Styrofoam production

Insulation is essential for keeping our houses cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Styrofoam is one material that is frequently used as insulation. It’s probably what you recognize as the white or blue boards that are wrapped around fragile objects or line building walls. However, have you ever wondered why Styrofoam is such a good insulator and how it’s made?

Expanded polystyrene (EPS), sometimes referred to as Styrofoam, is a rigid, lightweight foam material that is extensively used in the packaging, building, and other industries. Because of its superior thermal insulation capabilities, it is the material of choice for maintaining comfortable and energy-efficient buildings. However, it goes through an interesting production process before it becomes those useful boards or packaging materials.

Tiny beads of polystyrene, a synthetic polymer made from petroleum, are the first step in the creation of Styrofoam. These beads are steam-heated and swollen to several times their initial size. The distinctive foam texture of Styrofoam is produced as they expand and fuse together to form a closed-cell structure.

Depending on how they are going to be used, the expanded foam blocks are either sliced into sheets or molded into precise shapes. Because of its adaptability, Styrofoam can be made to fit a variety of insulation requirements, including insulating pipes, filling wall cavities, and creating elaborate packaging designs.

But Styrofoam’s appeal extends beyond its ability to act as insulation. It is a sensible option for both residential and commercial applications because it is also affordable, moisture-resistant, and lightweight. Styrofoam disposal, however, can contribute to pollution and environmental harm, so it’s important to take the environment into account.

Knowing how Styrofoam is made helps us understand how important it is to preserving comfort and energy efficiency in our homes. Investigating substitutes for conventional insulating materials becomes more crucial as we work to create more sustainable living environments. Nevertheless, Styrofoam is still a popular option for now because it is inexpensive and efficient at keeping our homes warm all year round.

  1. What is foam plastic
  2. What feedstock is used?
  3. Where foamed polystyrene is used?
  4. Foam plastic production technology
  5. Making foam plastic at home
  6. Financial plan
  7. Documentation
  8. List of required documentation:
  9. Production of Styrofoam at home
  10. What can be used to make molds for Styrofoam??
  11. Technology of manufacturing and recycling foam plastic at home
  12. Random Materials:
  13. Raw materials for foam plastic price
  14. Introduction to the business
  15. Equipment prices
  16. What system of taxation to choose for the business of production of foam plastic
  17. About Styrofoam
  18. Premises
  19. Stages of foam plastic production
  20. How much you can earn on foam plastic production
  21. Characteristics of the material
  22. Foam plastic production equipment, price
  23. Equipment for foam plastic production
  24. Location
  25. Foam plastic production
  26. Calculation of profitability of a mini-factory for the production of foam products
  27. Advertising partners
  28. Business combination
  29. Organizational aspects
  30. What Styrofoam is made of
  31. From what raw materials they are made?
  32. Where is it used
  33. How to start a business in the production of Styrofoam
  34. Preparing a development strategy
  35. Organizational subtleties
  36. Documents for opening a business
  37. What documents are necessary for opening a business
  38. Foam plastic manufacturing technology
  39. Where to start a business in the production of foam plastic
  40. Foam plastic wholesale and retail
  41. Calculation of expected costs and revenues
  42. Useful tips
  43. Advantages of the foam plastic production business
  44. Video on the topic
  45. Styrofoam production how it works
  47. How foam plastic is made

What is foam plastic

The macrophoto demonstrates that the foam is made up of closed, air-filled cells.

All types of gas-filled plastics are referred to as foam plastics.

Unique qualities of the substance:

  • porous structure, which consists of closed cells;
  • low density;
  • high sound and heat insulation properties.

Included in the category of foam plastics are:

  • polyvinyl chloride material;
  • polyurethane analog;
  • Urea formaldehyde foam;
  • phenol-formaldehyde material;
  • polystyrene analog.

Granulated polystyrene is most frequently used to make foam.

The most widely used material is Styrofoam. I’m going to talk about its production. The German firm BASF invented polystyrene foam in 1951. After that, "styrene" was added to its brand name.

The primary function of Styrofoam is as a thermal insulator. The composition is 98% air. The gas is contained in a series of tiny polystyrene foam cells with thin walls.

What feedstock is used?

Granules of polystyrene are used as a raw material to make foam boards.

The raw material used to make foam plastic is called foaming polystyrene.

  1. It is obtained by polymerization of styrene of suspension type.
  2. The process takes place by adding a pore-forming agent, which is a mixture of isopentane and pentane. The volume of the mixture in the material is 5-6%.
  3. If Styrofoam is intended for construction, 1% flame retardant is added to the raw material. These are usually bromine compounds.

Pellets are used in the production of polystyrene. Antistatic materials are applied to these spherical particles. They stop the material from accumulating electric charges while it is being transported. The raw materials’ processability is further enhanced by processing. In Russian, polystyrene granules are referred to as PSV (expanded polystyrene).

Manufacturers use different brands, kinds of foam, and raw materials. Consequently, familiarize yourself with the material’s designation in the technical documentation prior to making a purchase.

The most common label for imported polystyrene is EPS.

  1. EPS (expandable polystyrene), expandable polystyrene. This is the international designation for the pellets.FS (self-extinguishing polystyrene) – another possible labeling.
  2. PSB (expanded polystyrene suspension non-pressing) – is the Russian designation for Styrofoam.

One cubic meter of PSB-S foam grade 25 is included in a standard package.

An additional Russian marking variation is PSB-S (foam polystyrene suspension non-pressing self-extinguishing).

A numerical representation of the material grade according to density follows this designation.

Where foamed polystyrene is used?

Its technical characteristics were determined by the use of foam plastic. It makes use of both crushed polystyrene waste and molded expanded polystyrene products.

You can increase the house’s temperature by covering the walls with polystyrene foam boards.

In building, Styrofoam boards are used:

  1. For insulation with their own hands facades and interior spaces of buildings.
  2. For production of non-removable formwork.

Light frame buildings are made of sandwich panels with an insulating layer of foam plastic for the walls.

  1. In sandwich panels.
  2. As an insulating layer inside load-bearing structures (three-layer reinforced concrete panels or blocks, layered masonry).
  3. As an insulating base under the screed for mastic or roll roofing.
  4. For thermal insulation of floors and basements.
  5. As protection against frost penetration of the road substrate.

Moreover, Styrofoam is used:

  • in shipbuilding;
  • in refrigeration devices;
  • When setting up pontoons and floating marinas;
  • As packaging for food products and household appliances.

Comparables made of gypsum, wood, and polyurethane are far more expensive than Styrofoam baguettes.

Decorative molded foam products have become widely used due to their ease of processing and low cost:

  • skirting boards;
  • ceiling tiles;
  • moldings, etc.

Foam plastic production technology

The process of producing foam plastic involves several technological stages, including primary and secondary foaming, drying, air curing, molding, and cutting of the final product.

The detailed production process is as follows: First, the pre-foamer is switched on and the required amount of polystyrene granules is loaded. Then steam is supplied to the pre-foamer and when the granules reach the required level of foaming the steam supply is stopped. The foamed granules are unloaded and transported to the dryer. After the dryer, the granules are fed into the hopper, where they are cured for 12 hours. Next, the cured pellets are loaded into the block mold, where they are vacuumed. Pellets are kept under pressure for a certain time, after which the pressure is released and the block mold cools down. Then using a pneumatic pusher through the block mold wall, the finished block is discharged. The division of the finished foam sheets is carried out on a special horizontal cutting machine. The resulting scraps after dividing the sheets are placed in a crushing plant, crushed to the required fraction, loaded into a hopper, where in a ratio of 1:8 mixed with the primary foamed granules and reused.

Making foam plastic at home

Small-scale foam plastic production, which you can set up on your own at home (if you have the space), can become fully operational if you buy a pre-foamer that includes a steam generator, block mold, drying fan, steam accumulator, unit for secondary foaming, and crusher.

You can heat the strings by installing a transformer on the table where the finished foam is to be cut. It can also have an end saw or rangefinder attached to it. When making foam plastic at home, the final product can be manually packaged with shrink wrap and polyethylene to avoid buying a machine in the beginning.

It makes sense that most budding business owners are searching for ways to reduce the expenses associated with buying production facilities. Buying secondhand imported machinery and plants is one of them.

Let’s say that four-year-old German units are sold for the cost price less amortization expenses. For instance, a foaming machine from the reputable Heitz brand will cost you between sixty and seventy thousand dollars. rubles. You get high-quality equipment with a long service life, wear-free machine parts and assemblies, and all for this price.

Financial plan

The creation of a business plan will be a prerequisite before work is done. It ought to contain:

  1. For the organization of a mini-plant it will be necessary to make the following investments:
  • registration actions – 10 000 rubles;
  • insulation and preparation of the premises – 100 000 rubles;
  • purchase of equipment – 600 000 rubles;
  • delivery of equipment – 100 000 rubles;
  • other expenses – 50 000 rubles.
  1. While not established sales of products, you should plan cash for the first month"s expenses:
  • personnel salary – 50,000 rubles
  • Raw materials and materials – 200 000 rubles;
  • marketing expenses – 15 000 rubles;
  • taxes, contributions and fees – 30 000 rubles.
  1. Then a production plan is drawn up – the number of products to be manufactured per month. The number of working shifts per month (23) is multiplied by the productivity (20 m3), we get 460 m3 of foam plastic.
  2. In accordance with the production plan, the revenue is calculated. Wholesale average price of foam plastic is equal to 1 200 rubles. For a month you can realize the products for 460 m3 * 1 200 rubles. = 552,000 rubles.
  3. Based on the above data, the cost of production is calculated. Expenses for the month are divided by the number of products produced: 295,000 rubles. / 460 м3. = 641 rubles per 1 m3.
  4. Now you can calculate the profit: 552 000 rubles. – 295 000 rub. = 257,000 rubles.
  5. Payback will be: 1 155 000 (investment in business) rubles. / 257 000 rub. = 4 months.
  6. Profitability is equal to: 257,000 rubles. / 1 155 000 rubles. * 100% = 22%
  7. The calculations can be displayed in a condensed form in the project summary:
  • initial investment: 1,155,000 rubles;
  • Monthly costs: 295 000 rubles;
  • monthly revenue: 552,000 rubles;
  • monthly profit: 257,000 rubles;
  • project payback: 4 months.

The details presented in the article merely serve as a synopsis of the main ideas behind the company. You must download a professional business plan with detailed calculations for the production of foam plastic, also known as foam insulation, if you choose to move forward with realization.


It is required to gather a set of documentation approving this or that activity before beginning production. We will go into great detail about the documents required in order to create foam foam here.

Many business owners first register as sole proprietors and only pay one tax. Since it can be challenging at first to pay tax contributions in full, this is the best course of action. But, under the simplified taxation structure, production can always be increased by re-registering as an LLC.

In addition to paying the state duty, the required paperwork must be gathered. In this instance, a choice of five potential taxation schemes is made.

The code is then found to be OKVED. The production in this instance is in line with code 22.21, which is defined as "Production of plastic products (pipes, blocks, plates, sheets, profiles, etc. ο." You can then begin gathering documents.

List of required documentation:

  1. Passport (as well as a photocopy of the passport, certified by a notary).
  2. A copy of the TIN certificate.
  3. Application for state registration.
  4. Power of attorney for a representative who will submit documents for the entrepreneur.
  5. Receipt for payment of the fee.
  6. Notification for application of simplified taxation system (simplified taxation system), if it was chosen (two copies are needed – for the stamp of acceptance of the application and for the tax office).

The tax inspection is referred to for all documentation. The entrepreneur must show up a few days later (between three and seven) to pick up the necessary paperwork and a sheet of record marking the beginning of their independent business venture.

Furthermore, a bank current account needs to be opened. Additionally, contracts for production services (waste removal and disposal) and a permit for activity from the fire inspection are required.

Furthermore, it is imperative to create a collection of internal documentation.

  • an agreement on hiring employees;
  • collective agreement;
  • working instructions of employees;
  • safety regulations;
  • working rules.

The production process for foam plastic adheres to GOST 15588-86 standards.

Production of Styrofoam at home

First, foaming polystyrene needs to be purchased as the raw material. One byproduct of the chemical industry is foaming polystyrene.

You should consider the storage warranty period when making your purchase. Here the rule is applicable: the longer the foaming process takes and the more challenging it is to achieve the desired density, the "older" the polystyrene foam granules are.

It must be emphasized to the readers of this article that making small amounts of foam at home is, to put it mildly, not profitable. If the situation calls for insulation boards or baguettes—which are widely available in the building materials market—it is far simpler and less expensive to purchase them and avoid making a mental mistake.

Those who are passionate about producing unique author products, such as handcrafted items, stand to gain from the technology that allows them to make foam plastic at home. This technology will be discussed later. Because of this material’s exceptional glue, you can create a wide range of intricate products using segments with various cross-sectional shapes.

What can be used to make molds for Styrofoam??

Wood and ceramics are two examples of materials that can be used to create foam plastic molds. Steel and pewter molds are long-lasting molds.

Plastic that resists heat is another option. If you choose to use silicone cooking molds as foam molds, you will need to reinforce them with gypsum or alabaster. Simply fill a container with the solution and dip the mold all the way to the edges. It is very challenging to glue the foam to other surfaces and to weld the completed product to the mold.

Technology of manufacturing and recycling foam plastic at home

The process of making foam plastic at home involves steaming raw materials twice. Any type of household appliance, such as a steam mop or a washing machine akin to a "Kärcher" with a steam generation feature, can be used as a steam source.

For the manufacture of tiny products that fit in your palms, the steam generated by these devices will be more than enough. These goods are typically utilized to adorn interior spaces.

One can arrange for the initial steaming of polystyrene foam in a regular metal bucket. Fill it with 20% (1/5) of its capacity with foaming polystyrene granules. Submerge the granules in the hose thickness from the steam generator, and then begin the device’s circular movements to treat the granules with steam.

The granules will grow larger over time and eventually fill the bucket all the way to the top. The principal processed raw material must now be divided among molds and heated with steam until the granules separate.

You can simply turn on the steam generator and lower the hose to the bottom of the mold without having to mix them at this time. As a result, you will have an odd gap that you can easily fill with foam and take out of the mold.

It should be remembered that the primary granules’ diameter (after the initial foaming-vaporization) should be smaller the thinner and more relief product there is. Additionally, the final product is lighter and more delicate the larger they are.

Random Materials:

  • How to properly lay foam on the floor?
  • Insulating with foam plastic with your own hands
  • Foam insulation with their own hands – a profitable type of business
  • Extruded foam plastic – a worthy substitute for ordinary foam plastic
  • Types of equipment for the production of foam insulation

Raw materials for foam plastic price

The final foam plastic is made from polystyrene foam, as we have already discussed. This raw material is in the form of various fraction-sized foaming granules. The cost is determined by the package’s weight, manufacturer, and quality. A 25-kilogram package of polystyrene granules can cost between 120 and 150 rubles.

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You must be extremely careful about the quality of the raw materials you buy if you want to produce high-quality foam with the least amount of scrap. China is currently the primary supplier of polystyrene granules.

Buying pellets from Russian manufacturers can result in cost savings on raw material purchases, but this usually translates into lower-quality final goods. The money spent on imported raw materials is worthwhile because, in the end, you will only receive premium material with few defects in the output (finished products).

Introduction to the business

A person looking for a small-investment business idea might find making foam plastic to be a great choice. Cost and organizational factors are quite low; in fact, the production could take place in a sizable garage. Finding sales channels for foam plastic will be relatively simple because it is a material that is always in demand.

Granules of polystyrene are the raw material used to make foam plastic. The result can be foamed polystyrene (foam plastic) or extruded polystyrene, depending on the technology used.

Extruded polystyrene production is more complex, resulting in a more expensive final product; however, this makes organizing a mini-plant easier.

About the PolimerPlast plant’s polystyrene foam

Line of automatically extruded polystyrene foam

Equipment prices

The most fascinating part of the process was when we calculated the price of a contemporary foam production line. As of 2017, all prices are for certified equipment. The line itself is not complicated; it can be quickly assembled and started up without the assistance of highly skilled professionals. Purchasing is required for:

Equipment Packs Cost per unit. Total
vapor generator 1 65 000 65 000
Pre-foamer 1 180 000 180 000
Foamer 1 40 000 40 000
Block mold 2 80 000 160 000
Receiving hopper 1 15 000 15 000
Steam accumulator 1 60 000 60 000
Crusher 1 40 000 40 000
Slicing table 1 35 000 35 000
Ventilation for aging 1 15 000 15 000
Slicer 1 30 000 30 000
Lining bags 2 7 000 14 000
Total 654 000

In total, 654 thousand rubles will be needed to launch a modern line at 2017 prices. You will need to purchase suspension polystyrene, which costs roughly 220 rubles per cent, as a raw material. You also need a water and electricity connection for the equipment to operate; when fully loaded, this line uses roughly 20,000 rubles per month.

Take note: there are always ways to cut costs. You can use solid fuel steam generators to reduce utility costs to $10,000 or less by purchasing less expensive foam cutting equipment. But if there are no issues with wood, pellets, sawdust, or other combustible materials in your area, we advise using this equipment as a last resort and installing a steam boiler with an afterburner.

Keep in mind that foam plastic burns easily, and make sure the shop has fire extinguishing tools and an alarm system installed. Although afterburner boilers cost a little more, their lower gas consumption means that within six months of operation, they pay for themselves. But in this scenario, you will need to employ a different individual to oversee combustion, prepare fuel, and clean up soot, so carefully consider whether this is a feasible use case.

But we recommend using this equipment, in extreme cases, installing a steam boiler with an afterburner, if there are no problems with firewood, pellets, sawdust and other types of combustible materials in your area. In this case, it should not be forgotten that foam plastic burns well and equip the shop with an alarm system with fire extinguishing equipment. Boilers with afterburners are a bit more expensive, but they fully pay for themselves within six months of operation due to reduced gas consumption. However, in this case, you will have to hire a separate person who will monitor the combustion, prepare fuel and clean the soot, so study in detail the feasibility of its use.

This is how the production shop appears.

Further details regarding the crusher are also required. Some business owners would rather not buy it and instead save forty thousand rubles. However, this tool is incredibly helpful since it makes it possible to recycle leftover materials and repurpose them, arranging production in a waste-free manner. The crusher pays for itself in roughly ten to twelve months, but in reality, much sooner because this time frame does not account for the expense of disposing of waste, which adds up quickly in the absence of processing.

Above is the machinery used to produce polystyrene foam. The minimal set is this one. In fact, you will require a minimum of 4 bags-inserts if you intend to arrange the work in 2 shifts. Additionally, a second block-form and another vapor accumulator are required if you wish to produce Styrofoam in a variety of densities and sizes. This will increase the overall cost by roughly 150–180 thousand rubles. That means that 850 thousand rubles should be allocated solely for equipment for the establishment of a fully functional shop operating at full capacity.

What system of taxation to choose for the business of production of foam plastic

Organizational form of the enterprise – sole proprietorship or LLC (legal entity). legal entity). Individual entrepreneurship is easier and cheaper to register than a legal entity. However, large wholesale firms prefer to work more with organizations than with individual entrepreneurs. Much depends on the volume of production – with small volumes is enough IE, then with the growth of production and sales markets, it is definitely necessary to register an LLC. A legal entity can create branches and representative offices in other cities, and is more secure from a legal point of view – LLC is liable for obligations only property belonging to this organization, while the sole proprietorship is liable for all property belonging to an individual (apartment, car, etc.).д.).

About Styrofoam

The most widely used heat-insulating building material nowadays for exterior finishing, rebuilding, and repairs of buildings and their foundations is Styrofoam. Its structure is made up of gas-filled cellular masses.

Foam plastic is differentiated based on the production process and the raw materials utilized.

  • polyurethane,
  • polyvinyl chloride,
  • phenol-formaldehyde,
  • urea-formaldehyde,
  • polystyrene.

Apart from the building industry, foam plastic finds extensive application in:

  • trade (as packing material),
  • manufacture of furniture and appliances (refrigerator, cupboard),
  • sewing clothes (life jackets and bibs),
  • Shipbuilding (boats, pontoons),
  • outdoor advertising,
  • decoration of interior and exterior elements (moldings, skirting boards, tiles),
  • medicine (containers),
  • metal molding.

How did it come to be that 10% of the domestic thermal insulation market is made up of this material, which seems fairly brittle? This configuration is offered to foam plastic in order to highlight its many advantageous qualities:

  • it is cheaper than other materials,
  • has low density,
  • has good soundproofing performance,
  • Retains heat in the room 10 times better than other common building materials (wood, brick),
  • recoups the cost of finishing due to the lack of the need to spend money in the future to adjust the heating and air conditioning of the building,
  • is easy to process and takes any desired shape.

Understanding the styrofoam manufacturing process is essential when discussing home insulation and heating. The widely used insulating material Styrofoam is made from beads of expanded polystyrene. The lightweight, rigid foam that we are familiar with is produced by heating and expanding these beads with steam. The expanded beads are molded into a variety of sizes and shapes during the process, which makes it adaptable to a range of insulation requirements. However, because the production of styrofoam uses materials derived from petroleum and has the potential to cause pollution if improperly managed, it is imperative to take the environmental impact of this process into account. In the long term, investigating eco-friendly alternatives could prove advantageous for homeowners and the environment, even though insulation is still an effective solution.


Under the shop, a room with a ceiling as high as five meters and a surface area of roughly 150 square meters are required for the production of foam plastic. A sufficient supply of water and adequate ventilation are also prerequisites for technical requirements. Additionally needed are heating (at least +15 degrees Celsius) and electricity (380 W).

The storage space ought to be roughly 60 square meters. Special constructions made of materials resistant to fire are used to insulate the warehouse. The warehouse can be positioned beneath a canopy, which must provide protection from the sun and rain.

The plant should be situated roughly 500 meters away from residential buildings due to the hazardous nature of foam production and the material’s easy flammability.

Stages of foam plastic production

Foam plastic will be produced in multiple small stages due to the fact that it can be produced on multiple machines in a relatively small room.

  1. Foaming. Styrofoam granules fall into the pre-foaming machine, where they are subjected to steam treatment (up to +95°C), acquiring a spherical shape and increasing in times. If a light final material is required, the foaming procedure is carried out several times, necessarily after each curing.
  2. Drying. The foamed, wet and large pellets are moved to a compartment with a fan, where warm air (up to + 45°C) evenly dehumidifies them from moisture.
  3. Curing. The dried pellets are sent to a pneumatic conveyor for 12-24 hours and treated with oxygen for pressure stabilization and final drying.
  4. Molding. The cured pellets fall into the forming block, where a powerful flow from the steam generator expands them, because of which, being in a closed space, they are tightly glued together. Monolithic mass is cooled down within an hour and paved for 24 hours.
  5. Slicing. The cured block is sent to the slicing machine, which will cut it to the specified proportions of length, width and height.
  6. Packaging.

Equipment for a small plant to produce foam

How much you can earn on foam plastic production

The size of the operation (mini-workshop or factory), the productivity level (20–100 cu. m/day), sales volumes, the cost of utilities, staff compensation, and space rental are just a few of the variables that will affect the answer to this question.

The approximate layout for a mini-workshop with a production capacity of 20 cubic meters per day, excluding the costs, would be as follows:

  • investments (registration, purchase of equipment and raw materials) – about 1200 thousand. rub.,
  • costs per month (rent, housing and utilities, wages, taxes) – about 300 thousand. rub.,
  • revenue per month – about 550 ths. rub.,
  • profit per month (revenue – costs) – about 250 thousand. rub.,
  • payback (investment / profit per month) – about 4.5 months,
  • profitability (profit per month / investment x 100%) – about 21%.

Put another way, with careful attention, the mini-workshop with the lowest productivity can recover all of the funds invested in 4.5 months and then generate a monthly income that is 21% higher than the monthly cost of producing foam plastic.

Let’s figure out how a plant producing 80 cubic meters of Styrofoam per day would be roughly laid out:

  • investments – about 3 million rubles.,
  • costs per month – about 1100 thousand. rub.,
  • Revenue per month – about 1.5 million rubles.,
  • profit per month – about 400 thousand. rub.,
  • Payback period – about 7.5 months,
  • profitability – about 13%.

A plant with an average capacity will yield a net monthly income for the owner that is 21% higher than the cost of producing foam plastic after it has paid for itself in 7.5 months.

Even though the figures above are only estimates, they nevertheless contribute to our understanding of the profitability of the foam polystyrene industry.

The most crucial component of established work is the machinery used to make foam plastic. If you don’t cut corners when buying it, you can start a business profitably and use all the same units to celebrate your substantial profit after no more than a year.

Characteristics of the material

A variety of materials can be made by foaming plastic masses, including foam plastic. This material’s low density, light weight, and relative strength are its main advantages. The reason for the low weight is that air makes up nearly 85% of the material’s volume. Foam plastic perfectly dampens sound waves and retains heat because of its cellular structure, which prevents convection air movements.

Foam comes in a variety of forms made of various materials, such as polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, urea-formaldehyde, etc. Although the composition of these types varies, the density, weight, and production technology of foam plastic are essentially the same. GOST 15588-86 contains the requirements for foam plastic; carefully review them to gain a deeper understanding of the matter.

The process of producing foam plastic is quite easy.

Polystyrene foam is the most widely used raw material type. It’s a white, elastic, eco-friendly material made of thousands of tiny balls that are soldered together. Under typical substance operating conditions, there is no odor and no hazardous emissions.

In expanded polystyrene, fungi and pathogens do not proliferate and the material has a 30- to 50-year service life. Not afraid of abrupt temperature changes, but if laid incorrectly, moisture may build up and the material’s ability to insulate against sound and heat loss is compromised. resistant to a variety of chemical substances, including gypsum, ammonium, emulsion, roofing felt, paints, and cement. does not like to be exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time, so siding or plaster is applied from above. If not, mechanical loads and wind quickly break the surface, making it brittle.

Foam plastic production equipment, price

Now let’s look at the key components of the manufacturing process and the tools needed to create foam plastic, which is made by foaming polystyrene foam granules. Granule foaming is done at the beginning of production in a unique pre-foaming chamber:

  1. Foaming is performed either once or repeatedly, which will determine the density of the finished material. In the process, the granules are inflated, taking the form of small diameter balls. It can be increased by repeating the process many times, while the density of the foam is low. It is the main value of the quality indicator of the finished product. Density is called the actual weight of the material and is measured in kg/m³.
  2. When the pellets are foamed, they go through a maturing stage, whereby they are fed from the pre-foamer to the maturing hopper by means of a pneumatic system. In the process of aging in polystyrene granules the internal pressure stabilization is carried out, and also their drying takes place. Depending on the brand of foam production equipment, this process can take from 12 to 24 hours.

Advice: If there is a need to produce high-density foam plastic, the curing process following one-time foaming is done only once. The balls should be cured for the same number of times as the raw material’s foaming was done in order to produce a low-density material.

  1. Aged balls in the process of curing are an amorphous mass, which is subject to further molding. To do this, they are poured into a special tank, called a block mold. The process is carried out in an enclosed space in which hot steam is pressurized onto the pellets, resulting in the expansion of the balls in volume and their strong connection. The ready formed block should be cured for 24 hours. After that, the foam is given the necessary shape, which needs further drying. If the foam is cut without pre-drying, the cut will turn out with jagged curved edges.
  2. As for the equipment needed for the production of foam, there are two ways: find European manufacturers and invest a very large amount of money in the purchase or limit yourself to the purchase of Chinese equipment. In both cases, the manufacturers will undertake obligations to prepare customs documentation and delivery of the equipment to the specified address. Perhaps, as a discount you will be offered to advertise the brand of equipment for a certain period of time in your production (to your partners and potential customers, of course). This is a good option to save money on the purchase of production facilities, especially since in the future you can rebrand in your company.

Let’s now examine the equipment in question and speculate about possible costs:

  • Production steam generator will cost in the purchase of about 70 thousand. rubles. It is possible to purchase such units operating on diesel fuel, as well as solid fuel units (peat, firewood). Twice as expensive is an apparatus equipped with a utilizer (a special fuel afterburner), which will function when burning tar, wood chips and other waste. As practice shows, the latter option of the unit is the most profitable, since the cost of buying fuel is significantly saved, and its purchase pays off after a few months.
  • The pre-sprinkler will cost you 180-210 thousand. rubles. Note that when buying it from scratch during the first loading of pellets, the output per hour will be about 5-6 m³. All subsequent foaming of polystyrene raw materials is much faster and reaches 10-12 m³ (if there are tanks with bag-inserts).
  • Equipment for secondary foaming – 30 thousand.
  • Block-form – 90 thousand.
  • Drying hopper – 17-20 thousand.
  • The device of forced air injection into the chamber – 15 thous.
  • Crusher with exhaust ventilation – 40 thsd.
  • Slicer – 30 thousand.
  • Stationary table for cutting foam – 35 thousand.

Starting a large production is a costly and time-consuming process. As a first-time business owner, you can start a 40–50 m³ foam plastic production facility. Asking the seller about the price before deciding to buy the facilities is not unreasonable. These product categories are always in demand in any home, so placing this line in parallel can greatly boost revenue.

Equipment for foam plastic production

This business does not have any universally complete lines. They are put together using the subsequent units:

  • Steam generator;
  • Pre-sprinkler;
  • Drying plant;
  • Sintering hopper;
  • Compressor;
  • Sintering mold unit;
  • Vacuuming machine;
  • Vacuum accumulator;
  • Compressed air accumulator;
  • Horizontal cutting machine.

Scheme: The overall appearance of the equipment when assembled

An illustration of line prices for the production of foam plastic based on productivity for each eight-hour shift:

  • 20-30 m3 – 1,400,000 rubles.
  • 40-50 m3 – 1 600 000 rub.
  • 80-100 m3 – 2 600 000 rubles.
  • Used equipment for 80 m3 will cost you about 1.7-1.8 million rubles. rubles. The figure is taken from ads on Avito.
  • LLC "PK VikRus" /
  • LLC "Equipment and Technologies" /

You can view examples of the line’s work in the assembly in the video that is included in the article below.

You’ll also need the following to set up the business:

  • Premises for production – from 150 square meters.м.
  • Ceiling height – a minimum of 4.5 meters.
  • Raw material for production: foaming polystyrene.
  • Saturated steam, temperature 110-140 C (from a steam generator).
  • Connection to the electrical network: voltage 380 V, line capacity 90-100 kW.
  • Cold water – with a flow rate of 500 liters per shift.


A comprehensive market study must be carried out in order to determine the ideal location for the business. The areas where there is a shortage of this product relative to demand are the most advantageous for business. It is safe to start your business project in such a place.

Remember to carefully consider and incorporate into your business plan strategies for promoting the completed product. This is a critical point that will ultimately determine how profitable your business is. Furthermore, it’s important to consider the business’s seasonality. You can transition to producing foam products when the market for products is declining. You’ll be able to give a steady income all year round as a result.

Construction companies are Styrofoam’s primary users. They all already collaborate with other producers.

You must draw customers in with a product that is both reasonably priced and of high quality. For example, it’s important to identify consistent wholesale buyers and enter into agreements with them in order to guarantee consistent product sales.

Foam plastic production

Our own facility in Moscow uses a sophisticated process to produce foam plastic. With our own workshops to produce this material, we are able to offer our customers affordable prices for polystyrene foam straight from the manufacturer, in addition to high-quality products.

We have been producing foam plastic in Moscow since 1994. Since the product’s inception, we have worked to make it better in an effort to produce the best building material for insulation and soundproofing spaces. This is the reason why enhanced foam plastic with the following special qualities is currently available on the market:

3. Thermal conductivity and resistance to heat;

Furthermore, this material can be used both inside and outside of buildings to create decorative decoration in addition to being used for construction. Frequently, shaped foam products are ordered for advertising and holiday decoration. The packing of breakable items and electrical equipment continues to be one of the most popular applications for foam plastic.

Calculation of profitability of a mini-factory for the production of foam products

The following information is needed to determine the profit:

  • cost of raw materials – 56 rubles per 25 kg;
  • production of polystyrene foam from polystyrene granules – 1:1 – waste-free production;
  • consumption of raw materials – 52 m3 per shift (8 hours), 1248 – per month (24 working days);
  • productivity – 12 kg/m3 one sheet, per day we get 624 kg, per month – 14976 kg;
  • At this capacity, it will take 25 packages of pellets per day or 600 per month;
  • cost price of 1 m3 – 25 (packs)*56 rubles/52 m3 (output per day) = 26,92 rubles;
  • The cost of a sheet of foam plastic weighing 12 kg/m3 – 1150 rubles;
  • profit from 1 m3 of finished product – 1150 – 26,92 = 1123,08 rubles;
  • profit from the daily volume of production – 58400, 00 rubles;
  • income per month – 58400*24 = 1 401 600 rubles;
  • from the income should be deducted wages, taxes and social contributions, utilities and other expenses – it is about 40%, that is, the business owner will have a monthly net profit of 840960 rubles.

A mini-plant that can produce such a high level of productivity would cost two million and five thousand rubles. If a well-established system of finished product sales generates a steady monthly profit, the plant’s payback period can be completed within the first half of a year of operation. These are obviously just rough estimates, and it is evident that it takes time to build steady production and sales, but with the correct structure, it is possible to turn a profit even in the first year of operation.

Advertising partners

Business combination

Combining similar productions can be used as a strategy to increase the product’s chances of receiving attention. Purchasing equipment for liquid (urea) foam, for instance, allows you to take advantage of the insulating material’s promising benefits in addition to expanding your product line. It’s called penoisol, and its competitive qualities and ease of use are making it more and more well-liked. Resin serves as the basis for urea foam.

Production of sandwich panels made of PVC

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Organizational aspects

Registering as an individual enterprise will be the best option for such a mini-production among the range of organizational forms currently in use. Minimum bureaucratic delays in registration and additional work will be necessary for this.

The company must open a current account, obtain statistical codes, and register with the tax authorities during the registration process.

A permit stating the MPE level must be obtained and product certification must be passed before beginning any production.

Regarding the enterprise’s organizational structure, personal involvement will only need one (at most two) assistants. You can also assume responsibility for the roles of sales manager and accounting report provider.

Making Styrofoam in a Do It Yourself Workshop

What Styrofoam is made of

It is important to realize that foam plastics come in a variety of varieties. As a result, various raw materials are used.

So, the most popular ones nowadays are:

  • polystyrene foams (most of the articles on Vyborstm are devoted to this type of foam).ru);
  • polyurethane;
  • polyvinylchloride;
  • polyethylene foams.

From what raw materials they are made?

Let’s proceed sequentially.

Styrofoam is a polystyrene.

Polystyrene, a material derived from the polymerization of styrene, is the starting material for production.

It is a low density, stiff, and brittle polymer. dissolves in certain substances, such as gasoline and acetone. It is easily moldable, paintable, machine-processable, and glueable. characterized by a minimal absorption of water.

Gas filling of styrene granules is a technique used in the production of polystyrene foam.

Polydichlorostyrene materials can also be made of styrene copolymers.

Gas formers, such as ammonium nitrate, diaminobenzene, pentane, and others, are used to foam raw materials.

Polystyrene foam’s composition may also contain various fillers, plasticizers, and colorants.

The polyurethane

What materials make up this group’s foams?

Polyurethanes are the first raw material; they are polymers with a very broad range of mechanical properties. Thus, depending on the properties of the molecular weight, chain structure, urethane group bonds, etc., it can be either solid or viscous liquid.

Industry uses polyurethane extensively as a building material (for instance, to make machine parts that can withstand large loads).

Foam can be elastic (we all know about foam rubber) or rigid, depending on the type of polyurethane used.

Therefore, polyurethane foam is just polyurethane that has been foamed (using inert gas phases).

In this article, we won’t cover the entire production cycle.

Polyvinyl chloride

These foams are composed of polyvinyl chloride. The PVC is the same, but because of the use of unique gas formers, it has foamed. In addition, heating is applied to the initial raw material for foaming. A pressing process is also in place.

The composition also contains plasticizers, the quantity of which directly influences the rigidity of foam plastic made of polyvinyl chloride.


You have undoubtedly already guessed the composition of this group’s foam plastic. That’s correct—it’smadeof polyethylene. It’s a white, waxy mass made of ethylene polymer. Sheets with low thickness are typically transparent and colorless.

It is hard to find someone who hasn’t seen the tiny-pore bags that are used to pack different household appliances and other items.

The goal remains the same: to create gas-filled cells (in this case, polyethylene cells). The finished product is environmentally friendly and has good elasticity. It is, however, undoubtedly combustible (just like regular polyethylene).

The most popular kind of polyethylene foam is extrusion.

You now understand the composition of foam plastic.

Where is it used

Foam plastic has a very broad range of applications because it is a lightweight, practical material that has shown to be ideal in a number of situations. The primary directions where it is used are as follows:

  1. Construction. It is used as an insulator on the outside of the room, as sound insulation, as well as for creating decorative elements (skirting boards, columns, tiles, panels).
  2. Shipbuilding. It is used as a filler for compartments or floats that improve the buoyancy of a ship.
  3. Business and trade. It is used as packaging for electronic equipment, food, household appliances, etc.
  4. Medical sphere. It is used to create thermostabilizing chambers.
  5. Food industry. It is used as a heat insulator in refrigerators, freezers and other climatic equipment.
  6. Light industry. It is used to create various goods: life jackets, floats, etc.

Styrofoam is frequently utilized as an insulating substance.

Of course, the construction industry uses foam the most frequently.

It is often far more profitable to sell products than regular sheets, so if you decide to manufacture foam plastic, you should focus on other industries as well as capturing markets and promoting your products.

How to start a business in the production of Styrofoam

The manufacturing of polystyrene foam is one of the best options for launching a business if an entrepreneur is searching for a venture that doesn’t require significant capital outlays because it doesn’t require a large space, pricey machinery, or raw materials.

Styrofoam is utilized in a variety of industries, including construction and medicine.

Preparing a development strategy

Thus, where is the best place to launch a company that produces polystyrene foam? Let’s look at a few actions that will help us better explore this topic and enable the entrepreneur to truly understand the benefits and drawbacks of the foam business.

Recall that supply is determined by demand, which is why it is critical to understand the quantity of product required in a prospective sales market. Since the construction industry accounts for up to 85% of foam product consumption, theoretically the company that makes the foam plastic cannot go without revenue.

However, the market for heat-insulating materials is being increasingly occupied by Chinese as well as domestic manufacturers. When deciding whether to use wholesale or retail trade for product marketing, demand analysis should be the deciding factor. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages.

In order to determine whether you can provide something better or whether it is not worth even trying to enter an already extremely competitive niche, you should also evaluate consumer demand and the market’s offerings from competitors. Learn who, where, how, how much, and in what volumes they deliver foam products. One foam manufacturer within a 150 km radius is the best option.

  1. Prepare a promotion strategy for your products.

It’s time to consider your development strategy after the data on supply and demand is gathered. It should contain arguments that persuade customers (owners of construction stores, regular people) that working with you will be more profitable. Examples of these arguments include the provision of extra services, discounts for large orders, and manufacturer-funded logistics.

Organizational subtleties

What is the ideal number of employees for the foam production facility? One handyman and at least two people using the equipment. Hiring one or two assistants will be sufficient to run the company in the beginning. However, that is presuming the owner works as a sales manager in addition to an accountant.

Duties of a sales manager include:

  • Development of a marketing campaign (creation and promotion of the site, advertising, distribution of leaflets and business cards),
  • customer search,
  • assistance in concluding a contract.

The primary raw material used in the manufacturing of foam plastic is polystyrene granules.

LLC and IP are the most appropriate organizational-legal statuses for conducting business when producing and selling polystyrene products. Each of them has benefits and drawbacks of its own.

Organizational moment IE LLC
Simplicity of registration +
Manufacturer"s liability in case of bankruptcy owner"s personal property company property
Large volumes of production (factory) +
Small volumes of production (mini-workshops) +
Preferences of large wholesale customers +
Possibility to open branches in other cities +

Whether to establish a sole proprietorship or formally become a legal entity is up to each businessman. For a small business, it is possible to set up individual entrepreneurship initially, and then acquire an LLC if the business takes off and expansion to other cities is planned.

OKVED code 25.21 must be specified in the application form when registering an IE or a legal entity because it is recognized as a sign of a business that produces plastic goods.

Documents for opening a business

The following collection of paperwork must be ready in order to begin foam plastic production:

  • certificate of registration as an individual entrepreneur or a legal entity,
  • the company"s current account opened in the bank,
  • TIN certificate from the tax office,
  • manufacturer"s certificate,
  • Permit with an indicator of the level of maximum permissible emissions,
  • permit from the fire inspectorate,
  • contract for the removal and subsequent destruction of production waste.

Since the production of polystyrene foam is not regarded as a toxic activity, permission from the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Sanitary and Epidemiological Station, or any other state organizations of this type is not required.

Formalizing the company’s internal documentation is also essential:

  • safety regulations,
  • timesheets on internal working hours,
  • job description for personnel,
  • labor or employment contract.

What documents are necessary for opening a business

Registration in the form of a sole proprietorship is required for the manufacture of the above-mentioned building material. Alternatively, opening a legal entity. In the latter case, it is best to open a limited liability company. Individual entrepreneurship will require the collection of a minimum number of documents (application form, photocopy of passport, document confirming the payment of state duty). In addition, it is necessary to open an account in any bank, to become registered with the state authorities. For a legal entity.persons will additionally need to provide the decision of shareholders on the creation of LLC and the Charter of the company, information about the director and chief accountant, obtain a legal address.

Foam plastic manufacturing technology

The production process of technology consists of multiple stages:

  • pre-foaming. During the initial foaming the granules are subjected to steam treatment, the temperature reaches 95°C, but should not exceed this mark. As a result of heating, the granules expand, and there is a significant drop in density. If at the beginning it was at the level of 140 kg/m3, after the first seconds of processing it is already 60 m3, and after 5 minutes – 18 – 35kg/m3; Schematic diagram of equipment for foam production
  • secondary foaming. If the technology stipulates a density above 18 kg/m3, the production process is carried out only with pre-foaming, if a lower density is required, secondary or tertiary processes are used. With each subsequent time, the density decreases and the thermal insulation and other characteristics of the foam will deteriorate;
  • drying. After each foaming process, the pellets are wet and must undergo a drying step. Drying is carried out by supplying air heated up to 45oC. Thanks to the fans, the air circulates freely inside the hopper and the granules are evenly dried; Production of polystyrene foam
  • the next stage is curing – it is necessary to stabilize the pressure inside the pellets, they are oxygenated and finally dried. Sometimes this stage lasts up to a day;
  • further dried raw material is fed to the molding block, where it is subjected to steam heating, thanks to which polystyrene granules are glued together. The mass is kept in the mold for up to 180 seconds under steam pressure of up to 1.5 kg/cm3. Then the formed block must cool down for 40 minutes and is sent for curing (24 hours);
  • After final curing and drying, the finished foam blocks are sent to the cutting machine, which is fully automated, thanks to which high precision is achieved;
  • foam packaging is the final stage, then it is sent to the finished product warehouse and shipped in the required volume to the buyer;

Diagram showing the steps involved in making polystyrene foam boards

Where to start a business in the production of foam plastic

The first step in business planning should be to analyze the product sales market. Experts say that in order to launch a business successfully, there must be a certain demand. The competition amongst foam plastic manufacturers is fierce, even though the volume of construction is growing, which inevitably raises the demand for insulation materials (~ 10% annually). Along with the large number of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia, the PRC is exporting an increasing amount of foam plastic annually.

However, the market is still far from saturated and is open to new entrants. Entry barriers are not too great, and a small line (40 m3 per shift) can be created for between 800,000 and 1.5 million rubles in total.

Foam plastic wholesale and retail

In the event that you are considering producing foam plastic, the cost for both individual production runs and regular sheets is shown in the table below. Get acquainted with the price list and place your order for the necessary quantity, kind, and size of foam plastic sheets, which are manufactured at our facility.

You can use the website’s phone number or the feedback form to place an order, or you can call the number provided. Our manager will assist you in selecting the ideal foam plastic for your requirements and respond to any inquiries you may have about the business’s operations. We also give customers the option to order a practical option for the delivery of their ordered goods throughout Moscow and the surrounding area.

By using our services, you can place bulk as well as retail orders for foam. When doing major construction projects or running their own construction company, this is incredibly practical for business owners. When you buy this material in bulk from us, you are choosing one of the key components of contemporary construction at a fair price in addition to quality.

We provide the best for our clients: a personalized approach, quick turnaround times, and affordable prices. Purchase our production-quality foam plastic online at STAIRO. and have it delivered right to your house or building site.

Calculation of expected costs and revenues

So, let"s imagine that we have opened a production shop that works 8 hours a day, 24 days a month and produces 6 cubes of material per hour (this is the amount that our equipment is designed for). In 8 hours 48 cubic meters of foam plastic or 1152 cubic meters per month are produced. A 25-kilogram bag of polystyrene granules today costs about 50 rubles, from it 25 kilograms of Styrofoam is obtained. Let"s make a calculation for one type of material, density 12 kg/m3. 48*12=576 kg of material is spent per day, that is, 23 packages for 8 hours of work or 1150 rubles per day. For a month the costs will amount to 552 packages or 27,600 rubles. Let"s add some losses of material, which are present in one way or another – let 24 packages or 576 per month be consumed per day, which will amount to 28 800 rubles.

Materials used as inputs to make Styrofoam

Next, let"s calculate the cost of goods: 28 800/1 152 = 25 rubles costs 1 cube without taking into account utilities, rent and wages. Then we study how much foam is sold on the market – the average price per cube is 1100 rubles per m3. Total when selling one cube you get a profit of 1075 rubles, per day 51,600 rubles, per month – 1,238,000 rubles. Then count the costs: you will need 4 employees with a salary of 30 000 rubles, utility payment will be 20 000, rent of premises – about 100 000 rubles per month. Total expenses are 150 000 + 27 600 = 177 600, profit – 1 238 000, the total income is about 1 million rubles per month.

Of course, in life, everything is not so rosy, but, anyway, the plant for the production of foam plastic with the right approach is fully paid off in six months of work. When calculating, we did not take into account the cost of repairs in the building, obtaining a certificate of sole proprietorship or opening an LLC, taxes, accountant services, warehousing, etc. Besides, it is unlikely that you will be able to sell all the material produced at once, as there are many competitors in the market, but with the right actions, flexible marketing policy and the right strategy, the plant reaches full capacity in 3-4 months. And after a year, many plants launch a second production line or expand the range, producing more dense foams, which helps to expand the list of customers and capture new markets.

Useful tips

Be mindful that the room needs to have ventilation because formaldehyde is formed during the production and drying of foam plastic. It is safer and more profitable to produce urea foam plastic if you have made up your mind to make foam and are prepared to buy all the equipment required.

Producing urea foam plastic is safer and more profitable if you choose to make foam and are prepared to buy all the equipment required.

Urea foam is comparatively simple to make, in contrast to other types of foams.

For instance, in a workshop setting. This foam plastic also boasts the best thermal insulation qualities and the lowest production costs.

Furthermore, at low temperatures, urea foam’s thermal conductivity is greatly decreased.

Advantages of the foam plastic production business

Almost every industry uses foam plastic, specifically:

  • in the production of building materials for insulation, soundproofing, decorative elements;
  • in the manufacture of packaging materials;
  • In medicine for the manufacture of thermostabilizing containers;
  • in shipbuilding of small vessels to fill special compartments to ensure unsinkability.

Mini-factory for foam plastic productionWhile the technology is certainly welcome, it does not require specialized education for the production of foam plastic products. Equipment manufacturers build "turnkey" mini-plants, meaning they include everything needed to get started right away. They also give a detailed explanation of the technological process, including all the dimensions.

There aren’t many factories in Russia that make foam plastic products, and expensive foreign goods are more popular. All of this highlights the business’s significant competitive advantages because the owner can make enormous profits because there is a demand for the product or service exceeding supply in this market.

Styrofoam production Process description
Raw Materials Polystyrene beads, additives (like flame retardants)
Pre-expansion Heating polystyrene beads, expanding with steam
Molding Expanded beads placed into molds, steam and pressure applied
Curing Allowing foam to cool and harden in molds
Cutting Large blocks cut into desired shapes and sizes

The manufacturing of Styrofoam has a big impact on home insulation. As this article has shown, Styrofoam, a kind of expanded polystyrene foam, has good thermal insulation qualities. It is a common material choice for insulating walls, roofs, and foundations due to its lightweight design and moisture resistance.

But it’s important to take the environmental effects of Styrofoam production into account. During the manufacturing process, the process contributes to pollution and uses chemicals derived from petroleum. Furthermore, Styrofoam is not biodegradable, which presents environmental risks and difficulties for long-term disposal.

Because they are more environmentally friendly than Styrofoam, natural and recycled insulation materials are becoming more and more popular. For environmentally conscious homeowners, materials like cellulose, wool, and recycled denim provide good insulation at a more sustainable price.

When contemplating insulation options for your house, it’s critical to compare the benefits and drawbacks of Styrofoam with alternative options. Although Styrofoam may provide superior thermal insulation qualities, there are legitimate concerns regarding its environmental impact. Homeowners can make decisions that are in line with their insulation needs and environmental sustainability by investigating eco-friendly alternatives.

Video on the topic

Styrofoam production how it works


How foam plastic is made

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