Heat point individual ITP scheme, principle of operation, operation

An effective heating system is crucial for keeping our homes toasty and comfortable during the colder months. A technique that is becoming more and more well-liked is the Heat Point Individual (I\Π) scheme. With more precise control over heating made possible by this novel approach, homeowners may experience greater comfort and possible energy savings.

So what precisely is the Heat Point Individual (I΢Π) scheme based on? It basically entails segmenting a building into separate heating zones, each with a control system and heat exchanger of its own. This implies that heat is more effectively distributed to different parts of the house depending on demand and usage patterns rather than relying on a single central heating unit.

The concept of decentralized heating control is central to the Heat Point Individual (I\Π) scheme’s operation. Residents can customize the temperature in each zone without affecting other areas of the house by installing heat exchangers and control units. By only heating the areas that are in use, this helps to optimize energy consumption while also enabling personalized comfort.

However, what is the real working mechanism of the Heat Point Individual (I̓Π) scheme? In order to monitor energy consumption and provide accurate billing based on consumption, individual heat meters must be installed in each zone. In order to maintain desired temperatures and ensure effective heating without needless energy waste, temperature sensors and control valves also manage the flow of hot water.

To sum up, the Heat Point Individual (I΢Π) program provides a cutting-edge and practical approach to insulation and heating in residential buildings. Improved comfort, cost savings, and environmental advantages are offered to homeowners through the decentralization of control and optimization of energy usage. Initiatives such as IΠ are setting the stage for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future as we keep looking for ways to improve the energy efficiency of our homes.

Heat point individual ITP scheme The heat point in an individual heating system refers to the location where hot water from the boiler enters the house to provide heat. It typically includes a pump, valves, and controls to regulate the flow of hot water into the heating system.
Principle of operation The principle of operation of a heat point in an individual heating system involves circulating hot water from the boiler through pipes to radiators or underfloor heating systems. The pump helps to push the hot water through the system, while valves control the flow and temperature to maintain comfortable heating levels.
Operation During operation, the heat point in an individual heating system receives hot water from the boiler when heat is needed. The pump circulates the hot water through the pipes to distribute heat to the desired areas of the house. Valves regulate the flow and temperature, ensuring consistent and efficient heating throughout the home.

Types of TP

The variations in TP pertain to the quantity and kinds of consumption systems. The scheme and specifications of the necessary equipment are predetermined by the particulars of the consumer type. The complex is installed and arranged in the room in a different way. There are differences between the following types.

  • ITP for a single building or part of a building, located in a basement, technical room or adjacent structure.
  • CHP – central heating station serves a group of buildings or objects. Located in one of the basements or a separate structure.
  • BTP – block heating station. Includes one or more units manufactured and supplied in a production facility. It is characterized by compact installation, used for saving space. Can serve as an ITP or a centralized heating plant.

Main faults of the elevator unit

It’s possible for even something as basic as an elevator unit to malfunction. By examining the pressure gauge readings at the elevator assembly’s control points, faults can be identified:

  1. Malfunctions are often caused by clogging of pipelines with dirt and solid particles in the water. If there is a drop in pressure in the heating system, which before the strainer is much higher, this fault is caused by clogging of the strainer, which stands in the supply pipeline. Dirt is discharged through the drainage channels of the strainer, the mesh and internal surfaces of the device are cleaned.
  2. If the pressure in the heating system jumps, the possible causes may be corrosion or clogging of the nozzle. If a nozzle failure occurs, the pressure in the heating expansion tank may exceed the allowable pressure.
  3. There may be a case in which the pressure in the heating system increases, and the pressure gauges before and after the strainer in the "return" show different values. In such a case it is necessary to clean the "return" strainer. The drain taps on it are opened, the mesh is cleaned, and the dirt is removed from the inside.
  4. When the nozzle size changes due to corrosion, the heating circuit is vertically disrupted. At the bottom of the radiators will be hot, and on the upper floors insufficiently heated. Replacing the nozzle with a nozzle with a calculated diameter eliminates this malfunction.

Why do you need a heating unit?

The house’s heat pipeline inlet is where the heat supply unit is situated. Modifying the coolant’s parameters is its primary goal. To put it another way, before the coolant enters your radiator or convector, the heat unit lowers its temperature and pressure. It is essential to prolong the life of all the heating system’s equipment in addition to preventing burns from coming from contact with the heating device.

It is especially crucial if metal-plastic or polypropylene pipes are used to distribute heat inside the home. Heat units can operate in two regulated modes:

The heat transfer medium’s maximum and lowest temperatures in the heating pipe are depicted in these figures.

Additionally, each heat unit needs to have a heat metering device installed in accordance with current regulations. Let’s now discuss how the thermal units are arranged.

Documents for Energonadzor

For the commissioning to be completed successfully, the Energy Supervision Service must receive the following package of documents:

  • technical conditions, certificate of connection of the installation by the power supplying organization;
  • project, approvals;
  • acts of responsibility, system readiness, acceptance of completed works, concealed works, system flushing, admission to safe operation;
  • ITP passport;
  • certificate of readiness of the point;
  • a certificate that an agreement has been concluded with the energy supply company;
  • list of persons responsible for maintenance and repair of the system;
  • an order that a responsible person assigned to the ITP has been appointed;
  • Certificate of welding specialist (copy);
  • Quality certificates for components and elements;
  • instructions of positions for fire and operational safety;
  • instruction for operation of the point;
  • I&C log, where orders, tolerances, defects, etc. are noted;
  • Order for connection of heat networks to the ITP.

Although not necessary to be highly qualified, ITP maintenance staff members must be qualified. Thus, training is required for all operators who are permitted to use and maintain the point. It is not permitted to start pumps when the water supply system is turned off. Regular observation of pressure gauge readings and monitoring and regulation of pressure thresholds in accordance with the instructions and scheme are required.

Preventing electric motor overheating, elevated vibration, and noise levels is also crucial. It is not required to exert undue effort when shutting the valves, and disassembling the regulators while pressure is rising is strictly prohibited.

Operating the system requires flushing the internal system.

The main stages of design of the heating center

  • Heat distribution in the district heating plant

A central heating unit’s design is an essential component of any capital construction or reconstruction. It is recognized as a series of intricate, sequential steps intended to compute and design an accurate heating point scheme and secure the required approvals from the supplier. Additionally, all matters directly related to the setup, functioning, and upkeep of the heating center’s equipment are taken into account in the design of the CHP.

The gathering of data is a prerequisite for the design of the CHPP and is also required for the later computation of equipment parameters. The entire pipeline communications length is first determined for this purpose. The designer finds special value in this information. Furthermore, the data collection encompasses details regarding the building’s temperature regime. This information is therefore required for the equipment to be set correctly.

Safety precautions for equipment operation must be specified during the design of a district heating plant. It needs details regarding the building’s overall structure, including the rooms’ locations and sizes, among other important details.

Permission from the appropriate authorities.

It is a requirement that all documents containing the central heating plant’s design be coordinated with the local operating authorities.

It’s critical to accurately draft all project documentation for a speedy and favorable outcome. Given that the central heating plant’s construction and project realization only occur after the approval process is finished

Otherwise, the project needs to be completed.

An explanation note should be included with the project documentation, along with information on the CHPP’s design. It includes important instructions and all the information needed for installers to install the central heating station. The explanation note outlines the steps involved in the work, their order, and the equipment needed for installation.

Creating a note explaining everything is the last step. The district heating plant’s design is finished with this document. Installers are required to adhere to the guidelines provided in the explanatory note in the course of their work.

Ensuring the safe and flawless operation of the equipment over an extended period of time can be accomplished through meticulous design development of the CHP and accurate computation of essential parameters and modes of operation. As a result, it is crucial to consider both the power reserve and the nominal values.

This is a crucial component since, in the event of an accident or unexpected overload, the capacity reserve will maintain the heat supply point’s functionality. Properly drafted documents directly affect the heat supply unit’s ability to operate normally.

How the heat supply unit is organized

Generally speaking, each heating unit’s technical device is created independently based on the unique needs of the client. There are various fundamental ways that heating units can be implemented. Let’s examine each of them separately.

Heat unit on the basis of an elevator.

The simplest and least expensive heat point scheme is the one that uses an elevator unit as its foundation. The inability to control the coolant temperature in the pipes is its primary drawback. In the event that it thaws during the heating season, this results in significant overspending of heat energy and inconvenience for the end user. Let’s examine the following figure to comprehend the operation of this diagram:

A pressure-reducing reducer may be included in the thermal unit in addition to the items listed above. It is mounted before the elevator on the supply. This scheme’s central component is the elevator, where the hot heat carrier from the "supply" and the cooled heat carrier from the "return" are combined. The formation of a discharge at the elevator’s outlet is the foundation for its operation. This discharge causes mixing to occur because the pressure of the heat carrier in the elevator is lower than the pressure of the heat carrier in the "return."

Heat unit based on a heat exchanger.

It is possible to separate the heat carrier from the main heating source inside the house by connecting the heating station through a specialized heat exchanger. Its preparation with specific additives and filtration is made possible by coolant separation. The pressure and temperature of the coolant inside the house can be easily adjusted with this scheme. This enables a decrease in heating expenses. View the image below to get a sense of the kind of construction that this would be.

Thermostatic valves are used in these systems to mix the coolant. In these kinds of heating systems, aluminum radiators are suitable, but their lifespan depends on the quality of the coolant. The lifespan of aluminum radiators can be significantly shortened if the coolant’s PH is higher than what the manufacturer has considered acceptable. Since you have no control over the heat carrier’s quality, it is best to install cast iron or bimetallic radiators as insurance.

A heat exchanger can be used to connect DHW in a comparable manner. The benefits of controlling hot water pressure and temperature are the same with this. It is important to note that dishonest management firms have the ability to mislead customers by slightly underestimating the temperature of hot water. Although practically invisible to the consumer, it can save you tens of thousands of rubles a month on a household scale.

Schematic symbols and how to read them

A schematic diagram of the thermal unit is depicted in the above figure, along with a thorough explanation of each component element.

V-shaped connector for thermometers

Regulator of water flow

System valves

By examining the scheme, designations on thermal unit schemes aid in understanding how the unit operates.

If any malfunctions are noticed, engineers can rapidly diagnose and resolve the issue by using the drawings as a guide to determine where the network breakdown is occurring. When designing a new home, the schematic diagrams of thermal units will come in handy as well. Since it is impossible to install the system and wire throughout the house without these calculations, they must be included in the project documentation package.

Anyone who has ever worked with heating or water heating devices will find information about what a thermal system drawing is and how to use it in practice useful.

The information provided in this article should aid in comprehending the fundamental ideas as well as how to locate the primary nodes and points of designation of the scheme’s principal elements.

The main types of heating units

There are two kinds of nodes that connect the system to the thermal energy source:

  1. Single-circuit;
  2. Two-circuit.

A single-circuit heat supply is the most typical way for a consumer to connect to a thermal energy source. In this instance, the home heating system is connected directly to the hot water mains.

One distinguishing feature of a single-circuit heat point is that its design calls for an elevator—a pipeline that connects the direct and return mains. It is worthwhile to give the elevator’s role in the heating system more careful thought.

Three common modes of operation for boiler heating systems exist, with the coolant temperature (direct/return) varying between them:

It is not permitted to use superheated steam as a heat carrier in a residential building’s heating system. Consequently, hot water that the boiler house supplies to the apartment building’s heating risers at a temperature of 150 °C due to weather conditions must first be cooled. The "return" enters the direct mains through an elevator that is used for this purpose.

An electric (automatic) actuator or a manual one can open the elevator. An additional circulation pump may be incorporated into its main line; however, this device typically has a unique shape, consisting of a section where the main line narrows sharply and then expands into a cone shape. It pumps water from the return line as an injection pump as a result.

Two-circuit heat supply unit

The heat transfer fluids in the system’s two circuits are not combined in this instance. Heat is transferred from one circuit to another using a heat exchanger, most commonly a plate heat exchanger. Below is a diagram of a two-circuit heating system.

An apparatus known as a plate heat exchanger is made up of several hollow plates, each of which holds a different heated fluid. They are dependable, modest, and extremely efficient. It is not necessary to use chilled water from the return mains because the amount of heat extracted can be adjusted by varying the number of plates that interact with one another.

2.3 Arrangement of heat supply units

Point is indicated in the schematic diagram of the thermal supply system below.

– Plan The heat pump’s (TP) performance is dependent on two factors: first, the characteristics of the source that provides the heat energy to the heating plant; and second, the specifics of the heat consumers that the HPU serves. The next, and most popular, is the TP with an independent hot water supply heating system connection scheme and a closed system hot water supply.

The heat-transfer medium is fed into the heating plant via the supply pipeline heat input. It releases heat in the hot water system heaters (DHW and heating) and is also supplied to the ventilation system’s users. Finally, it is fed back into the ventilation system via the return pipe of the heat inlet and is transported via the main networks back to the heat-generating plant for utilization again. Consumption of part of the heating medium is possible. Boiler and CHP plants have make-up systems to compensate for losses in their primary heat networks. These systems use their water treatment systems as sources of heat transfer medium.

– Plumbing
water entering the heat supply system passes through
DHW pumps, after which a part of the cold
water is sent to consumers, and the other
part is heated in the heater
the first stage of DHW and enters into the
circulation circuit of the DHW system. В
The circulation circuit water by means of
hot water circulation pumps
The water supply moves in a circle from the CHP plant
to and from consumers, and consumers
draw water from the circuit as the
necessity. When circulating through the circuit
water gradually gives up its heat and for the
in order to maintain the temperature
water at a preset level, its constant flow through the circulation pumps
heated in the heater of the second
DHW stages.

– System heating is another example of a closed loop, where circulators move the heat transfer medium through the circuit. The heating pumps that move heat from the heating plant to the building systems and vice versa. Leaks in the heating medium may arise during system operation due to circuit heating. Serves as a make-up system for the thermal system item that uses primary heat networks as a source heat carrier in order to offset losses.

Metering devices

Metering devices make it possible to accurately calculate the amounts of heat energy consumed, which is essential for the computation of interactions between the service provider and the customer. This removes the possibility that the heat suppliers may overestimate the load values. The following operations require metering devices:

  1. Creation of comfortable relations between the company and its customers-subscribers in the form of accurate mutual settlements.
  2. Maintain a documented history of the system operating parameters (pressure, flow rate, and temperature).
  3. Rational utilization of the entire energy supply system – hydraulics, thermal regime and control of this.

The following tools are included with the metering device:

  • meter;
  • pressure gauge and tanometer;
  • converters – for flow and supply;
  • filter (mesh-magnetic).
  1. The meter reader is turned on and read.
  2. Analyze.
  3. Find out the causes of failures.
  4. Checking seals for integrity.
  5. Analyzing again.
  6. Check and compare temperature readings by means of thermometers on the pipelines.
  7. Checking ground contacts.
  8. Oil addition in sleeves.
  9. Cleaning of filters and other areas from dirt and dust.

Composition of an individual heat supply unit

The ITP’s structure is determined by the consumption systems it supports. Broadly speaking, it encompasses supply systems for heating, ventilation, and hot water as well as heating and hot water. As a result, the ITP’s component parts must include the following devices:

  1. heat exchangers for heat energy transfer;
  2. valves of shut-off and regulating action;
  3. Instruments for monitoring and measuring parameters;
  4. pumping equipment;
  5. control panels and controllers.

These are the only devices found in all ITPs; there may be more units in each particular variant. Typically, the cold water supply source is found in the same room, for example.

Plate heat exchangers are used in the construction of the heat point’s scheme, which is entirely independent. In order to keep the pressure at the desired level, a twin pump is installed. A hot water supply system and other assemblies and units, such as metering devices, make it simple to "complete" the plan.

In order for ITP to function for DHW, plate heat exchangers that solely operate under DHW load must be included in the scheme. In this instance, a collection of pumps compensates for pressure drops.

The aforementioned schemes are combined when organizing systems for both heating and district heating and cooling. A two-stage DHW circuit is used in conjunction with plate heat exchangers to provide heating, and suitable pumps are used to feed the heating system from the heating network’s return pipe. On the other hand, the DHW system’s make-up source is the cold water supply network.

It is equipped with a second plate heat exchanger that is connected in case the ventilation system needs to be connected to the ITP. The previously outlined principle still governs the operation of heating andDHW, and the ventilation circuit is connected in a manner akin to the heating circuit by adding the required control and measurement devices.

What is included in the general tasks of the system

An individual heating station serves several purposes and performs a variety of duties.

The purpose of use is to supply the following premises:

  • good ventilation;
  • hot water;
  • heating of premises of residential buildings, communal administrations, as well as – production enterprises, organizations and entire complexes.

The assignments are as follows: ITP needs to:

  1. To take into account how much heat and its carrier consumes.
  2. Protect the heat system from an overabundance of coolant in the parameters of the. Otherwise it can entail emergency situations.
  3. Shut down the operation of consumer systems in a timely manner.
  4. Distribute evenly within the system the passage of the heating medium.
  5. To carry out control and regulating functions over the liquid circulating through the pipes and radiators.
  6. Ensure the successful conversion of one type of heat transfer medium into another type of heat transfer medium. For example, to make the transition from water to antifreeze or propylene glycol.

When it comes to smaller installation types, they are ideal for providing service for a single typical family’s home or a small office building, among other uses. Large-scale structures already receive heat from them for buildings that are both large and contain apartments. These points and capacities range widely from 50 kW to 2 MW.

Building heat distribution center

There are three temperature modes for boiler operation that heat engineers recommend using. These regimes have been used practically for many years after being initially computed theoretically. They maximize efficiency while ensuring minimal losses in heat transfer over long distances.

The ratio of the supply temperature to the "return" temperature is known as the thermal mode of a boiler house.

  1. 150/70 – the supply temperature is 150 degrees Celsius and the return temperature is 70 degrees Celsius.
  2. 130/70- water temperature 130 degrees, temperature of "return" 70 degrees;
  3. 95/70 – water temperature is 95 degrees, "return" temperature is 70 degrees.

In actuality, the value of the winter air temperature determines which mode is used for each unique location. It should be mentioned that using high temperatures—particularly 150 and 130 degrees—to heat rooms is prohibited in order to prevent burns and major repercussions in the event of depressurization.

Because of the high pressure inside the pipes, the water does not boil even though its temperature is higher than its boiling point. denotes the need to lower the building’s temperature and pressure and provide the required heat extraction. The heating system’s elevator unit, a unique piece of heat engineering machinery housed in the heat distribution point, is tasked with carrying out this duty.

Three-way valve

When it becomes necessary to split the coolant flow between two users, a three-way heating valve that functions in two ways is utilized:

  • constant mode;
  • variable hydro mode.

In the areas of the heating circuit where it might be required to split or stop the water flow entirely, a three-way valve is installed. Brass, cast iron, or steel make up the valve’s material. A ball, cylindrical, or conical shut-off device is located inside the valve. The three-way valve on the heating system can function as a mixer based on the connection, and the tap has a tee-like appearance. The ratios used in mixing can be adjusted over a broad range.

The main purposes of the ball valve are:

  1. Temperature regulation of warm floors;
  2. to regulate the temperature of the radiators;
  3. distribution of the heat carrier into two directions.

Three-way valves come in two varieties: regulating and shut-off. Although they are nearly identical in theory, using the three-way shut-off valves to smoothly control the temperature is more challenging.

Heat supply system diagram

The following units are included in a traditional ITP scheme:

  • Heat network inlet.
  • Metering device.
  • Connection of the ventilation system.
  • Connection of the heating system.
  • Connection of the hot water supply.
  • Pressure matching between the heat supply and heat consumption systems.
  • Make-up of independently connected heating and ventilation systems.

The following nodes are required in order to develop the heat supply unit project:

  • Metering device.
  • Pressure coordination.
  • Input of the heating network.

The number of units and their completion are chosen based on the project’s outcome.

Authorization for operation

Authorization is needed to operate AITP complexes, or automated ITPs, and documentation must be submitted to Energonadzor for this purpose. Here is a certificate attesting to the technical requirements for connection. Additionally required:

  • agreed project documentation;
  • act of responsibility for operation, balance of belonging from the parties;
  • certificate of readiness;
  • heating units must have a passport with the parameters of heat supply;
  • readiness of heat energy metering device – document;
  • certificate on the existence of a contract with the energy company to provide heat supply;
  • acceptance certificate from the installation company;
  • Order appointing the person responsible for maintenance, serviceability, repair and safety of the ATP (automated heat point);
  • list of persons responsible for maintenance and repair of AITP installations;
  • copy of the welder"s qualification document, certificates for electrodes and pipes;
  • acts on other actions, executive scheme of the object automated heating point, including pipelines, valves;
  • act on pressure testing, flushing of heating, DHW, which includes an automated point;
  • briefing.

Types of IPT by type of heat consumption systems

Systems can be integrated and used in a standard manner. Thus, traditional variations of heat supply system selection comprise the following additions to the overall ITP scheme:

  1. Heating function.
  2. hot water supply.
  3. Combination of two functions – heating and hot water supply (HWS).
  4. Combination of hot water supply and warm ventilation.

Scheme type: independent

Plate heat exchanger operating at full load;

Warming via the heating system’s return pipe.

– a hot water heater;

– meters and additional units.

Scheme type: single-stage, parallel

– two heat exchangers, each with a 50% load capacity;

– group of pumps units.

Meters, among other things.

The type of scheme is independent for heating and independent, two-stage for DHW:

A plate heat exchanger operating at full load;

– feeding via a pump from the heating system’s return pipe;

The second plate heat exchanger (for DHW);

– Using the cold water supply for feeding (DHW).

As requested by the client

Heat + DHW + Air Conditioning

The schemes are 1-stage, independent, DHW, and parallel.

A plate heat exchanger with a 100% load is integrated for ventilation;

– two plate heat exchangers with a 50% load each for DHW;

Group of pumping units;

DHW cold water supply, return pipe, and supply.

Installation stages

TP of the structure or object goes through a methodical process during installation. In an apartment building, the residents’ wishes alone are insufficient.

  • Obtaining the consent of the owners of the premises of the residential building.
  • Application to heat supply companies for design in a particular house, development of technical specifications.
  • Issuance of technical specifications.
  • Survey of a residential or other object for the project, determining the availability and condition of equipment.
  • The automatic TP will be designed, developed and approved.
  • A contract is concluded.
  • ITP project of a residential building or other object is realized, tests are carried out.

Take note! It is possible to complete all stages in a few months. The task of providing care is left to an accountable specialized organization.

For the business to succeed, it needs to be well-established.

Distribution devices

The entire elevator unit, including the piping, can be thought of as a discharge circulation pump that feeds coolant into the heating system at a specific pressure.

The best course of action in cases where the object has multiple floors and consumers is to allocate the entire coolant flow to each consumer.

These kinds of issues are intended to be resolved by the heating system comb, also known as the collector. You can think of this device as a tank. The elevator outlet feeds the heating medium into the tank, from which it exits through multiple outlets sharing the same head.

As a result, the heating system distribution comb permits the individual consumers of the object to be disconnected, adjusted, or repaired without interrupting the heating circuit’s operation. The collector’s existence removes the heating system branches’ mutual influence. In this instance, the pressure at the elevator’s outlet and the radiator pressure are equal.

What functions an individual heating unit performs

A separate heating outlet in the building’s basement

One of the primary purposes of ITP is automatic heat flow regulation, which modifies the quantity of hot coolant originating from the heating network to maintain a specific coolant temperature at the house’s heating system’s inlet based on the outside temperature at that moment. Reducing the amount of heat energy consumed is possible thanks to weather-dependent regulation. To put it another way, the heat flow regulator in each individual heat point adjusts the temperature of the coolant circulating in the heating system based on preset settings, lowering it in warm weather and raising it in colder conditions to maintain a comfortable air temperature in the heated rooms.

The heat flow controller for the heating system consists of:

  • electronic regulator with connected temperature sensors (at least – outside air and the temperature of the coolant entering the heating system), which controls;
  • an electrically actuated control valve to ensure the required amount of heating medium from the heating network, which is supplied to the internal heating system to compensate for heat losses in the building depending on the outside temperature.

It’s imperative that every piece of equipment is properly configured to function in a specific home because it can only run in automatic mode.

The ITP can be configured to operate either the house’s hot water supply system or its heating system, or both at the same time.

An electrically operated control valve, an electronic weather-controlled temperature controller with temperature sensors, an automatic differential pressure controller, two circulation pumps, and the matching shut-off valves are among the main components of the ITP if it is installed solely to regulate the home’s heating system.

An automatic differential pressure controller, two circulation pumps, an electrically operated control valve that is managed by an electronic temperature controller or a direct-acting automatic temperature controller, and a heat exchanger—which heats water from the water supply system to the necessary temperature—are the first components of the ITP, which also regulates the home’s hot water supply system.

The ITP equipment may also include more automatic coolant pressure regulators and pumps for cold water, among other things.

Design and principle of operation of the heating elevator

The node connecting the supply and "return" pipes is the focal point of the heating network pipeline, typically located in the basement. This is a home heating mixing unit, or elevator. The elevator has three flanges and is constructed out of steel or cast iron. The principles of physics underpin the functioning of this traditional elevator heating system. A diffuser, mixing head, receiving chamber, and nozzle are all located inside the elevator. A flange is used to connect the receiving chamber to the "return".

Water that has been overheated enters the elevator inlet and travels through the nozzle. Bernoulli’s law states that as the nozzle narrows, the flow velocity increases and the pressure decreases. The elevator’s mixing chamber is filled with mixed water from the "return," which is drawn into the low pressure area. In addition to lowering the temperature to the appropriate level, the water also lowers the pressure. The elevator doubles as a mixer and circulation pump at the same time. This is, in essence, how an elevator in a building’s or structure’s heating system operates.

Schematic diagram of the thermal unit

Elevator units are responsible for adjusting the coolant supply to heat the house. The heat metering unit’s primary component, the elevator, must be piped in. The "supply" and "return" pipes are connected to dirt filters in the piping because the regulating equipment is susceptible to dirt.

The elevator is strapped with the following:

  • mud filters;
  • pressure gauges (inlet and outlet);
  • temperature sensors (thermometers at the elevator inlet, outlet and return);
  • gate valves (for preventive or emergency work).

Although this is the most basic version of the coolant temperature regulation scheme, it is frequently utilized as the thermal unit’s primary component. The basic node elevator regulates the coolant’s temperature and pressure in the circuit, heating any buildings or structures.

Benefits of using it to heat big items, residences, and tall buildings:

  1. reliability, due to the simplicity of design;
  2. low price of installation and component parts;
  3. absolute energy independence;
  4. significant savings of coolant consumption up to 30%.

However, despite the undeniable benefits of utilizing elevators for heating systems, the following drawbacks should be considered:

  • calculation is made individually for each system;
  • obligatory pressure drop in the heating system of the object is needed;
  • if the elevator is unregulated, it is impossible to change the parameters of the heating circuit.

Elevator with automatic regulation

There are elevator designs available today that allow for electronic regulation of the nozzle cross-section. There is a mechanism in such an elevator that moves the throttle needle. It modifies the nozzle’s lumen, which modifies the heat carrier’s flow rate. Variations in lumen cause variations in the water’s velocity. This causes a change in the mixing coefficient between the hot water and the water from the "return," which raises the coolant’s temperature in the "supply." It is now evident why the heating system requires water pressure.

The coolant supply and pressure are controlled by the elevator, and the coolant’s pressure controls the flow of the heated circuit.

Stages of installation of a heat supply unit

It’s obvious that a single solution—even a group one—is insufficient when considering the perspectives of every household member. In a nutshell, the process of outfitting a structure—like an apartment building—is as follows:

  1. the positive decision of the tenants;
  2. application to the heat supplying organization for the development of technical specifications;
  3. obtaining technical specifications;
  4. pre-design survey of the object, to determine the condition and composition of the existing equipment;
  5. development of the project with its subsequent approval;
  6. Contract conclusion;
  7. Implementation of the project and commissioning tests.

At first glance, the algorithm might appear to be quite intricate. It is actually possible to complete the entire process in less than two months, from decision to commissioning. All concerns ought to be given to a trustworthy business that specializes in offering these kinds of services and has successfully demonstrated its abilities. Fortunately, these days, there are lots of options available. The only thing left to do is await the outcome.

Advantages of having an ITP

The benefits that come from having a point in the building justify significant expenses for the creation of an ITP.

  • Economy (by 30% in terms of consumption).
  • Reduction of operating costs by up to 60%.
  • Heat consumption is monitored and accounted for.
  • Optimization of modes reduces losses up to 15%. Time of day, weekends, weather are taken into account.
  • Heat is distributed according to consumption conditions.
  • Flow rate can be regulated.
  • The type of heat carrier can be changed if necessary.
  • Low accident rate, high operational safety.
  • Full automation of the process.
  • Noiselessness.
  • Compactness, size dependence on the load. The unit can be located in the basement.
  • Maintenance of heat points does not require numerous personnel.
  • Provides comfort.
  • The equipment is completed to order.

In terms of savings, controlled heat consumption, the ability to influence the indicators, and sensible resource usage are alluring. As a result, it is thought that the expenses are recovered within a fair amount of time.

In this article, we"ll delve into the workings of an Individual Thermal Point (ITP) scheme for heating your home efficiently. The ITP system operates on a simple principle: it centralizes the heating process for multiple housing units, ensuring each receives the right amount of warmth. Here"s how it works: instead of each household managing its heating independently, the ITP setup establishes a central point where heat is generated. This point is usually a boiler or a heat pump. From there, hot water or steam is distributed through a network of pipes to each dwelling, where it"s used for heating. This centralized approach streamlines maintenance and allows for better control over energy usage. Plus, it"s more cost-effective and environmentally friendly, making it a smart choice for modern homes.

Advantages of individual heat points

The following are some benefits of the automated converter ITP’s well-coordinated work:

  1. Obvious savings in money spent – 40-60% less in maintenance and utilization costs alone.
  2. Reduced consumption of heat energy by 30%, if compared to non-automated points.
  3. Precise adjustment of modes reduces heat losses up to 15%.
  4. Noiselessness in operation.
  5. Compactness in installation and its connection with the load. For example, an aggregate system with a capacity of up to 2 Gcal/h will have an area of only 25-30 square kilometers.м.
  6. Convenient location – can be installed in the basement of any building.
  7. Automation of the working process, which leads to a reduction in the number of personnel.
  8. Maintenance operators do not necessarily have to have a high qualification in their position.
  9. It is possible to set the optimal modes on different days – holidays, weekends, during difficult weather conditions.

These points function as a way to provide comfort in the space while also efficiently saving energy. Such systems are frequently made to order by manufacturers, which enables them to optimize the convenience of each unique design.

Installation of heat metering devices

Included in the heat metering point are:

  • Temperature sensors (installed in the forward and return lines);
  • Flow meters;
  • Heat calculator.

Installing heat metering equipment as close to the departmental boundary as feasible helps prevent the supplying company from calculating heat losses incorrectly. Gate valves or other valves at the input and output of thermal units and flow meters are ideal because they make maintenance and repair easier.

Advice: There should be a section of the main line free of additional taps, devices to lessen flow turbulence, and diameter changes prior to the flow meter. This will improve measurement accuracy and streamline the device’s operation.

Located in a separate lockable cabinet, the heat calculator gathers data from flow meters and temperature sensors. Current iterations of this device come with modems and can be linked to a local network via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, allowing data to be received remotely without requiring a physical visit to the heat metering units.

When it comes to effectively managing their heating systems, homeowners would be well advised to implement a heat point individual ITP scheme. In essence, you’re building a centralized control point for the heat distribution in your house when you install this system. The heat point individual ITP scheme allows for improved regulation and heat delivery optimization in place of each radiator operating independently.

The working principle of this scheme is not too complicated. Installing individual heat meters on each radiator or heating circuit in your house is part of a heat point individual ITP scheme. These meters track the quantity of heat used in every space, giving important information for oversight and management.

After installation, the system gathers information from each heat meter and centralizes it at a control point, usually found inside the home. Homeowners can then modify the heating settings in accordance with real-time usage data. More effective heating management is made possible by this degree of control, which guarantees that energy is allocated precisely where and when it is most needed.

The heat point individual ITP scheme has many advantages in terms of operation. In the first place, it encourages energy conservation by enabling homeowners to locate hot spots and make the necessary adjustments. Furthermore, it offers more control over comfort because temperatures in various rooms or areas of the house can be adjusted to suit personal preferences.

To sum up, the application of a heat point individual ITP scheme is a workable and efficient way to maximize the efficiency of residential heating systems. Through the implementation of centralized control and granular monitoring of heat usage, homeowners can realize substantial energy savings, raise system efficiency overall, and improve comfort levels. Investing in this technology contributes to a more sustainable and comfortable living environment in addition to lowering energy costs.

Video on the topic

Individual Heating Plant. Composition and function of the individual heating plant.

Heat supply unit: what it is, types of heat supply units, ITP equipment.

How the central heating station is organized.

Automation of the heating station. Where does the heat saving come from, the principle of operation of the ATP

Individual heat supply unit "boiled over". Let"s find out why and how to maintain the heating plant correctly

✅ Equipment in the ITP

What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
Share to friends
Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

Rate author
Add a comment