The materials you select have an impact on how comfortable and energy-efficient your home can be. Clay is one such material that has been utilized for centuries due to its earthy charm and insulating qualities. Clay is more than just the stuff used to make pottery; it’s a multipurpose material that can be used in a variety of ways to improve your home’s insulation and heating.

Around the world, clay is a naturally occurring substance that is widely available. Its texture becomes pliable when wet due to the finely divided organic matter and mineral particles that make up its composition. For thousands of years, people have been building with clay because they have understood its power to control temperature and create a cozy interior atmosphere.

The thermal mass of clay is one of its remarkable properties. The term "thermal mass" describes a material’s capacity to take in, hold, and release heat. Due to its high thermal mass, clay can absorb heat during the day and gradually release it at night, assisting in the maintenance of a constant interior temperature. Because of this quality, clay is a great material for homes in both hot and cold climates.

Clay has excellent insulating qualities in addition to its superior thermal regulation capabilities. Clay creates a barrier that lessens heat transfer when it is rendered onto walls or applied as a plaster, keeping the interior warmer in the winter and colder in the summer. Because of its inherent insulation properties, artificial heating and cooling systems can be used much less frequently, saving energy and having a smaller negative impact on the environment.

In addition to its functional advantages, clay enhances a home’s aesthetic appeal. Its textured finish and earthy tones create a cozy and welcoming ambiance. Clay lends personality and charm to any area, whether it is applied as plaster, in the form of adobe bricks, or even as a component of a cob structure. Using clay for insulation and heating in your house not only improves comfort and energy efficiency but also links you to a long-standing tradition of long-lasting sustainable building techniques.

How to mold correctly

Despite being a plastic, clay is more resilient than plasticine. As a result, the following are some crucial suggestions for handling it during molding:

  • Clay should always be wet, do not let it dry out.
  • If cracks appear, immediately smooth them out with water or water-clay mixture.
  • Work on molding begins with large objects, smoothly moving to smaller ones.
  • It is not necessary to roll in the clay of extraneous products, it is better to make separate hollows in the product for this purpose.

Once everything is finished, you must give your figure a few days to dry. It looks fantastic without being fired, but if you’d like, you can also bake it in the oven or microwave. Finally, PVA glue can be used to glaze the finished product.

Baking polymer clay flowers

The flower buds are arranged atop toothpicks, which are inserted into any pliable material, like foil. Place everything in a covered glass dish and place it in a preheated oven. The product usually takes two to three minutes to prepare.

However, be vigilant to ensure that their color and petals do not fade. You have overexposed the product if this occurs.

Depending on your oven’s mode of operation and the product’s volume, you can experiment to find the precise firing time.

The temperature of the glassware must be considered when firing polymer clay in the oven; it should not be cold and can be heated inside the oven while it is heating.

Method two. Making a stove without a metal body at hand

Although there are some subtle differences, the manufacturing process in this instance is not all that different from the one that was previously described. To begin with, the construction below will have a working volume of approximately 13 liters. As previously stated, the device’s outer walls will not get hotter than 100 degrees Celsius, but the spiral itself can reach a temperature of a thousand degrees in just 1.5 hours. The following should be the sequence of events.

Step 1: First, construct the device’s stand out of a 4×2 centimeter profile pipe with a square cross-section. Next, we apply enamel paint to the prepared stand.

Step 2: Using self-tapping screws "on metal," attach a sheet of galvanized steel (the thickness should be approximately 0.1 centimeters) to the top of the stand.

Step 3: Using fireclay bricks and a unique fireplace composition, we construct the walls (everything is the same as in the previous variant). Create the spiral’s grooves after the mortar has solidified.

Step 4: Bricks are assembled separately to form the bottom, and the same mortar is used to fix it. Hold off on working until the structure dries completely before proceeding. Remember to wet every brick right before laying it.

Step 5: Cover the metal base with a layer of thermal insulation (the same basalt wool can be used for this). Before fixing the brick bottom, this layer should be moistened to maximize compaction.

Step 6: We carry on with the stove’s conventional masonry, but we make an effort to fully fill in all of the gaps and joints.

Step 7: Traditionally, the chamber lid is constructed from fireclay bricks, but we also secure them together with a metal tie.

Step 8: Insert the spiral into the grooves that have been prepared, then cover the structure with thermal insulation material on the exterior. We then cover everything with zinc-coated steel sheets that have been cut to fit the dimensions of the chamber that has been created.

As you can see, this calls for expertise in both electricity and kiln construction. You can become familiar with another potential manufacturing method by watching the video below.

Video – stove for firing on wood

How to construct a Bubafonya stove on your own

We previously shared with you the instructions for making your own oven, Babufonya, so we recommend reading that as well in addition to this article.

Technology of making a pottery kiln

Even though "factory" kilns cost over 35,000 rubles, especially when used for professional purposes, folk craftsmen have figured out how to make devices that allow them to fire their own handmade goods. It is important to note that these stoves can be any of the following depending on the fuel type:

  • electric;
  • gas;
  • wood-fired.

We’ll only think about the first two because burning wood won’t be an easy way to reach the necessary temperature. First, let’s talk about the electrical apparatus. Depending on how they are set up, these firing kilns can be:

  • muffle (in them heating elements are located around a sealed vessel (muffle), made of fireclay material; with the help of such furnaces are often heated Russian schools);
  • chamber (the heating device is located inside).

It is more appropriate to use the second option for home production. Building a large muffle on one’s own is challenging enough, and the construction of the muffle loses a lot of heat. Think about building a chamber kiln.

Preparation of the material for firing

Clay must dry before it can be fired. Depending on the size of the piece, this process will take you approximately one week. It is advised to dry it away from direct sunlight and in areas without adjacent heating sources. The best conditions are room temperature and a dry, dark area. The product will dry uniformly here.

The product might chip or crack if the clay dries unevenly. After firing, the products might have flaws if they are not sufficiently dried. However, it is impossible to dry the clay too much.

Once the product has dried, it must be carefully examined to make sure there are no cracks. If found, they can be covered with liquid clay, but this does not ensure that the product will not become distorted when fired. The best defense is to stop cracks from forming. This is achievable; all you need to do is prepare the clay correctly and use high-quality molds for the finished product.

Sanding the clay figurine is the last step in the preparation process. The products get a lovely, well-groomed appearance as a result of the removal of fingerprints and bumps during grinding. Sandpaper is used for sanding. The quality of the molding is another crucial component. Ensure that the figure is free of air bubbles when it is molded. The product will tear as a result of the air expanding and trying to escape as the temperature rises. Take great care when repairing putty cracks or bonding particles to prevent the formation of air capsules.

Drying clay products.

The drying process takes a while. Haste can undo all of the hard work that has gone before it: the product dries quickly and becomes coated in many cracks and warps. As much as possible of the product’s moisture should be allowed to evaporate during the first drying stage. Dishes and folk toys masters dry indoors or under a canopy in a secluded, well-loved spot free of drafts during the first few days. It takes two to three days for pre-drying. The parts were then dried in a kiln that had been fired. There’s a greater chance of no flaws during firing the better the clay dries.

When drying a product with a complicated shape and numerous parts, extra caution should be used. For example, the product should be dropped into a metal dishbox or bowl and covered with a sheet of newspaper. Large objects can have a dry cloth placed on top of them.

On the second day, the cloth is removed, but continue to dry the product in the
shadows. After about the fourth day, the medium-sized product can be dried on the stove or on the central heating radiator. The dried clay acquires
high enough strength necessary for further processing. Before firing, each piece should be carefully inspected. If there will be
cracks are found, they must be carefully sealed. The crack is wetted with water and smeared with soft clay. In addition to cracks, all sorts of things can show up on the piece
irregularities, accidental layering, clay crumbs adhering to the surface and small scratches. Spoiled areas should be treated with a scraper and cleaned up
with fine-grained sandpaper, and then remove the clay dust with a wide brush or brush.

Veneering is applied to the product to give it shine. A very basic method of glossing from ancient times. Using any smooth surface, rub the dried product’s surface to compact the clay’s top layer until a shine appears.

The luster intensifies after firing. Because flaxen ware is so moisture-resistant, it is safe to use in the home. Blackening glossy dishes was also done in Russia for aesthetic reasons. For this reason, some smoking fuel, like var, is thrown into the kiln after the firing process. Steeping smoke turned the vessels black while retaining their shine. Dishes can also be blackened in another method. The hot ceramics are tossed into a sawdust or chopped straw mixture.

Basic recommendations for firing

It is important to note right away that the product needs to be allowed to dry out in a dark area or away from direct sunlight. Draughts and variations will have a negative impact on the quality of clay firing; this is something to consider. The product dries more quickly and requires less time to remove excess moisture the thinner its wall thickness, and vice versa. This also holds true for the firing time; an object will take between 4 and 12 hours to bake, depending on its size and thickness. It takes roughly six hours on average, but each case is different.

When stacking your work, make sure to follow the "pyramid" arrangement scheme: the largest-sized items should be placed at the bottom, followed by items that gradually get smaller in size above.

Weight is crucial; the heaviest objects ought to be positioned at the bottom. You can stack them on top of one another at this point since you don’t need to worry about them sticking together.

At its highest point, clay can be fired at 900 degrees Celsius. However, the heating should be turned up gradually. The initial heating setting on a professional furnace with temperature control should be between 150 and 200 degrees Celsius. There won’t be a temperature drop for longer than two hours. After that, increase the temperature by 200 degrees and leave the clay objects in the oven for the next two hours. Repeat until we reach 900 degrees, then continue holding for a little while longer.

Method three. Making a vertical muffle furnace

We will still take a quick look at its design even though we do not advise building this kiln by hand for firing clay. The image below displays the construction plan. It is composed of a burner (3) made from a regular tile and a pre-made muffle (1). The muffle will hold three liters and be heated to eight hundred degrees Celsius. Slight deviations from the ratio’s approximate representation in the diagram are acceptable.

Installed on a steel sheet, the burner is an independent purchase that runs on a cylinder that has a reducer attached to it. Adjust the heating intensity with the use of a joker (just like in a conventional stove). We make the casing (2) by hand because it might not be as sturdy as the muffle. We’ll need fireproof clay and crushed asbestos for this.

Step 1: First, leaven the clay to form a box. Fill the prepared container with clay powder, fill it with water to the pouring line, and set it aside for about a day. After a day, we begin kneading the mortar and add 1/4 of refractory sand, until it has the consistency of plasticine.

Step 2: Next, we incorporate one or two pieces of fluffed asbestos and fully mix the mixture. Prepare a wax dummy in parallel for the housing’s inner cone. Every external component is created by hand or with the use of a potter’s wheel. Make sure to leave holes for the steel legs, which can be constructed using the same mortar.

Kindly take note! It is not required to measure the fatness of the clay. This material’s inherent fatness is more than sufficient for this construction.

Step 3: Next, the construction is dried for two weeks at a temperature between 25 and 27 degrees Celsius. After that, the wax can no longer be used; instead, melt it using a regular hair dryer.

Step 4: Go ahead and keep building a clay-firing kiln by hand. The dried body needs to be fired right now. Place dry bricks underneath and enclose it with a 75 centimeter-high metal mesh fence (this is important to prevent the coals from dispersing, but oxygen still reached them). Underneath the structure is a ceramic container that is covered in construction materials piled to the top of the fence.

Step 5: The fuel is lit from below. Add wood until our workpiece is entirely covered in glowing embers. After that, keep the flame burning for an additional five to six hours by gradually feeding it. After the ash has cooled, take the workpiece out.

Take note: You should do the firing process beneath a canopy of some kind. Wet droplets are not acceptable!

Step 6: The last firing is done inside the shell of the completed kiln, with thermal insulation material sandwiched between the shell’s cheeks. Put the empty muffle in the proper location. Turn on the burner (lowest intensity), then raise the flame gradually to its highest setting for about thirty minutes. The stove needs another 1.5 hours to warm up before we can start using it.

As you can see, building a kiln for firing is not difficult at all if you want to and have some experience. But remember to follow the safety guidelines when using the design and while working! That’s it for now; have a pleasant winter and best of luck!

Material composition

Clay comes in a variety of compositions. It has an immediate impact on firing technology. Sand is a component of natural clay. This pattern is evident: the lower the temperature at which products should be fired, the less sand should be added to the clay’s composition. When using purchased clay that has been powdered, there are instances where it boils at 750 degrees before drying out. The product thus has a porous sponge-like appearance. The clay figurine is typically destroyed in this situation.

Air and stones should not be present in the composition of clay. Never work with heterogeneous materials as there is a risk of explosion. Considering that it will contain materials with varying densities, each of which will expand differently in response to temperature changes.

Natural clay is a substance that exists naturally and is frequently not processed further. Depending on the presence or absence of specific elements, clay can have a variety of colors in nature. For instance, a high iron content causes clay to become red in color. Furthermore, even after firing, the material retains its white color if the raw clay contains trace amounts of iron and titanium oxides.

In the world of home heating and insulation, clay stands out as a versatile and eco-friendly material worth considering. With its natural properties, clay offers excellent thermal mass, meaning it can absorb and release heat slowly, helping to regulate indoor temperatures throughout the day. Whether used in clay plaster for walls or as an ingredient in insulating materials, clay provides effective insulation against both heat and cold, reducing energy costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, its abundance and sustainability make it a compelling choice for eco-conscious homeowners looking to enhance comfort while minimizing their carbon footprint. By harnessing the power of clay in home construction and insulation, we can create more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly living spaces for a sustainable future.

What is clay

Hydroaluminosilicates make up the chemical composition of some plastic mineral particles found in clay, which is a dispersed sedimentary rock that also contains associated impurities of other minerals. Silicate is a compound of silicon and oxygen, but you can understand the concept of "hydro" and the more well-known "alumo."

Clay becomes more pliable when plastic minerals and water are mixed together, allowing it to take on shape and hold it as it dries. While feldspar (such as granite), carbonates (marble and chalk, dolomite and limestone, magnesite), and quartz (sand) are non-plastic, their addition to clay can "weathe" the substance and lessen its plasticity.

The term "suitable for molding" refers to the ancient idea of plasticity, which expresses a material’s capacity to both change its shape and hold onto it when force is applied. Multiple criteria can be used to characterize the plasticity of pottery clay. For instance, the amount of work required to deform the clay product can be used to gauge how malleable the clay is. The amount of water needed to mash dry clay and the degree to which it can retain its shape after adding water are other factors that indicate plasticity.

This sign will allow a professional potter to assess the clay’s plasticity for the potter’s wheel: it will require some effort to knead in the hands but not adhere to them. This is the simplest and most accessible method for figuring out how malleable clay is.

White, gray, black, blue, green, brown, red, and yellow are among the colors of pottery clay. Clay’s color is frequently directly influenced by organic materials, some of which burn off during firing. For instance, firing Filimon black clay will turn it white.

Technology of clay firing

A kiln for firing clay

The best option for clay firing is a pellet burner is the muffle furnace . You can adjust the temperature in this oven. It should be remembered that such a furnace is very expensive and not everyone can afford to buy it. But there is no need to be upset, because it can be replaced by other good devices, for example, to make clay firing in the oven. Start firing the clay at 200° for 2 hours. Then, over a period of 6 hours, gradually raise the temperature to 1000°. Such a temperature regime allows you to protect the clay product from the appearance of stains and will help to maintain a homogeneous structure.

Another method for firing clay is to use a brick or brazier as a clay kiln. These kinds of enclosed areas have a constant temperature. It is imperative that the clay product is heated uniformly and does not develop any flaws, like surface spreading. After the fuel has been fully burned and the furnace has cooled, the fired product should be left. The object needs to bake for roughly four hours.

An extremely inexpensive alternative is to fire a clay product over a campfire. When firing small objects, it is utilized. Thus, take the clay product and put it inside a tin container that you have already heated and perforated with holes. The vessel is typically a regular canning jar. The product should be fired for at least eight hours.

It is impossible to microwave-fire clay. This type of kiln is limited to drying out moisture. Once the earthenware has been air dried, microwave it for three minutes. To make their condition better, this is being done.

Temperature regime

When firing clay products, the basic guideline is to raise the temperature gradually and then lower it gradually to allow the product to cool. In the initial two hours, the temperature shouldn’t go above 400°. During firing, the temperature can fluctuate between 200° and 1000°. Lower temperatures will result in insufficient firing and less desirable qualities for the figurine. The figurine may break if the temperature gets too high.


The duration of this process can range from eight hours to several days. This is dependent upon the product’s dimensions and firing technology. It can be completed in the shortest amount of time if the figurine is small.

This is important to know!

  • Once the clay has been fired, the product can no longer be changed.
  • The firing can be done more than once, while gradually raising the temperature to achieve optimal results and gain experience.
  • When you have done the basic firing, you can apply a special coating to the figurine and then fire it again. This coating will melt and a glaze will form as a result.
  • During drying and firing, the figurines may deform and decrease in size. That"s why when creating a product, you should consider the composition of the clay and the future purpose of it.
  • If the clay contains a lot of sand, the piece will be less compressible.
  • Also remember that during the firing burn out organic compounds, which in turn leads to unpleasant odors. Therefore, it is necessary to ventilate the room.

Mixtures of clay types

Porous (not vitreous) and vitreous ceramic mixtures are the two categories into which ceramic mixtures fall. High iron content mixtures, like white industrial clay, are included in the first category. China clays and silica are included in the second group.

Clay that is red. This one contains a lot of iron. It is frequently used in hand molding due to its extreme malleability. Temperature of ignition: 950–1110 °C (1742–2030 °F). Red clay is made up of 85% red clay and 15% brittle clay, or 60% clay, 30% kaolin, and 10% silicate.

Industrial clays that are white. Absent iron After the initial shot, freeze Industrial clays come in three varieties: hard, mixed, and soft. Temperature range for first firing: 1180–1300 °C (2156–2372 T). 2156 °F is the solidification temperature. Take 50% kaolin, 40% quartz or silicate, 8% feldspar, and 2% chalk when preparing the mass. Both the mixture’s primary and secondary firing temperatures are between 1050 and 1180 °C (1922 and 2156 °F and 1832 and 1030 °F, respectively). Two firings of 960–1080 °C (1760–A1976 °F) are used for soft clays. You will need 48% ball clay, 34% silicate, 12% kaolin, and 6% chalk to prepare the mass.

Clays made of silica. These clays are fired until they turn vitreous. At 1150–1300 °C (2102–2372 °F), these are fired, which could produce a gray, ivory, beige, or brown color. Porosity is under 3%. At a firing temperature of 1250 °C (2282 °F), 40% carbonized feldspar, 30% friable clay, and 30% kaolin are needed for the preparation; alternatively, at a firing temperature of 1280 °C (2336 °F), 50% friable clay, 20% ball clay, 15% feldspar, and 15% silicate are needed.

Combinations of porcelain. These mixtures have a vitreous, white color. The temperature range for firing is 1250–1460 °C (2282-2660 °F). Their required ingredients are quartz, feldspar, and kaolin. Porcelain mixes come in two varieties: soft and hard. Soft burns at 1,250–1,300 °C (2,282-2,372 °F), being less stable. When fired at 1,250 °C (2,282 °F), its constituents are 54% kaolin, 26% feldspar, 18% quartz, and 2% bentonite. High-strength solid mixtures are fired at 1380–1460 °C (2516-2660 °F). Composition: 25% feldspar, 25% quartz, and 50% kaolin, fired at 1450 °C (2642 °F).

Chinese skeleton. The primary ingredient in this mixture, calcium phosphate, lowers the firing temperature. It is a hard, white clay after firing. Temperature range for firing: 1200–1250 °C (2192–2282 °F). Ingredients: 28% feldspar, 24% kaolin, and 48% calcium phosphate.

Broken-up clay. This clay is fired at temperatures well over 1600 °C (2912 °F). The absence of iron oxide would cause the firing temperature to drop. robust and resistant to heat. After firing, color changes. used to create building materials such as bricks in the industrial setting. In order to lessen its compressibility, 40–60% grog is added.

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How to fire clay at home basic rules

  • Muffle oven
  • Tin can
  • Brazier or microwave

Clay products are actively used by people in modern life, especially dishes and various items for interior decoration. Knowing what is the optimal temperature for firing clay and what tools for this will be needed, it is quite possible to create with your own hands the most real masterpieces. The following describes how to fire clay at home. The first thing to do is to prepare the material. After all, clay must be dried qualitatively. Drying time depends on the size of the piece that is created by the craftsman. But it usually takes about 7 days. It is not worth trying to reduce the number of days due to the sun or heating devices. Clay should be dried in a dry, dark room at room temperature. This will ensure that it dries evenly. Otherwise, unsightly cracks may appear on the material. After firing, they will turn into serrated defects.

After the drying time has elapsed, it will be necessary to carefully inspect the product to ensure that there are no cracks or other similar surface changes. Some masters try to disguise the appeared defects with the help of liquid clay, but in the process of firing such a clay figure often loses its shape and its restoration becomes impossible. The same result is obtained by poor quality molding, when air bubbles are mixed into the clay. When firing, the temperature rises strongly, and the air begins to look for an exit. As a result, the pot or any other object can simply break apart. Therefore, it is necessary to bind all the clay particles in such a way as to completely exclude the possibility of the formation of air capsules between them. Lastly, before firing, the product is sanded with sandpaper. This allows you to remove pits, protrusions, handprints and other imperfections from its surface.

Of course, the muffle furnace is best suited for the discussed process. It is easy to install the clay product in it, after which you can start firing. The main advantage of such a kiln is the ability to regulate the temperature. But at the same time it is quite expensive and not every master can afford it. Therefore, it is possible to use the most common oven instead of it. For quality firing it will be necessary to first leave the clay product at a temperature of 200 degrees for 2 hours, and then for 6-7 hours continue to process it, gradually raising the temperature. As a result, it should reach the mark of 1000 degrees. Thanks to this, no stains will appear on the clay product and its structure will remain homogeneous. A charcoal grill or brick oven is a good alternative. In the latter, the clay object should remain for about 4-5 hours.

Using a campfire to fire the clay is a very economical option. But it’s only appropriate for handling small objects.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that clay cannot simply be placed on fire and allowed to burn. It must first be concealed in a tin container.

You could use the most common canning jar as an example. The firing time will need to be extended in this instance to roughly 8–9 hours. The most important thing is to maintain a high temperature and prevent the fire from going out during this entire period. Clay is hard to fire directly in an apartment. There are instructions that suggest doing this in the microwave in a matter of minutes. As a matter of fact, the microwave is only useful for correcting the outcome of drying right before firing. The product is placed in it for three minutes at maximum power to accomplish this.

However, you could try using a cast-iron pot and a frying pan to cook small clay products. It’s critical to remember to add fine sand to the pan’s bottom. This will guarantee that the structure heats up gradually in terms of quality. The selected figurine is set on the sand, and from above, a pot and cast iron are placed over it. The heating temperature is gradually raised to the maximum after first being set to the lowest for about thirty minutes. The clay product is left in the pan underneath the pot for 6-7 hours in this condition. This design and duration will be more than enough for a full firing of high quality.

The most important thing is to proceed with extreme caution, particularly when examining the figure in the frying pan, as the clay pot will be extremely hot and it could easily cause severe injuries to your hands or other body parts.

How the clay should be fired

Usually, a homemade kiln is used at home to fire clay. In this instance, it is important to continuously monitor the temperature regime. This will resemble the layout shown below:

  1. Start with the first position of the switch, keep it on for 5 minutes and turn it off.
  2. After 5 minutes turn it on, leave the clay to bake for 10 minutes and turn it off.
  3. After 15 minutes, turn it on, hold it for 10 minutes again and turn it off.
  4. At this point, turn the kiln on and hold the clay firing until the pieces turn red.
  5. Here we turn the switch to the second position and follow the same pattern: 5-5 min, 10-10 min, 15-10 min hold. And here it is not necessary to turn off the kiln, but only to go down from 2 position to 1 and back again.
  6. Position 3 is applicable if the furnace capacity is insufficient.

Up to six hours are needed on average to complete the clay firing process. When the oven is "ready," you can tell by the glow of the walls. Turn off the kiln as soon as the glow turns a light yellow color.

Don’t open the door right away; instead, give the goods more time to cool in the kiln—overnight, for example. This will enable uniform cooling subsequent to firing. To make your creation last much longer, you can then glaze them and allow them to dry.


20–100 The clay or other ceramic mixture is made dry during the first heating phase. It’s best to warm up slowly. Keeping an eye on the heating’s uniformity is crucial. The product walls’ thickness dictates the rate of heating; the thicker the walls, the slower the heating should be.

100–200 The process of eliminating moisture from the stock is still ongoing at this point.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that the device’s temperature readings are typically higher than the product’s actual temperature, particularly if the product is thick or rests on a thick stand that retains some of the heat. Glazes begin to contract as well. The glaze coating may crack or chip in small pieces while the product is heating up because the water is still leaving it. Because lustre coatings release volatile organic compounds, heating should be uniform.

200–400 Organic compounds exhaust themselves during this time. If there is a significant amount of organic matter in the mass (decals, chandeliers, binder overglaze paints, and mastics), a good air supply is especially important.

Between 550 and 600 The heat generated by the stove causes quartz to undergo a phase transformation, which is typified by abrupt changes in the material’s internal energy and, consequently, in its density, compressibility, heat capacity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. For this reason, ceramics may crack (t.н. "cold" crackle) during the cooling process.

400–900 During this time, the clay’s chemically bound water is released and several of its minerals break down. Salts with chloride and nitrate also break down.

600–800 Melting of easy-to-melt fluxes (such as lead) and overglaze coatings starts at these temperatures.

Between 750 and 800 This period, also referred to as the third decorating firing, is characterized by the burning out of the sulfides, softening of the glaze surface, and diffusion of colors, gold, etc. ο.

Between 850 and 950 Chalkand/or dolomite that is present in the ceramic mass breaks down during this time. The constituent part of the ceramic mass, silica, starts interacting with the carbonates of calcium and magnesium. There are carbon dioxide emissions associated with these processes. At this point, the clay materials have undergone all of their transformations, and the sintering of the smallest particles ensures the strength of the tiles. Usually, the majolica glazes have melted completely by the time the interval ends.

1000–1100 Feldspars start to soften at this point, and the shard starts to compaction and deform. The intense interaction of silica and lime gives rise to the liquid phase. Sulfur dioxide gas is released as sulfates deteriorate rapidly as well. Nepheline syenite undergoes melting.

1200–1250 Faience and white-flaking ceramic masses are sintered during this interval. The feldspar melt dissolves silica and kaolinite.

1280–1350 The porcelain mass, which is the foundation for high strength and heat resistance after the firing, is penetrated by mullite needles in this temperature range. We refer to this process as mullite formation. Additionally, cristobalite is created from fine quartz.

1200–1420 Porcelain is fired during this time. Diffusion occurs very quickly at these high temperatures. The reduction of red iron oxides into more noble blue ones occurs at these temperatures as well, if the required firing redox conditions are met.

History of clay

The first ceramic round-bottomed vessel, which was made of fired clay, was made by man about 10,000 years ago – the Mesolithic era reigned on Earth. Nevertheless, the more general idea of the theory of man"s acquaintance with this material, which tells us that a piece of clay was accidentally dropped by man into the fire, and when it was taken out of there, it turned into a solid mass, does not quite correspond to reality. Scientists of our world have slightly corrected this legend with their researches. At one time was made a special analysis of the remains of clay shards from the excavation, which belonged to the Neolithic era, a group of specialists established the following fact – our distant ancestors as a raw material for the production of dishes actively used bird droppings, bird down, egg shells and pieces of shells of mollusks. These components were always abundant where migratory birds usually nested and mollusks gathered along the shores of the. This set of materials had a high degree of stickiness, and clay acted as a binder – it took up no more than 30% in the percentage ratio.

After many thousands of years, man discovered that he could bind sand and non-plastic materials like crushed stone (dresva) and burned dish fragments (chamotte) with the use of clay. These materials originate from minerals. It was then realized by man that the strongest material suitable for tableware production was clay. From that point on, clay of the same grade or clay varieties were combined and used to produce goods. That is the origin of clay-fired pottery.

People’s interactions with clay provided a positive catalyst for growth. People already knew what clay was and how different inorganic and organic additives affected it.

After some time people mastered the method of purification of potter"s clay from various impurities – scouring. In Ancient Greece this material was mined near the city of Athens – these were open-type quarries. The extracted clay was processed – drying, grinding with the help of special two drums rotated by slaves and horses. The resulting mass was then poured with water and soaked for some time in certain boxes made up between them by a stepped ladder. When the time came, these boxes with a mass of clay were washed under the pressure of clean water, which bubbled and flowed gradually from one box to another, on the principle of steps. Pottery clay was divided into different types of fractions, each of which was used for something. The purest clay was in the lowest box. The water was drained and the sediment had to settle and thicken. And by far, tempering is the most convenient and profitable way to clean pottery clay.

"Keramos", translated from ancient Greek means "clay", data about this concept are available in the evidence of Homer, in his work "Iliad", which refers to the VIII century BC. Some scientists claim that the root of this word is an Indo-European language, which was used by the inhabitants of Europe – from the borders of the Urals to the territory of the Apennine Peninsula back in the III millennium BC. Perhaps these judgments are wrong, because if we compare the roots of some words "z"d", "keramos" and "brniye", we will see – the concept "zdun" in translation from Old Slavonic means "potter", the root "z"d" is present in such words as "building", "creator", "create". The concept of brnium is "clay set with water". It"s even possible that the city of Brno in the Czech Republic got its name from these considerations. In fact, the word "clay" has a much longer and more ancient history, for example, it may have originated from the word "glynium", which means "aluminum oxide or alumina", which is a constituent part of clay.

Properties Uses
1. Natural material 1. Traditional building material for adobe houses
2. Good thermal mass 2. Helps regulate indoor temperatures by absorbing and releasing heat slowly

Clay shows up as a flexible and practical option for preserving a comfortable interior climate, despite being frequently disregarded in conversations about insulation and home heating. Because of its inherent qualities, it’s the perfect material for controlling moisture and temperature.

Clay’s extraordinary capacity to both absorb and release moisture contributes to the control of indoor humidity levels. This feature is especially helpful in areas where the weather is erratic, as it can be difficult to maintain ideal humidity levels. Homeowners can improve the quality of their air and create a more balanced indoor environment by using clay in construction or as a plastering material.

In addition to its ability to control moisture, clay has outstanding thermal insulation qualities. It can absorb heat during the day and release it gradually at night thanks to its high thermal mass, which helps to regulate indoor temperatures and lessens the need for artificial heating or cooling. This not only helps to reduce energy use but also improves occupant comfort all year round.

Clay is also a sustainable and environmentally beneficial choice for insulation in homes. Compared to synthetic alternatives, it has less of an impact on the environment because it is a natural material. Because of its widespread availability, it’s also an affordable option for homeowners trying to increase their homes’ energy efficiency without sacrificing sustainability.

In conclusion, using clay in insulation and heating systems for homes can have a number of advantages, including better indoor air quality and thermal comfort as well as lower energy use and environmental impact. Homeowners can enjoy increased comfort and reduced utility costs while designing healthier, more sustainable living spaces by utilizing clay’s natural qualities.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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