Heater with your own hands: how to make a homemade device at home

It’s not necessary to spend a fortune to keep your house toasty warm during the winter. Even though there are a lot of commercial heaters on the market, building your own heater at home can be a satisfying and economical alternative. This post will explain how to make a homemade heater out of common materials you might already have around the house. Building your own heater can be a useful and enjoyable project, regardless of whether you want to reduce the cost of your heating bills or you just like doing DIY projects.

Making your own heater allows you to tailor it to your own requirements and tastes, which is one benefit. You can modify your DIY heater to precisely the right amount of warmth for the area you’re targeting, whether it’s a small room, garage, or workshop. Furthermore, DIY heaters can be made to run on a variety of energy sources, such as solar power, candles, or electricity, providing you flexibility in how you heat your house.

It is not necessary to have sophisticated technical knowledge or specialized tools to make a heater at home. It only takes a few hours to assemble a working heating device with a few simple tools and supplies. Easily attainable even by inexperienced do-it-yourself enthusiasts, many DIY heater designs make use of everyday household objects like clay pots, metal cans, or ceramic tiles. You can approach this project with confidence if you adhere to the safety precautions and step-by-step instructions, as you will be able to install a reliable and safe heating system for your house.

Constructing your own heater can be a sustainable option in addition to the cost savings and customization possibilities. Reusing materials and utilizing alternative energy sources will allow you to stay warm and comfortable while leaving less of an environmental impact. It is possible to create DIY heaters that work effectively, producing the most heat with the least amount of energy used. Building your own heater can be in line with your environmentally conscious beliefs, regardless of whether you’re trying to live a more sustainable lifestyle or are worried about your carbon footprint.

  1. Classification of heating devices
  2. Oil battery
  3. Heat gun
  4. Gas heater with your own hands
  5. flame ones
  6. Video: portable heaters from an oil filter
  7. Video: heater-stove from a wheel disk
  8. Heater from a halogen lamp
  9. Efficient infrared radiator
  10. Devices for local heating
  11. Variant #1. Homemade compact thermal film
  12. Calculation
  13. OCD
  14. How to bend a snake
  15. Mounting
  16. Heatmap
  17. A foil?
  18. Variant #2. Heating panel from leftover IR flooring
  19. Option #3. Heat fan from improvised means
  20. Homemade low-power devices
  21. Variant #1. Creation of an oil device
  22. Option #2. Fabrication of an infrared device
  23. IR film heater
  24. Panel IR heater
  25. Electric heater from a cast iron radiator
  26. Preparing the enclosure of the heat generator
  27. Selection of the heating element and its installation
  28. Assembly of the homemade infrared heater
  29. Materials and tools needed
  30. Principles of snake bending
  31. Calculating the amount of wire
  32. Connection of bulbs in series
  33. Instructions for making with your own hands
  34. Version based on an electric fireplace
  35. Features of operation and care of the homemade device
  36. Warming up without electricity and heating: How to make a heater from improvised means
  37. By candle
  38. Alcohol burner
  39. Wood burner for heating food
  40. Warmers from plastic bottles
  41. Video on the topic
  42. Heating cable for pennies. Heating any pipe with your own hands of any length
  43. Induction heater with your own hands. Simple and without schemes.
  44. Economical heater 120 W/hour with your own hands
  45. Why MASTERS don"t talk about it? THE SECRET OF THE GAS BURNER! Great idea with your own hands
  46. Ceramic heater with your own hands / Infrared heater

Classification of heating devices

The quantity of homemade heaters is enormous. They can be made with spontaneous material. A lot of folk artists try their hardest. As a result, these kinds of constructions frequently result in serious issues. An astute owner will consider safety before beginning work.

All devices, despite their diversity, are categorized into distinct groups based on their primary technical features.

Below is a summary of their distinctions:

  1. Oil and water. The battery, filled with heated liquid, is still the most common type of heater because of its relative safety and reliability.
  2. Electric fireplaces. Devices with an open element for heating the air. One of the most dangerous types of such devices. Fires, burns, electrocution – these are the main problems that are carried by an improperly made or operated device of this type.
  3. Heaters. The principle of the heater is the same as in the previous variant, only here the air is supplied into the room by a special fan, built into the device. Very convenient for quick heating of a certain place.
  4. Thermal panels. The safest and most reliable type of homemade heaters. It is very easy to make it from ready-made infrared panels. Someone dares to independently manufacture such panels from improvised material.
  5. flame. Heaters that use open flames. Very rarely used at home, but popular for fishing, camping, heating sheds and garages. It goes without saying that with this type of heating, compliance with fire safety rules is given extra attention.

Types of residential heaters

Efficiency should be taken into consideration in addition to safety when designing a future device. Decide what specifications and uses the future heater should fulfill first.

The following are some standards for this assessment:

  • safety;
  • productivity;
  • economy;
  • ease of assembly and maintenance;
  • compactness;
  • convenience
  • efficiency.

After weighing the benefits and drawbacks of each type and establishing your objectives, pick the best option to build a durable, dependable heater at home.

You will discover how to create a catalytic heater in that video;

Oil battery

Oil heaters are incredibly common. Their basic working principle is very straightforward: a tenon that is inserted inside the pipes heats the oil within. This kind of gadget is highly effective, easy to assemble, and has safety indicators.

Making your own oil heater is simple; all you have to do is follow the directions.

  1. They take a heating element (power – 1 kW) and an electric wire with a plug for a socket. Some skillful craftsmen install a thermal relay for automatic control. It is also purchased in the store.
  2. Prepare the housing. An old water heating radiator or a car radiator will do. It is possible to weld the body of the device from pipes by yourself, if you have welding skills.
  3. Make two holes in the body: at the bottom – for inserting the heating element, at the top – for pouring oil and changing it.
  4. Insert the heating element into the lower part of the case and well seal the place of attachment.
  5. Fill with oil at the rate of 85% of the internal volume of the casing.
  6. They connect control and automation devices, insulate electrical connections well.

At that point, the heater is operational. It undergoes preliminary testing in various operating modes.

Using your hands, make an infrared heater;

Heat gun

Independent production of electric heaters that operate on the same principles as heat guns is also possible. The ensuing components will be needed for manufacturing:

  • Heating element, as which it is acceptable to use a coil from an electric stove.
  • Computer fan.
  • Circuit breaker.
  • A metal container in the shape of a cylinder. In this case, you can use an old cylinder, the top and bottom of which must be cut off, or a bucket.
  • Metal grate.
  • Wires.

Structures are put together piece by piece. Here’s how manipulations are executed:

  1. A grid is cut out according to the diameter of the container. Then the spiral is fixed on it, so that the laying is smaller than the vessel in diameter.
  2. Rectangular holes are made on the sides of the base for inserting the grid with the spiral. The latter should be placed at a distance of 3 cm from the edge of the base.
  3. From the spiral conductors are led out of the walls of the base through insulators. On the outer side of the container fasten the circuit breaker.
  4. On the opposite side of the grate on the body mount the fan using self-tapping screws. Then the device is connected to the circuit breakers. Along the edges of the base make holes for the installation of supports. The finished heater should be as stable as possible.
  5. Then a test run of the construction is carried out. To do this, first turn on the fan and then supply power to the coil.

Gas heater with your own hands

This appliance uses infrared radiation in addition to convection to heat the space.

What will be required for its manufacture is as follows:

  • Gas burner and valve;
  • a household sieve of hemispherical shape;
  • galvanized steel sheet;
  • steel grid.

The following plan is followed in the creation of the device:

  1. From a sheet of galvanized steel by means of metal scissors it is necessary to cut out two blanks having the form of a circle (the diameter should correspond to the diameter of a household sieve) with "ears".
  2. A gas burner should be bolted to one of the blanks from one side. Next, bend the "ears" of this workpiece to the opposite side of the burner and screw the hemispherical sieve to them so that the burner is inside it. The sieve plays the same role as a heat trap in a candle heater.
  3. Now you need to take a metal mesh and attach it in the form of a cylinder to the same "ears", so that the sieve with a burner is inside it. Rivets should be used as fasteners. Now the grid with the round blank attached to it resembles a pot, in which the burner and the hemispherical sieve covering it are placed.
  4. Cover the "pot" with the second blank by bending its "ears" upwards. To these "ears" rivet the top of the mesh cylinder.

flame ones

Large rooms can benefit from powerful gas heaters with catalytic afterburning, which can be costly but incredibly economical and effective. They require a special burner made of precisely accurate parts and a microperforated ceramic plate with platinum sputtering in the pores. These cannot be duplicated in amateur settings. Retail prices for either one will be higher than those of a brand-new, warranty-backed heater.

Gas-powered camping mini heaters

Tourists, hunters and fishermen have long ago invented heaters-burners of low power in the form of an attachment to a camping primus. They are also produced on an industrial scale, pos. 1 in Fig. Their efficiency is not very good, but they are enough to heat a tent before going to bed in sleeping bags. The construction of the afterburner is rather complicated (pos. 2), which is why factory-made tent heaters are not cheap. Amateurs also make a lot of these, either out of tin cans or, for example, out of bricks and bricks. from automobile oil filters. In this case, the heater can be powered by both a gas flame and a candle ref. A video:

Video: portable heaters from an oil filter

Outdoor enthusiasts are favoring gas camp heaters with afterburning on the grid, pos. 3 and 4, more and more because they are more cost-effective and provide superior heating due to the introduction of heat-resistant and heat-resistant steels in common use. Once more, a little artistry has blended the two versions to create a mini-heater of the combined type, pos. 5, that can run on both a candle and a gas burner.

Fig. right shows a drawing of a homemade mini afterburning heater. It can be constructed entirely out of tin cans if it is only used infrequently or momentarily. Cans of tomato paste and tomato sauce will be placed on the larger version for the cottage. Warm-up time and fuel consumption are greatly decreased by swapping out the perforated lid for a mesh lid. Car disks can be used to assemble a more substantial and long-lasting version; see trace. roller. You can already cook on it because it’s a stove.

Video: heater-stove from a wheel disk

Heater from a halogen lamp

The most basic heater is powered by a single 1kW halogen lightbulb.

Three items are required for this:

  • a sealed metal container or galvanized barrel, can, etc.п.
  • brick
  • 1000W halogen lamp

To close the "blowhole," as I like to call it, you insert this bulb inside the tank on a brick.

When the walls with the container’s dimensions of 400 by 400 by 600 mm are heated, the temperature can rise to 80 degrees. Underfloor heating has a maximum temperature of no more than 30 degrees Celsius.

Eighty is definitely a lot, so it is preferable to use one halogen at 500W or two in series at 1KW each. The heater’s walls will be heated to the ideal 60 degrees.

Use a special ceramic lamp holder to secure the lamp.

It’s precisely ceramic. This "beast" is resting on a brick that has been heated to 300 degrees Celsius!

As you can see, thermal wires are required for connections.

The interior of one of these heaters, when the "under-blower" is opened, resembles a tiny nuclear reactor with a single fuel element—a halogen resting on a brick.

Additionally, due to the low power, everything is connected via a standard plug and socket. The amount of heat that such a design can radiate will astound you.

Efficient infrared radiator

Any infrared radiator used to heat the space has a high efficiency factor and is known for its efficiency. All of this is made possible by a special operating principle. Infrared waves increase the surface temperature of items in the room rather than interacting with the air.

These then release thermal energy into the atmosphere. Thus, heat energy is produced to the greatest extent possible from radiant energy. Because of their great efficacy and efficiency as well as the inexpensive structural components, infrared heaters are becoming more and more independently manufactured by regular people.

Comprising the following components and operating in the infrared spectrum:

  • graphite ground to dust;
  • epoxy glue;
  • two equal-sized pieces of transparent plastic or glass;
  • a wire with a plug;
  • copper terminals;
  • thermoregulator (optional);
  • wooden frame, commensurate with the pieces of plastic;
  • brush.

First things first, get the work surface ready. Two identically sized pieces of glass—for instance, one meter by one meter—are taken for this purpose. Paint residue and oily hand prints are removed from the material. You’ll need alcohol in this situation. Proceed to the heating element preparation after the surface has dried.

Here, graphite dust serves as the heating element. It is a high resistance electric current conductor. The graphite dust will start to heat up when it is connected to the power grid. When it reaches a high enough temperature, it will start to release infrared waves, and you can make an infrared heater for the house with your own hands. Our conductor needs to be fixed on the working surface first, though. To achieve this, carbon powder and adhesive compound must be combined until a homogenous mass is created.

Make traces of the graphite and epoxy mixture using a brush on the previously cleaned glass. This is completed in a zigzag design. Every zigzag loop should stop five centimeters short of the glass’s edge, and the graphite strip’s beginning and ending should be on the same side. Making indentations from the glass’s edge is not required. The terminals for connecting the electricity will be fixed in these locations.

With the graphite-coated sides facing each other, stack the glasses on top of one another and secure with glue. The obtained workpiece is positioned inside a wooden frame for increased reliability. Copper terminals and a wire to turn on the device in the power grid are attached to the graphite conductor’s exit points on various sides of the glass. After that, the room’s homemade heaters need to dry for a day. A thermostat can be connected to the chain. This makes using the equipment easier.

What benefits does the end product offer? Because it is made with improvised tools, its production costs are minimal. Since its surface doesn’t get hotter than 60°C, it can’t burn. You can choose to decorate the glass surface with a variety of pattern-filled films without compromising the integrity of the interior composition. Do you want to build your own gas heaters at home? The video will assist in resolving this issue.

Infrared film warmer. It is advised to use pre-made film materials with infrared wave capabilities for complete heating of a medium-sized room. They abound in the market of today.

Buying film material, you need to pay attention to the composition of its heating element. The latter must not contain lead. It is dangerous to health. A quality product is necessarily accompanied by a quality certificate.

Apartment film heater made at home.

The first step in preparing the wall surface for a do-it-yourself apartment heater is to repair the thermal insulation. Its thickness must be at least five centimeters. This is accomplished by removing the protective film from the self-adhesive layer and attaching polystyrene to the surface by using foil facing upwards. Pressing the material firmly against the wall is important. You can move on to the next step an hour after the work is done.

The IR film sheets are wired in series with one another. Using a trowel, the adhesive is applied to the material’s back side. Everything is fastened to the polystyrene that was previously mounted. It will take two hours to fix the heater in a reliable manner. Next, a thermostat and a cord with a plug are fastened to the foil. Decorating is the last step. With the aid of ornamental corners, the prepared fabric is fixed over the film for this purpose.

Devices for local heating

The most basic types of do-it-yourself heaters are meant for space heating. About 40°¡ is their maximum heating temperature.

The majority of DIY heating devices operate on the same principle as electric radiators and infrared heaters; they are radiating devices. They are linked to a single-phase network at 220 V, which is standard voltage for domestic appliances. Those who want to build their own gadgets must understand wiring and electrical engineering.

Picture Gallerypicture of Building a heater by hand is a task best left to true home masters with a working knowledge of electrical engineering and access to tools. In order to create a heating device that fits everyone, no parts, outdated machinery, or broken appliances are needed. Device assembly is an interesting process that can occasionally result in significant financial savings for the family. With its limited background, don’t expect the gadget to be popular with prejudiced families. Still, homemade will work just fine at the cabin or in the garage. Model heat gun type of water heater Differential induction small apparatus Garage heater

Variant #1. Homemade compact thermal film

Two pieces of glass will serve as the heater’s foundation. These are four by six-centimeter equal rectangles.

The heater’s working area’s width and length may differ. What matters most is that each glass has an area of roughly 25 square centimeters.

Additionally needed to make this kind of homemade heater are:

  • two-core copper cable;
  • multimeter;
  • paraffin candle;
  • a block of wood;
  • pliers;
  • sealant; epoxy glue;
  • cotton napkin;
  • hygienic sticks.

Plugging in the cable is a must before working on it. The heating element will be a 0.1 mm thick piece of aluminum foil that housewives use for baking.

Using a napkin, wipe off any dust or dirt residue from the glass blanks, then degrease and let them air dry completely. After cleaning, blanks are cooled. This is required so that the soot will more evenly settle on the surface during the next firing.

There is scorching on the candle that is in the candlestick. Next, carefully move each glass piece over the candle, grabbing it by the corner with pliers in turn, until the glass is completely covered in soot. The entire glass surface must experience a uniform settling of carbon deposits; the burned portion will function as a conductive element.

It will be necessary to occasionally stop manipulating the candle in order to allow the heated glass to cool down. The primary benefit of this kind of apparatus is that, when heated to a specific temperature, a sizable portion of the thermal energy is released as infrared radiation.

The edges of each blank are cleaned once they have cooled. To do this, take 5 millimeters off the edge using sanitary sticks along the contour of the perimeter.

Apply glue evenly to the burned area, which will serve as a conductive element. Then, place a piece of foil that has been prepared on top of the glue. The strips will serve as the necessary terminals for joining the wires.

With the second half, the same procedures are followed. The two components are connected. All of the joints around the end face are sealed with sealant to guarantee the device’s tightness. Two strips of foil are cut, the width of which matches the size of the smoked area on the glass blanks, to create heating elements.

Using a tester, the resistance of the carbon coating must be determined in order to determine the device’s power. The aluminum foil’s hanging "tails" are probed with multimeters. The following formula is used to calculate the data obtained:

Where "R" denotes resistance, "I" denotes current, and "N" represents power.

The power must not be greater than the 1.2 W allowable limits. If the resistance is greater than 120 ohm, the fouling layer needs to be slightly thicker in order to lower it. This situation follows the following rule: the electrical resistance decreases with increasing soot.

Go to the last assembly step if the parameters are within normal bounds. This is accomplished by smearing glue on the cleaned edges of the blanks and bending and adhering the free ends of the foil cutoffs to one of the sides. Construct a stand out of a wooden block and attach it to the electrical cord contact pads.

The device is connected to a 12-volt source and the glass and foil construction is set on the wooden platform.


It passes through the 3-mm window glass without running the risk of overheating and breaking. 8.5 W/sq. IR dm. The thermal panel radiator located at the "pie" will radiate 17 W in both directions. Let’s say the radiator measures 10 by 7 cm (0.7 square meters). These pieces can be made from waste and scrap materials in practically infinite quantities. The room will then have 11.9 W thanks to one radiator.

Assuming the heater has 500 W of power (as shown in the following table), let’s proceed. Then, 42 emitters, or 500/11,9 = 42,01, will be required. The panel’s structural layout will consist of a 6×7 radiator matrix, measuring 600×490 mm when unframed. Let’s increase the framing to 750×550 mm; it meets ergonomic requirements and is sufficiently compact.

The amount of current drawn from the mains is 2.27 A (500 W/220 V). According to Ohm’s law, the total electrical resistance of the heater is 220 V/2.27 A, or 96.97 or 97 ohms. One radiator has a resistance of 97 Ohm/42 = 2.31 Ohm. Nichrome has a resistivity of nearly 1.0 (Ohm*sq. mm)/m, but how long and what cross-section of wire is required for a single emitter? Is the nichrome "snake" (pos. 2 in Fig.) going to be 10×7 cm between glass?

An infrared panel heater that is homemade, along with its drawings

Current density in open, t.е. in contact with air, nichrome electrospirals – 12-18 A/sq. mm. They glow from dark to light red (600-800 degrees Celsius). Let"s take 700 degrees at current density of 16 A/sq. ft. mm. Under the condition of free IR radiation the temperature of nichrome depends on the current density approximately by the square root. Let us halve it to 8 A/sq. mm, we obtain a nichrome operating temperature of 700/(2^2) = 175 degrees Celsius, for silicate glass safely. The temperature of the external surface of the radiator in this case (without taking into account the heat dissipation due to convection) will not exceed 70 degrees at the external surface of 20 degrees – it is suitable both for heat transfer by "soft" IR, and for safety, if you cover the radiating surfaces with a protective mesh (see below). further).

The nichrome cross-section for a 2.27 A rated operating current is 2.27/8 = 0.28375 sq. mm. The diameter of the wire is found to be 0.601, or 0.6 mm, using the school formula for the area of a circle. The heater’s power, with a reserve of, say, 0.7 mm, will be 460 W, t.к., depending on its squared operating current. For heating, 460 W is sufficient; 400 W would also suffice, and the device’s durability would increase multiple times.

1 m of nichrome wire with a diameter of 0.7 mm has a resistance of 2.041 ohms (0.7 squared = 0.49; 1/0.49 = 2.0408…). To obtain a resistance of one radiator of 2.31 ohms, you will need 2.31/2.041 = 1.132 … or 1.13 meters of wire. Let"s take the width of the nichrome "snake" in 5 cm (1 cm of reserve from the edges). For wrapping 1-mm nails (see "The motor from a chainsaw"). below) add 2.5 mm, a total of 5.25 cm per branch of the snake. You will need 113 cm/5,25 cm = 21,52…, let"s take 21,5 branches. Their total width is 22×0.07 cm (wire diameter) = 1.54 cm. Let"s take the length of the snake in 8 cm (1 cm of reserve from the short edges), then the coefficient of laying the wire 1,54/8 = 0,1925. In the lousiest Chinese low-power power transformers it is ok. 0,25, т.е. We have plenty of room for the bends and gaps between the branches of the snake. Uf-f, the fundamental issues are solved, we can move on to R & D (development work) and technical design.


IR silicate glass exhibits significant variation in thermal conductivity and transparency across different brands and batches. Thus, you must first create and test 1 (one) emitter that is cm below. Don’t buy a lot of nichrome at once because you might need to adjust the wire diameter based on the outcome. The heater’s rated power and current will fluctuate:

  • 0.5mm wire – 1.6A, 350W.
  • 0.6 mm wire – 1.9 A, 420 W.
  • Wire 0.7 mm – 2.27 A, 500 W.
  • 0.8 mm wire – 2.4 A, 530 W.
  • 0,9 mm wire – 2,6 A, 570 W.

It is evident that the rated current is not affected by the square of the wire diameter, for those who are knowledgeable about electricity. Why? On the one hand, the radiating surface area of thin wires is comparatively large. On the other hand, the maximum IR power that can pass through the glass cannot be exceeded when using a thick wire.

The completed sample is put on a non-combustible surface and tested vertically, supported by a heat-resistant, non-flammable object. After that, a regulated power supply (PS) of three amps or greater, or a LATR, provides it with its rated current. If the latter, the sample can’t be left alone for the duration of the test! A digital tester that controls current must have its probes firmly compressed with wires carrying current by means of a screw, nut, and washers. The tester needs to measure the AC current (AC 3A or AC 5A limit) if the prototype is powered by a LATR.

Initially, you should observe the behavior of the glass. In 20 to 30 minutes, if it overheats and cracks, the entire batch is probably useless. For instance, over time, dust and debris accumulate in used glass. Glass cutters with diamond cutters find it extremely painful to cut them. Furthermore, compared to new glass of the same grade, such glass fractures at far weaker heating.

Then after 1-1,5 hours the strength of IR radiation is checked. The temperature of the glass is not an indicator here, because.к. Most of the IR is emitted by the nichrome. Since you probably don"t have a photometer with an IR filter, you will have to check with your palms: they are held parallel to the radiating surfaces at a distance of approx. 1,000 meters. 15 cm from them for at least 3 min. Then you should feel a steady, soft heat for 5-10 minutes. If IR from the emitter starts to burn the skin at once, the diameter of nichrome should be reduced. If after 15-20 minutes a slight burning sensation is not felt (like in the sun in the middle of summer), the nichrome should be taken thicker.

How to bend a snake

The nichrome snake is depicted conventionally in Pos. 2 Fig. above, which also shows the emitter device for the homemade panel heater. After being cleared of debris, the cut-to-size glass liners are brushed under a stream of clean water and in water containing any dish detergent. "Ears," which are copper foil contact lamellae measuring 25 by 50 mm, are adhered to one of the linings using epoxy glue or fast cyanoacrylate (super glue). The "ear" protrudes 20 mm outward and penetrates the lining by 5 mm. There should be something 3 mm thick (the thickness of the glass lining) under the lamella to keep it from falling off before the glue sets.

The snake itself must then be formed out of nichrome wire. The template-adjuster is used for this, and Fig. here has a detailed drawing of it. The scheme is provided on pos. 3. The "tails" (refer to "Tails" for annealing the snake below) ought to be administered starting at 5 cm. The snake cannot be extracted without being crumpled, so the bitten ends of the nails are ground to a round shape on an emery stone.

Making a template to forma heating element that is nichrome in flat form

Since nichrome is highly elastic, annealing the wire that is coiled on the template is necessary to maintain the snake’s shape. You should do this in dim light or in semi-darkness. The snake requires a fireproof lining on the wood because it is powered by an IP of at least 3 A and 5–6 V. Turn off the current, allow the threads to cool completely, and repeat this process three to four times, or until the nichrome glows a cherry color.

The snake is then carefully unwound from its coiled tail on 2-mm nails by pressing its fingers through the plywood strip that is layered on top of it. Every tail is shaped and straightened, with the remainder of the coil being cut flush with the template’s edge and the remaining quarter remaining on a 2-mm nail. To deburr the remaining 5 mm "tail," use a sharp knife.

The snake must now be carefully removed from the mandrel and fixed to the substrate in order to guarantee that the leads and lamellae make a stable electrical connection. Using a pair of knives, carefully pry up and lift the heater’s twisted thread by slipping the blades from the outside under the branch bends on 1-mm nails. After that, the snake is set on the substrate, and if required, the leads are bent slightly to fit into the coil in the center of the lamellae.

Metal solders with inactive flux will not solder nichrome, and active flux residues can corrode the contact over time. That is why nichrome to copper is "soldered" t. called. The heater should be heated with liquid solder – conductive paste; it is sold in radio shops. A drop of liquid solder is squeezed onto the contact of the cleaned nichrome with copper and pressed with a finger through a piece of polyethylene film so that the paste does not protrude upwards from the wire. It is possible to press a flat weight instead of a finger. The load and film are removed after the paste hardens, from an hour to a day (the time is indicated on the tube).

Now that the "solder" has solidified, the transmitter needs to be put together. Squeeze a thin "sausage" of regular construction silicone sealant along the middle of the snake, no thicker than 1.5 mm; this will stop wire bends from slipping or shorting. The same sealant is then squeezed along the substrate’s contour using a thicker roller (3–4 mm), indenting about 5 mm from the edge. Place the cover glass on carefully, being careful not to let it slide sideways or drag the snake behind it. Press it into a tight lie and set the transmitter aside to dry.

Silicone drying speed – 2 mm per day, but after 3-4 days, as it may seem, you can not take the transmitter further into work, you need to let dry the inner roller fixing the bends. It will take approx. week. If a lot of radiators are made for a working heater, they can be stacked to dry. The bottom layer is laid out on a polyethylene film and covered with it from above. Elements of trace. the layers are laid across the underlying layers, and so on.д., separating the layers with foil. The stack should be allowed to dry for 2 weeks to guarantee this. After drying, cut off excess silicone with a safety razor blade or a sharp assembly knife. The contact lamellae must also be completely removed from the silicone buildup, see "How to remove silicone buildup from the contact lamellae. below!


While the radiators are drying, we make 2 identical frames from hard wood (oak, beech, hornbeam) (pos. 4 in Fig. with the diagram of the panel heater). The joints are made by tapping in half-wood and fastened with small self-tapping screws. MFD, plywood and wood materials with synthetic binders (chipboard, OSB) are unsuitable, because they are not suitable for long periods of time.к. Prolonged heating, even if not strong, is strictly contraindicated for them. If you have the opportunity to cut frame parts from textolite or glass-textolite – excellent, but ebonite, Bakelite, textolite, carbonite and thermoplastic plastics are not suitable. Wooden parts are impregnated twice before assembly with water-polymer emulsion or water-based acrylic varnish diluted by half.

In one of the frames, the prefabricated emitters are stacked (pos. 5). Both the overlapping lamellae and the sidewall jumpers, which together create a serial connection of all the emitters, are electrically connected by drops of liquid solder. Leading wires (beginning at 0.75 sq. cm. mm) should ideally be soldered on the bubble or tube using regular light-melting solder (like PIC-61) combined with inactive flux paste (made of rosin, ethyl alcohol, and lanolin; refer to "Flux paste" for more information). A 60–80 W soldering iron is needed, but it must be used quickly to prevent the transmitter from sticking together.

The next step at this stage – put on the second frame and mark on it, where the supply wires came, under them it will be necessary to cut grooves. After that the frame with radiators is assembled on small self-tapping screws, pos. 6. Take a closer look at the location of the fastening points: they must not be on live parts, otherwise the fastener heads will become energized! Also, in order to prevent accidental touching of the edges of the lamellae, all the panel ends are glued with non-combustible plastic with thickness of 1 mm or more, e.g., with a plastic sheeting. PVC filled with chalk from cable ducts (wiring boxes). For the same purpose, and for greater durability of the construction, silicone sealant is applied to all joints of glass with the frame parts.

Installing legs that are at least 100 mm tall is the first of the last steps. On position 7, there is a sketch of the panel heater’s wooden leg. The second is covering the panel’s sides with a 3-5 mm steel mesh protective mesh made of thin wire. Thirdly, a plastic box that houses the light indicator and contact terminals needs to be placed over the cable entry. Potentially: protective thermo relay and thyristor voltage regulator. You can now turn on and warm up.


You can use the described thermopanel to create a heater-painting if its power is less than 350 W. The same foil that is used for thermal insulation, foil-isol, is applied to the back side for this reason. Its porous plastic side should face outward, while its foil side should face the panel. A piece of photo wallpaper on plastic adorns the front side of the heater; thin plastic doesn’t pose a significant IR obstacle. The picture heater should be hung on the wall at a 20-degree angle to maximize its warming effect.

A foil?

As you can see, homemade panel heater is quite labor-intensive business. Can"t you simplify the work by using, say, aluminum foil instead of nichrome?? The thickness of the foil of the baking sleeve is ok. 0.1 mm, which seems to be a thin film. No, it is not the thickness of the foil, but the resistivity of its material. Aluminum has a low, 0.028 (ohm*sq. mm)/m. Without giving detailed (and very boring) calculations, let"s indicate their result: the area of the thermal panel at a power of 500 W on aluminum film thickness of 0.1 mm is almost 4 square kilometers. м. Thick all the same film turned out to be thick.

Variant #2. Heating panel from leftover IR flooring

If leftover film is found after the infrared floor heating device, it can be safely repurposed to make wall heaters, like those for a garage or cottage. After the warm floor in the house, the leftover infrared film scraps can be used to construct a wall panel. If desired, you can adorn it with a large-format laminated photo.

Comparing infrared film to other electric heating devices, less energy is used. One meter of film carbon system is sufficient for a small room measuring about 2 by 2 meters.

It is now essential to completely insulate everything to prevent the film from igniting on contacts and from posing any risks while operating.

Option #3. Heat fan from improvised means

We present an additional approach to building a homemade local heating device using the fan heater principle. Making it won’t take longer than two hours. The device’s primary benefit lies in its ease of manufacturing and the accessibility of required materials.

One of the design’s drawbacks is that it will burn oxygen during heating, and in certain situations, it may even emit fumes. The device’s body will consist of a 20 cm tall by 10 cm diameter tin can and strips made of non-foil textolite for winding the nichrome spiral.

Apart from the tin can required for the heating structure assembly, the following needs to be ready:

  • transformer for 12 volts;
  • diode bridge;
  • nichrome wire with a cross section of 1 mm2;
  • fan;
  • perforator with a thin drill bit;
  • soldering iron;
  • computer fan.

It is required that two textolite blanks be cut beforehand, with their sizes matching the chosen can’s measurements. You will additionally require an electric cord and a push-button switch in order to connect the device to the mains and switch modes.

To create a shape resembling a frame, start by taking off the foil from the textolite cutoff and cutting out the interior. Using a thin drill bit, holes are made in the textolite blank so that they are slightly offset from one another.

The nichrome wire ends are submerged in the holes the fan has created. Solder removed the insulation from the "tails" of the electrical wires and led the free ends of the wire under the frame.

In nichrome electric spirals in air contact, the current density is approximately 12–18 A/mm2. They will range in color saturation from bright red to dark maroon, depending on how hot it gets. The emitter’s exterior surface has a temperature of no more than 70 degrees Celsius. Close the transformer, diode bridge, and cooler in a single circuit using a fixed nichrome wire, making sure to connect the switch as well.

To power the cooler, a small 12V transformer and a diode rectifier are required.

It is worth thinking about installing at least two separate spirals in order to control the temperature. Furthermore, because the spirals are connected in parallel, if one burns out, the others won’t be harmed.

When assembling the design, the textolite frame should be the only part that the wound spirals touch.

A U-shaped metal bracket fastened with a bolt allows the fan to be installed within the can. The fan will blast a warm stream of air throughout the construction, warming the wire coils as a result of the current. After attaching the textolite to the assembled construction, put the electrical device’s components in the jar with them connected in a single circuit.

Drill 20–30 holes with a diameter of 1,5-2 mm in order to guarantee that the can’s lid and walls have unfettered access to air. The assembled device is connected in 220V straight to the network to verify its functionality. A protective grid can be placed over the radiating surface for security purposes.

This kind of fan heater works well for warming up a tiny space in the room. It takes only a few minutes to warm up the center of the room, much like industrial fan heater models, and doesn’t waste heat on heat losses through the walls.

Homemade low-power devices

The models mentioned above are limited to localized heating applications. Building a more potent heater is required to heat the space; the technology for doing so will be discussed below.

Variant #1. Creation of an oil device

An oil heater that is made by hand is very safe, functional, and efficient. The device functions on the basis of the heating element inside the housing heating the oil nearby, which causes the convection movement of flows to be activated. The product’s body can be welded from steel pipes, a car radiator, or a sectional radiator heating system.

There are discrete switches or a rheostat on the device to ensure smooth power adjustment. Add a tilt sensor and a thermostat to further automate the process.

It is best to prepare an oil heater ahead of time:

  • TEN with a capacity of 1kW (for a room of 10 squares);
  • durable and airtight housing, the design of which completely eliminates the leakage of liquid;
  • Clean and heat-resistant technical oil is taken at the rate of 85% of the total volume of the body;
  • control and automation devices – selected in accordance with the total power load of the device.

When purchasing a cartridge awning, it’s crucial to make sure that silicone gaskets or their equivalents made of rubber that resists oil and heat are included.

A disassembled heating register that was taken out as part of the public building system’s modernization can be utilized as a body without having to deal with welding.

Magnificent in scale, the design must create a foundation. Steel angles or channels can be used to make it. The product’s height and the container’s capacity are taken into consideration when designing the frame’s layout. The figure clearly displays the device’s connection diagram as well as the order in which its structural elements are assembled.

There could be issues when the elements are being welded together. To complete the work, the required skills must be possessed. Cutting the profile pipe into sections of the required length is the first step. From them, rectangular frames are put together.

Make a hole in the corner of the structure to accommodate the heating element. The radiator’s highest point has a hole cut out for the potential to pour oil, and it is fitted with an external threaded fitting that has a cover installed on top. The heating device must be checked for leaks by applying high pressure to its center before it is turned on.

Several considerations should be made when assembling the construction:

  1. It is better to place the heating element in the side or bottom part of the structure, fixing it with bolted connections. This solution will ensure better oil circulation. Under no circumstances should it come into contact with the housing.
  2. To activate the process of natural convection of the liquid, supplement the design with a pump and an electric drive. To fix the pump to the vessel, weld small metal plates to the vessel.
  3. Be sure to provide valve ports for emergency pressure relief by draining the oil. Pumps are located in the lower part of the radiator in the corners.
  4. To ensure the durability of the construction, preventing the development of electrical corrosion, take into account the combination of the metal of the housing and the heater. Because of the potential difference between metals, it is not advisable to combine ordinary steel or aluminum with copper.
  5. It is obligatory to ground the heating device.

The construction is only 85% full of oil, not all of it. This is required to guarantee that, in the event that the temperature rises and the oil expands, the 15% of the air is utilized as a buffer zone.

Option #2. Fabrication of an infrared device

The fact that the generated heat energy is released as infrared radiation is an indisputable benefit of such a device. As a result, the carbon-based heater is able to warm the air as well as individuals and items within the infrared zone.

Two plastic blanks, each with an area of approximately one square, will form the foundation of this kind of device, which is made using heaters that are manufactured in factories. Fine graphite powder, which resembles flour in structure, will be applied to them. Remember that graphite powder, which functions as a conductive mixture, is a highly hazardous material and extremely dirty.

In order to construct an infrared heater by hand that works well, you must also get ready:

  • two copper terminals;
  • epoxy glue;
  • wooden blanks for the frame.

Just like with the earlier models, a plug-equipped electric cord is needed.

End-of-life batteries can be "extracted" to yield graphite powder. Experts advise adding up to two volumes of carbon filler in order to get the heater’s required power. When the mixture is complete, it is thick and viscous, making it challenging to apply in a thin layer. Make the task easier by using a narrow spatula. On the plastic workpieces, a graphite composition diluted with glue is applied, creating a winding path and being sure to indent the designated distance.

Order of action:

  1. Graphite is mixed with epoxy glue in the proportion of 1:1,5 or 1:2.
  2. On the working surface lay out the plastic workpiece smooth side down.
  3. The ready mixture is laid out in a thin layer on the plastic, forming a zigzag pattern.
  4. Place the second sheet of plastic on top of the laid out pattern.
  5. The second plate is prepared according to the same technology. Both pieces are tightly squeezed and wait for the glue to harden.
  6. Fix terminals on the workpieces on opposite sides of the graphite conductor, adhering to the scheme presented above.
  7. The stripped ends of the electric cable are connected to the terminals.
  8. Connect the device to the mains and check the performance of the system.

The technology previously mentioned is used to measure the conductor resistance and calculate the power of the assembled device.

The mass’s concentration of graphite has an impact on the resistance parameter. Increasing the amount of graphite in the conductor’s composition is required to raise its resistance.

A wooden frame can be used to enclose the device and increase its structural rigidity. Put a basic thermostat on it to make the design better.

IR film heater

A piece of rolled foil thermal insulation, heating foil, a power cable for connecting to the electrical grid, terminals for attaching the wire to the foil, a thermostat or other devices for adjusting the heater’s temperature are required to assemble such an infrared model.

The following steps make up the manufacturing process:

  • Choose the place of placement, as the film heater can not stand on its own on the floor or table, it must be attached to the wall, ceiling, frame or other rigid surface.
  • Cut out the thermal insulation according to the size of the infrared film and prepare a foil surface for gluing the film on.
  • Cut out the thermal insulation of the required size
  • Glue the film to the prepared roll, ensuring a tight fit along its entire length. Both adhesive compounds and double-sided tape can be used to bond the surfaces. But the points of application of the adhesive should not be located on the infrared radiators.
  • places for applying the adhesive
  • Attach the terminals to the edges of the foil, solder the power supply wire to the terminals beforehand.
  • solder the terminal to the copper busbar
  • Insulate the electrical connections with tape, heat shrink or bitumen tape. This is necessary in order to eliminate the threat of electric shock from the heater when connecting the heating device to the mains and to isolate live parts from walls and other structural elements of buildings.
  • Insulate the electrical contacts
  • Include a thermostat in the construction of the electric heater, the most convenient point of connection is the power supply wire. As the control element can be placed in the most convenient and accessible place. This will allow you to control the heat output power of the heater for heating the garage.
  • Fix the infrared heater to the wall or other structural element. If you want to install it on the floor, you can make a wooden frame.

Panel IR heater

You can also make the infrared heater’s working element yourself. Take the ceramic heater design as an example. To make it, you’ll need two identical, roughly one-meter-square panels of heat-resistant plastic, graphite flour, epoxy glue, and a cord to run the electric heater. As a conductive medium, graphite flour can be made from a construction pencil, extracted from used electric batteries, or bought separately.

The steps of the process are as follows:

  • Prepare the surface of the plastic, pre-clean and degrease the side on which the conductive mixture will be applied.
  • Mix graphite powder with epoxy glue in the ratio of 1:1 or 1:1.5, it should be noted that as the amount of epoxy glue increases, the resistance of the heater will increase and the power of the device will decrease. With more graphite, the conductivity of the heater circuit will increase, the current flow and power will increase.
  • making the conductive compound
  • Using a spatula, apply a mixture of graphite and epoxy adhesive to the cleaned plastic surface as shown in the assembly diagram below:
  • graphite track application scheme
  • Wait for the graphite-epoxy mixture to dry and glue the second sheet of plastic on top. Install the terminals in the place where the conductive track is broken.
  • Connect an electric cord to the terminal leads for further connection of the device to the supply network.

Using a multimeter, check the ready heater by placing the probes on the plug leads and measuring the electrical resistance. Next, the following formula should be used to determine the power allotted: P equals U2 divided by R.

Where U is the supply voltage, R is the heater circuit resistance, and P is the unit’s power.

The benefit of this type of heater is that it emits infrared radiation, which heats everything and causes the room to begin to heat up. People and particular objects in the radiation zone heat up instantly because of this. As a result, using an infrared heater to heat garages, terraces, gazebos, verandas, and other spaces where it is not necessary to continuously regulate the air temperature is advantageous.

Electric heater from a cast iron radiator

Sectional prefabricated cast iron batteries, which are typically utilized in steam or water heating systems, can also be employed as a housing when creating an electric heater that is handcrafted and based on TEN.

Cast iron radiator electric heaters: with a sealed corousse on the right and an expansion tank on the left

Preparing the enclosure of the heat generator

Choose a cast-iron radiator with the necessary number of sections based on the room’s location and size, then visually inspect it to determine its state. It will be necessary to disassemble the device, clean the threaded connections, remove scale from certain sections, and then reassemble it using new seals in the threaded connection locations if it hasn’t been used in a while. This is required because the unit has a high chance of leaking through the old dried thread seals when the tank is filled with oil or antifreeze solution, which is a liquid with high permeability.

Seeking professional assistance is preferable if you lack the necessary skills for this task; this will prevent you from having to locate unique keys.

Crucial! It is simpler to remove old paint from radiator sections when the radiator is disassembled and the threaded connections have been cleaned. A bolgar or a drill with a steel brush attachment can be used for this purpose. However, this procedure can be carried out afterwards, following battery assembly.

Once the radiator assembly is finished, its capacity is ascertained by first filling the unit to the brim with water, draining it into a measuring vessel, and then temporarily screwing plugs into three of the four holes. This is required to check for the need of oil or antifreeze and to test the device’s tightness in a preliminary manner.

Old paint removal from a cast-iron battery following battery disassembly and reassembly

The product is cleaned with a bolgar, then it is processed using coarse sandpaper, dust-free, and nitro solvent-degreased. Next, a priming compound is applied to the radiator, and once it dries, a single coat of finish paint is applied. A paint sprayer or a long-handled, narrow brush are used for painting.

Painting the electric heater’s body beforehand using a cast-iron battery

Selection of the heating element and its installation

It is imperative to choose a tubular electric heater with the necessary power and the safest design for the future electric heater.

Crucial! The rule provides a simplified basis for determining the heater’s required power consumption: in an average Russian strip, 100 W of energy is needed to heat 1 m^, while 2-4 times less energy is needed for an additional heating source.

That is to say, a battery should have a TEN with a 2 kW electricity power consumption capacity for the primary heating of a 20 m2 room on average.

The power of the tube heater should be within 0.75% of the heat output of the battery, so that the heater does not heat up and turn off too quickly – this reduces the efficiency of the heater. The average value of heat output of one section of cast iron radiator is 140W. So, the heat output of the radiator of 10 sections will be equal to 1.4 kW, and the power of TEN should not exceed ¾ of this value – 1.05 kW. Thus, in a room with the area of 20 m2 as the main heating devices it is necessary to install 2 cast iron electric radiators of 10 sections, each of which is equipped with a heating element with a capacity of 1 kW.

It is important to keep in mind that the ideal length of a tubular electric heater should be 10 cm less than the radiator’s width in order to ensure even heating and antifreeze convection in every area. Purchasing a heating element with a thermoregulator is required; this feature will boost the heater’s relative safety and guarantee that it operates in a reasonably cost-effective manner.

If the heater is intended to be used for heating non-residential spaces, it can be fitted with an expansion tank after it is installed in the project location. This is done by installing a plug on one side of the radiator, which is connected to a lug in the upper part of the radiator. This will eliminate the internal pressure factor on the radiator of the expanding filler during heating, but it will not improve the device’s aesthetics.

Expansion tank and cast iron radiator

In order to provide emergency pressure relief in the event that the cistern is not in use, a Maevsky valve is installed in the lug in place of the supply pipe.

One side of the radiator is used to screw in a heating element, and the other side is used to install a plug.

Pour 80–85% of the volume of transformer oil or antifreeze into the battery before putting the TEN in. The assembly is easy to install because the heating elements’ external thread (an inch and a quarter) matches the internal thread on the battery.

We go into the DIY realm in our guide on insulation and heating for your home, with a particular emphasis on building your own homemade heater. Find out how to make a cheap heating solution with basic materials and methods from around the house. We offer detailed instructions and useful advice on everything from material repurposing to optimizing heat efficiency to keep you warm while reducing energy expenses. Whether you want to build a custom heater for your home or are looking for environmentally friendly options, this article gives you the information and motivation you need to tackle those cold winters.

Assembly of the homemade infrared heater

In light of everything, we must put our heater together using lightbulbs. Now let’s get to practicing.

Build a 300W heater if the working area that needs to be heated is between 3 and 4 meters square.

You will require six 150W bulbs for this purpose. That is, three sets of two that follow, each producing 100W.

They are put together on an aluminum or metal angle frame.

The arrangement of the frame’s heat and light sources should follow the plan shown below.

Simultaneously, the spacing between adjacent bulbs ought to be selected in a way that facilitates the simple substitution of a burned-out copy for a fresh one. even one hundred years later.

For this purpose, a 1 cm space between the flasks will suffice. Bolts or rivets are used to join the various components of the frame together. Next, two aluminum strips that the reflector or reflectors will rest on must be fixed inside. The entire construction will gain stiffness from these strips.

Making the reflector correctly is now the most crucial step. The standard parabola form is not very useful.

Biparabola models exhibit superiority. The distinction lies in the way the light is reflected; in the second scenario, the majority of the rays exit the bulb instead of returning to it.

Cans made of aluminum are perfect as a manufacturing material. You chop off the jar’s top and bottom.

The walls are then spread out and bent in the middle. In the meantime, give one edge a 1cm leeway for another bend. There must be some way to join the two cans’ halves.

Use rivets to secure them together. Place washers on both sides in advance to prevent tearing the thin aluminum during this process.

Consequently, you ought to have a four-can solid reflector.

After that, attach the reflector to the frame with rivets. Initially on the side in the center, and subsequently on the edges.

Remember the two strips that are in the center of the frame.

The bulbs themselves must now be inserted into this structure. Keep them away from the reflector. At least 1.5 to 2 cm should separate you from it.

Once more, aluminum will save the day. Specifically, they are thin, nine-centimeter-long strips.

You won’t be able to get the power wires inside if you mark the locations incorrectly where the cartridge is attached to the strip.

Install the lampholders on the strips after fastening them to the frame.

The bulbs themselves can then be screwed in.

The wires just need to be connected.

Materials and tools needed

The model selected for self-manufacturing determines the list of required supplies and equipment. Hence, for the most basic heater—where the heating system’s radiator will serve as the heating element—you should keep foil, which is reflective, and materials for attaching it, such as thick cardboard and glue, on hand. Aluminum can then be used to secure it. The surrounding objects will be heated by the heat reflected from the walls if the reflective element is placed behind the radiator, away from the radiator ribs.

You will need the following for the DIY spiral heater:

  • tungsten filament;
  • steel bar;
  • metal with good reflective properties (aluminum, copper, zinc, etc.).);
  • asbestos tube or a piece of slate;
  • brackets;
  • thick wire for the backing;
  • wire with a plug.

Principles of snake bending

Covers are cut to fit the glass’s specifications. They are cleansed of pollutants. The ears are fastened to a lining. Their measurements are 2.5 by 5 cm. Copper foil is the foundation of such a foil. Superglue is used for the glue. The ear is 5 mm from the lining. It sticks out two centimeters.

The snake should be formed using a specific template. The tails are allotted at least 5 cm. The tips of the nails are bit off. They are pounded into a round shape.

The template has the wire wound around it. Annealing is required in order to fix the shape.

A voltage of 5–6 V is given to the snake. The filament should completely cool down when the substance glows a cherry color. Three to four times are done this operation.

The serpentine nail is covered with a strip of plywood. Fingers are pressed against the snake. Tails that were wound around nails (nail diameter: 2 mm) are gradually unwound. Every tail needs to have its molding completed and straightened. Of the coil, 25% is retained by the nail. Trimming the residues flush with the template’s outermost side is done. Additionally, the remaining 5 mm of the tail needs to be cleaned using a sharp knife.

After being carefully taken off of the mandrel, the snake is fixed on the backing plate. The leads and lamellae are in contact. Two knives are needed to remove the snake. On the nails, blades are inserted from the outside, one millimeter under the branch bends. After that, the curved heating thread is removed with caution. The snake is positioned with its slight bend on the substrate. The lamellae are the focal point of the leads.

Copper is soldered to chromium. Electrical solder paste is the solder medium. One drop of liquid solder is applied to the clean contact. A piece of polyethylene is pressed through this section using weight. Both the weight and the polyethylene are eliminated when the paste solidifies.

We work on the emitter next. A 1.5 mm layer of silicone sealant is applied to the snake’s center. By the time the process is repeated, the layer has grown to a depth of 3–4 mm. Sealant fills in the substrate’s contours. It is five millimeters from the edges.

Apply the glass carefully. It is compressed. It should be a tight fit. The next step is to let the silicone dry. It’s been roughly a week.

After that, a razor is used to trim off any extra sealant. The lamellae are also free of sealant build-up.

Calculating the amount of wire

The wire’s dimensions are 120 cm in length, 1.3 mm in diameter, and 1 kv.mm in cross-section. It is 0.088 meters thick. There are twenty-four tunnels within the brick.

Do the math: 0.088 x 24. The result is 2.188 meters.

The bricks’ holes are threaded with a length of wire. It can be inserted into any post. Due to the fact that the channels are calculated as follows: 1.2: 0.088. That comes to 13.67 in total. rounded to the nearest 14.

Connection of bulbs in series

Incredibly simple. All you have to do is wire two identically wattage bulbs in series to cut the voltage in half for each bulb.

They will, of course, shine less brightly.

And how will all those light sources’ combined power consumption change? A multimeter can be used to take measurements.

Assume, for instance, that two 100 watt light bulbs require 290 milliamperes of current at a constant voltage of 240 volts.

Using the power calculation formula, we obtain that:

The decrease in consumption is evident. But there has been an increase in heat dissipation per watt of power.

Instructions for making with your own hands

The following procedures can be followed to create an infrared heater by hand:

  1. From the tungsten thread to make a spiral, for which to wind it on a steel rod of suitable diameter. Then the rod is removed, and the finished spiral is put aside. The necessary length can be calculated only by experience, during the testing of a fully completed sample (see "Test of the product" on page 5). п.5).
  2. Metal sheet with a reflective surface bend in the form of a trough, hiding the shiny side inside.
  3. The spiral is wound on a heat-resistant material, which is used as pieces of slate, pieces of asbestos board, etc.д. Fix it with brackets inside the reflective "trough".
  4. From a thick wire bend the frame of the stand and place it in the desired location (depending on how the device will be located – vertically or horizontally).
  5. Connect a wire with a plug to the ends of the spiral and test the product. A spiral with a length as in the heating element of an electric stove will heat very strongly. If its length is doubled, the heating temperature will proportionally decrease. By lengthening or shortening the length of the element for optimum heating of the room is determined in practice.

You will need to use the reflective element to create more "wizardry" in order to create a gas infrared heater:

  • From a galvanized plate cut out two round blanks with a diameter of the usual tea strainer with ears for fastening;
  • in one of them drill a 3 mm diameter hole in a circle, in the other – cut a hole in the diameter of the gas burner;
  • from a metal mesh make a cylinder, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the blanks, and fasten them to it with rivets, placing a spiral inside this construction;
  • the device is fixed on the burner of the gas cylinder.

Use the following algorithm if you require a heater that can run on a current source with a voltage of 12 volts:

  1. A washed, degreased and dried glass rectangle is smoked over a candle to achieve an even layer of soot. Periodically, the manipulation is stopped to allow the glass to cool down.
  2. Two strips cut from aluminum foil, the length of which is equal to the width of the glass. They are placed on the edges of the smoked glass, pressed with a second clean glass and resistance measurements are made with a multimeter.
  3. If the resistance is equal to 120 Ohm, then proceed to the next step. Otherwise, add soot to reduce the value or remove the excess to increase the resistance.
  4. Using a cotton swab, clean 5 mm on each side from soot and smear with glue or sealant, lay foil pieces, cover with a second glass and leave until the surfaces are completely glued together.
  5. Wires are attached to foil terminals and connected to a power source.

Version based on an electric fireplace

  • Patron. Its body is made of stainless steel. Functions: heating, heating water.
  • Copper. Has a tube for thermal indicator and magnesium projector. Function – heating water.
  • Dry. Functions as in n1. Only the heating component in it can be changed without opening the tank and draining the liquid.

Based on the purchased heating element, the heater is constructed. Here, an extra cover and a traditional electric fireplace are needed. A secondary convection circuit is formed by the casing.

The radiation is directed downward. Looks back into the shroud. The heated air is located here. The first cover is sucked out of hot air. The draught is increased in this way. Additionally, the air from a fireplace of this type spreads out to the sides, flows widely and moderately, and does not reach the ceiling. The heating system works well in the room.

Features of operation and care of the homemade device

Constructed using makeshift methods, the apparatus needs to be put together precisely in compliance with the guidelines for the safe operation of gas and electric appliances. It must never be used unsupervised while switched on. Their continuous operation mode typically lasts no longer than four hours.

Dusting the heater is part of routine maintenance. Once the heating element has fully cooled and been unplugged from the power source, this process is completed. Using a dry cloth, wipe.

An infrared heater built on one’s own consumes less energy without sacrificing heating efficiency. This makes it possible to use it in situations where a conventional heating system is either nonexistent or fails to perform its intended function.

Warming up without electricity and heating: How to make a heater from improvised means

Nobody is exempt from losing access to modern conveniences like electricity and heat. You can stay warm in this unpleasant situation with a little creativity and effort.

These are the most well-liked and tested methods for warming food, warming small spaces, and creating makeshift warmers out of makeshift materials.

1. A heater for candles

Doyle Doss, a Californian inventor, and his business DOSS Products provide an innovative system known as the Kandle Heeter, or "Candle Heater." According to its maker, this peculiar-looking candle holder can come in handy in the event of a power outage. It measures roughly 18 centimeters in width and 23 centimeters in height. The upside-down pot over the candle is visually striking and attracts attention. This pot conceals the system’s primary feature.

The pot is constructed from three separate pots with varying diameters that are nestled inside one another and joined by a long metal bolt that is threaded with washers and nuts. It appears that an ordinary candle burning in the room produces very little heat. Its hot "exhaust" just rises and swiftly escapes through ventilation, which is the cause.

In contrast, a candle’s energy reserve is not insignificant. Furthermore, only a small portion of the energy content is converted into light by the hot stream of combustion products, with the majority of the energy being lost.

The labyrinth shroud that covers the flame gathers energy and stores it carefully, becoming fairly heated, especially around the central rod. And after that, the ceramic radiator’s whole surface gradually releases this heat into the atmosphere.

Additionally, pots aid in capturing soot from the flame, improving the ceiling’s cleanliness.

While one of these devices won’t keep you warm when the electricity and heating go out in the winter, the inventor does point out that it’s better than nothing at all.

Be aware that clay pots do not conduct heat well enough, so it is preferable to replace them with a metal pot of a comparable design. For instance, from old Soviet jars hidden beneath loose goods or from canning jars of various sizes.

2. Tiny space heater made from tea lights

This is a tea candle-powered tent heater. These heaters prevent freezing while fishermen are in tents. This means that a small room or office will work well with multiple candles in tin cans with air intake holes.

The structure is referred to as an alcohol stove or spirit stove in Russian when speaking outside of the country. It has been adopted even by the Swedish army. Because it burns without emitting smoke, alcohol is used. This implies that there is no soot or smoke in the air, and the dishes remain clean. The design is straightforward and can be constructed in a matter of minutes using any improvised materials. For example, a beer, coffee, or condensed milk can would work well as a donor for the heater. In other words, it needs to be covered with something, or you need a small iron container with an iron lid.

Thus, we will need a can, a ruler, a leaf strip inside a cell, and a marker or other writing or scratching tool.

On the jar, we mark a strip one-third of the way down. The jar with the marker in one place can be scrolled to make this task the simplest.

– Using a piece of tape or glue, wrap a strip of paper around the edge of the mark.

– Along the designated strip, we begin drilling, piercing with an awl, or making holes with a knife. This instance consists of a sequence of 0.8 mm diameter holes that extend through 10 mm and 5 mm. You can make three to five holes, each one a centimeter in diameter, but small holes work better for proper combustion than large ones.

Pour alcohol into the alcohol burner and shut the lid; the 50 ml will burn for 15 minutes. After setting the spirit down on a non-flammable surface, give it a little shake to let the alcohol seep through the holes and slightly wet the outside of the can. igniting alcohol outside and watching it burn until it goes out. Continue the process until the homemade nozzles surrounding the jar are producing a flame on its own. Usually, you only need to do it twice or three times before it begins to function on its own.

Its basic working principle is as follows: the flame heats the jar’s walls, which in turn transfers heat to the alcohol. The alcohol then boils at the walls, increasing internal pressure, and the alcohol vapor escapes through the holes under pressure, perfectly burning when mixed with air. Place now on top of the kettle, mug, or just to get warm.

You can place the DIY alcohol burner inside a sizable iron container to increase heat transfer. The container will heat up and release heat. It is more difficult to light when there are fewer holes, but it uses less fuel and produces less heat. In under ten minutes, a liter of water reaches a boiling point. Wind-resistant, put out the flames by covering them, and add as much fuel as needed; otherwise, you’ll have to wait for the flames to go out or risk spilling hot alcohol back into the container, which is dangerous.

Comparable choices "under one mug" from an aerosol can and a tin can with a filling hole that is sealed with a coin

4. Wood stove for cooking food This wood-fueled burner has a more intricate design and is constructed from two to three canning jars. It’s true that when using this option, you have to consider the room’s or tent’s ventilation.

5. Plastic bottle warmers Ordinary plastic bottles can be filled with hot water and used instead of a heating pad. You can also carry 1-2 hot water bottles in a backpack to "insulate" the back. This method will help warm up a cold bed or warm your feet while sitting at a desk. You can also carry 1-2 hot water bottles in your backpack to "insulate" your back. By the way, in summer you can make an "air conditioner" from the same bottles. To do this, freeze a few bottles filled with water, place them on a tray or towel (will begin to gradually thaw) in front of a fan on. The temperature in the room will drop significantly.

By candle

By the way, a candle is a pretty powerful source of heat. This feature was long viewed as a drawback: in the past, at balls, ladies and gentlemen would pour sweat, cosmetics would run, and powder would fall in clumps. A modern man finds it difficult to comprehend how they managed to have sexual relations without access to hot water and a shower.

Mini heater made at home using a candle

The heat from a candle in a cold room is wasted for the same reason that a single-circuit convection heater warms poorly: the hot exhaust gases rise up too quickly and cool down, giving soot. Meanwhile, getting them to afterburner and give heat is easier than a gas flame, see "How to make a gas flame burn. rice. In this system, the 3-circuit afterburner is made of ceramic flower pots; fired clay is a good IR emitter. The candle heater is intended for local heating, say, not to shiver sitting at the computer, but the heat from just one candle gives surprisingly much. It is only necessary to open the window when using it, and when going to bed, be sure to extinguish the candle: it consumes a lot of oxygen for combustion, too.

Alcohol burner

The structure is referred to as an alcohol stove or spirit stove in Russian when speaking outside of the country. It has been adopted even by the Swedish army.

Since alcohol burns without emitting smoke, it is used. This indicates that there is no soot or smoke in the air, and the dishes stay clean. Any improvised material can be used to quickly and easily construct the basic structure in a matter of minutes.

The stove can be donated by a can of condensed milk, beer, or coffee. In other words, it needs to be covered with something, or you need a small iron container with an iron lid.

Thus, we will need a jar, a ruler, a leaf strip inside a cell, and a marker or other writing or scratching tool.

On the jar, we mark a strip one-third of the way down. Holding the marker in one place and twisting the can is the simplest way to accomplish this.

– Encircle the marker’s edge with a strip of paper, then fasten it with tape or glue.

Along the designated stripe, we begin drilling, piercing with an awl, or cutting holes with a knife. This instance consists of a set of 0.8 mm diameter holes spaced 10 mm and 5 mm apart. You can make three to five holes, each one a centimeter in diameter, but small holes work better for proper combustion than large ones.

Pour alcohol into the spirit jar and shut the lid; the 50 ml will burn for 15 minutes. Place the spirit can on a non-flammable surface and give it a little shake to allow some alcohol to enter the can from the outside through the holes.

Wait until the alcohol burns completely before lighting it from the outside.

Continue the process until the homemade nozzles surrounding the jar are producing a flame on its own. Usually, two to three repetitions are sufficient to get things going on their own.

The basic idea behind how it works is as follows: the flame heats the jar’s walls, which in turn transfers heat to the alcohol. The alcohol then boils at the walls, increasing internal pressure, and the alcohol vapors escape through the holes under pressure, perfectly burning when mixed with air. Place a pot, a kettle, a mug, or just some heat source here.

You can place a homemade alcohol burner inside a big iron container to increase heat transfer. The burner will heat up and release heat.

It is more difficult to light when there are fewer holes, but it uses less fuel and produces less heat.

In under ten minutes, a liter of water reaches a boiling point. Wind-resistant, put out by covering, add fuel as needed; otherwise, you’ll have to wait for burnout or risky-return hot alcohol into the container.

Analogous versions of "one mug" from an aerosol can and a tin can with a filling hole that is sealed with a coin

Wood burner for heating food

This wood-fueled burner is constructed more intricately using two to three tin cans. It’s true that when using this option, you must consider the room’s or tent’s ventilation.

Warmers from plastic bottles

Instead of using a heating pad, hot water can be added to regular plastic bottles. Additionally, you can "insulate" your backs by packing one or two hot water bottles in your backpack. You can use this technique to warm your feet while working at a desk or to help warm a cold bed. Additionally, you can "insulate" your backs by packing one or two hot water bottles in your backpack.

By the way, you can use the same bottles to create a "air conditioner" in the summer. To accomplish this, place a few water bottles in front of the fan on a tray or towel and freeze them. The bottles will eventually thaw. The room’s temperature will drop dramatically.

Materials Needed Step-by-Step Instructions
Empty Tin Cans 1. Gather several empty tin cans of the same size.
Candle Wax or Paraffin 2. Obtain candle wax or paraffin to fill the cans.
Wicks 3. Get wicks long enough to reach the bottom of each can.
Hammer and Nail 4. Use a hammer and nail to puncture holes in the bottom of the cans for ventilation.
Matches or Lighter 5. Have matches or a lighter on hand to light the candles.

Making your own heater can be a satisfying project that gives you a sense of accomplishment and financial savings. You can build an efficient home warming device during the winter months by using basic materials and basic instructions.

The ability to tailor your heater to your unique requirements and tastes is one of its main benefits. Your heater can be made to fit your needs, whether you’re looking for a permanent fixture or a portable solution.

You can also have more control over the heater’s safety features and efficiency when you build it yourself. Understanding the fundamentals of combustion and heat transfer will help you make sure your gadget runs safely and dependable, giving warmth without sacrificing security.

Additionally, building a homemade heater encourages material reuse and lessens dependency on manufactured goods, both of which advance sustainability. Reusing objects that would otherwise be thrown away helps reduce waste and its negative effects on the environment.

To sum up, building a heater at home is a useful and environmentally responsible way to replace expensive heating systems. It is possible to build a dependable and effective gadget that keeps your house toasty and comfortable all year long with careful planning and attention to detail.

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What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
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