of the monolith. Drink waterproofing on the compensation tape.
  2. Mount a distribution cabinet with a pump and a collector inside.
  3. Lay out the circuits of the contours according to the scheme using the measuring tool and observing the installation interval. The ends of the loops immediately bring and connect to the comb.
  4. Attach the pipe to thermal insulation, inserting the plastic "harpoons" with a step of 50 cm. If the structure of the insulation does not hold the latches poorly, put a metal mesh before rolling out pipelines and tie it with clamps.
  5. Set the compensation tape on the deformation seams, as is made in the photo. The latter are arranged along the boundaries of concrete monoliths, between individual heating contours and in the doorways.
  6. Put the highways to the radiators, wrapping the pipes with heat -insulating sleeves. Incovers to the comb it should also be insulated – in this place the loops are too close, there is absolutely no need to warm the floors in the corridor.
  7. Connect the collector to the heating network of a private house, carry out electricity for the circulation pump and other automation to the cabinet (if any).

Suggestions. Monoliths will expand and shift in relation to one another as they heat up. Consequently, it is preferable to encase pipes that cross plate boundaries in protective covers or cover them with thermal insulation sleeves.

Following system assembly, you must fill in the outlines of the heated floors with water and use a pressure pump to increase to 2-4 bar to verify that all joints are tight (pay particular attention to the boiler’s safety valve threshold). The following material provides a detailed description of the technology used to fill and release air from each loop of TP.

It won’t harm to turn on the boiler, heat the heated floors without screed, and visually check that everything is working as it should. The following video illustrates how floor heating installation is done:

Fill the screed and setting up the collector

A cement-sand solution of brand 200 is prepared for the warming monoliths of warm floors, with the addition of plasticizing composition being required. Proportions of comments: Cement M400 / Sand – 1: 3 The packaging instructions specify how much liquid plasticizer to use.

Suggestion made. The system is not emptied after crimping; instead, the loops stay filled with coolant, allowing pipelines to maintain their working form and prevent failures to fasten that could have resulted in floating in the solution.

Order of work:

  1. Buy beacons – metal perforated rails, prepare 2-3 buckets of a thick solution without plasticizer. It is not recommended to make restrictive trims made of wood.
  2. Using a trowel and a building level, set the beacons at the required height, as shown in the photo.
  3. Mix a portion of the main solution, pour in the far corner over the “pie” and stretch along the lighthouses with the rule. If recesses with puddles are formed, add the solution, and at the next knead, reduce the volume of cubby water.
  4. Repeat the kneels until you pour the entire area of the room. Walking on a monolith and conducting further work is allowed when typing 50% of the strength, and to start heating – at 75%. Below is a table of a set of hardness of concrete depending on the time and air temperature.

You can turn on the boiler and start gradually warming the warm floors at a minimum temperature once the concrete has hardened up to 75% of its strength. The collector’s certifers or valves are 100% open. In the summer, the screed will take 8 to 12 hours to fully heat; in the fall, it may take up to a day.

The most practical method for balancing the loops is computation. Ascertain the water flow in the circuit and set the value on the rotameter if you know how much heat the room needs. The computed formula is straightforward:

  • G – the amount of the coolant flowing through the loop, l/hour;
  • Δt – the temperature difference between the return and feed, we take 10 ° C;
  • Q – thermal power of the circuit, WT.

Note: Because the flow meters’ steering range is expressed in liters per minute, the resultant number needs to be divided into 60 minutes prior to setting.

The final adjustment is made in fact when the finish coating is ready – an epoxy bulk floor, laminate, tiles, and so on. If you do not want to contact the calculations, you will have to balance the contours of the warm floor by the “scientific poke” method. Methods of adjusting the collector, including using the ValTec program, are described in the last video:

Warm water floor installation can significantly improve both your comfort and energy efficiency in your own home. During the winter months, you can have a constant, comfortable warmth throughout your house by using radiant heating technology.

The ability of warm water floors to evenly distribute heat over the whole floor surface is one of their main advantages. This ensures that your home is consistently warm throughout and gets rid of cold spots. Bid farewell to cold toes and hello to a consistently cozy setting.

Warm water floors are also a discrete and affordable heating option for your house because they run effectively and silently. Compared to conventional heating systems, they can dramatically lower your energy bills and require very little maintenance once installed.

Working with knowledgeable experts who can create and install a system customized to your unique requirements and tastes is crucial when thinking about installing warm water floors. Maximizing the performance and longevity of your radiant heating system requires careful attention to detail, from choosing the right materials to making sure that insulation and regulation are in place.

In conclusion, making the investment in warm water floors for your home can improve comfort, reduce energy expenses, and help create a more sustainable future. Using 1 / 2

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Warm floor in a private house. How to make a warm floor right.

Water warm floor with your own hands

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Michael Kuznetsov

I love to create beauty and comfort with my own hands. In my articles I share tips on warming the house and repairing with my own hands.

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