Why do not consider household hydrogen boiler as the main

Having the appropriate heating system in our homes is essential to keeping them warm and comfortable. Hydrogen boilers are becoming more and more popular as alternative energy sources gain popularity. Nevertheless, there are a few reasons why they might not be the greatest option for the majority of households, despite the excitement that surrounds them.

Let’s start by discussing safety. Although contemporary hydrogen boilers are built with safety features, there is still some risk because hydrogen is a highly flammable gas. Hydrogen has no smell, which makes leak detection more difficult than with natural gas, which has a noticeable odor that alerts us to potential problems. Homeowners should be concerned about this because any malfunction or leak could present serious safety risks.

One more important thing to think about is efficiency. Although hydrogen is frequently promoted as an efficient and clean fuel, the truth is more complex. Some of the environmental benefits of hydrogen are currently offset by the processes usually involved in its production, which release greenhouse gases. Furthermore, hydrogen boilers might not be as energy-efficient as other heating systems, which could result in higher long-term costs.

Furthermore, a major barrier to the widespread use of residential hydrogen boilers is infrastructure. In contrast to natural gas, which has a well-established distribution network, the infrastructure for hydrogen is still relatively new. This means that many homeowners won’t be able to install a hydrogen boiler because it might require a large upfront investment in infrastructure upgrades.

Finally, we need to think about the accessibility of substitute options. There are now many eco-friendly heating options available to homeowners thanks to developments in renewable energy technologies like heat pumps and solar panels. Without the infrastructure requirements or safety concerns of hydrogen boilers, these alternatives frequently perform on par with or better than them.

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What are hydrogen heating boilers

An apparatus meant for heating that burns hydrogen as a double gas is known as a hydrogen heating boiler (h2).

Scientists claim that hydrogen is a promising fuel type:

  • Its heat -quality ability (121 MJ) is much higher than that of natural gas (32 MJ), which potentially gives several times more useful energy;
  • In the process of combustion, ordinary water is released from it, or rather hot saturated steam, which does not affect either the atmosphere or the surrounding people;
  • As a chemical element, it occurs in every corner of the planet, more than 88 %is the share of all atoms, which means that the resource, relatively speaking, is inexhaustible.

The issue is that hydrogen can only be found in molecular compounds, where it must be emphasized, and it can form bonds with any non-metals.

The majority of established industrial methods (such as gasification, conversion, thermal extension, plasmochemistry, and furnace pyrolysis) necessitate heating the starting material to extremely high temperatures (between 1000 and 6000 °C). Water electrolysis is thus the only option left for use at home.

Device and principle of operation

An electrolyzer, also known as a hydrogen generator, is a unique apparatus that uses a high voltage to split water into its constituent parts.

Inside a distinct galvanic block that is diluted with positive (anode) and negative (cathode) electrodes on the sides, the electrolysis process takes place. Through the conducting catalyst, the current flows between them, effectively "tearing" the water molecule (n2O) into two hydrogen atoms (HH) and one oxygen atom (O).

A theoretical formula, HHO, indicates the resulting non-toxic gas. and is named Gas Brown (Brows), after Yu. Brown, the physicist.

Its opening made it possible to lower the heat of hydrogen burning, enabling the creation of these boilers out of readily available materials.

Nodes, or structural component, of an early hydrogen boiler:

  • electrolyzer, separator, cleaner (optionally – water treatment unit);
  • pipeline with a diameter of Ø 25–32 mm (branching – Ø 20, final – Ø 16);
  • control panel and two -stage protection system in case of gas leakage;
  • heat exchanger and combustion chamber “inherited” from a standard boiler unit.

Certain boilers are constructed in modules. There can only be a maximum of 6 pieces of these modules, and each one must work independently of the others.

The hydrogen boiler’s phased principle of operation (heat formation):

  1. Water (electrolytic aqueous solution) enters the electrolyzer, where, under the influence of electric current, it breaks down into hydrogen atoms and oxygen.
  2. Further, these gases through different channels pass into a chemical separator, where a single -toned hydrogen compound is released from the total mass – explosive gas hho.
  3. After cleansing, it goes into the combustion chamber and there again enters into a catalytic oxidation reaction with oxygen (optionally – catalyst).
  4. This process is accompanied by the release of heat (by -product – water), which heats the heat exchanger and coolant in it, due to which the house is heated.

Experts advise adding a catalyst to the combustion chamber since it is currently not being used for its intended purpose.

The typical granite pebbles most frequently serve as a catalyst. It helps ensure that energy is distributed evenly, and the heat that is produced when Brown gas burns will transfer to the coolant. Granite also protects the heat exchanger from fire, extending its useful life.

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Requirements of water installations

Water’s low electrical conductivity makes direct electrolysis ineffective, so boilers frequently come complete with a water supply unit right away.

These kinds of containers can be filled with nearly any alkali. In actual use, a 20–40% concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with electrical conductivity is used to reach 0.3–0.5 Ohm × cm −1, which is 10–7 times greater than that of demineralized water. Sometimes pentoxide vanadium (v₂o₅) is mixed with the main electrolyte. Although it lessens electrode polarization and makes the electrolyzer easier to use, opinions on whether or not it is safe are still divided.

To reduce electrical resistance, different solutions are added to the water only; they are not used up in the process.

Ion exchange membrane-based firm electrolytes are also produced, wherein hydrogen or oxygen ions supply electrical conductivity.

What is it for and how they are used

Its widespread use is meaningless because the energy costs of releasing pure hydrogen typically outweigh the share of useful heat.

However, there are situations in which a hydrogen boiler can prove to be a very good substitute for heating a private residence, particularly if the owners have access to free resources like energy (solar panels) and water (well, well, water supply from open sources).

Economical and effectiveness in comparison with electric or gas analogues

Benefits don’t need to be discussed if hydrogen heating boilers are used in conjunction with resource purchases or community support.

When viewed objectively, their economy is not even close to that of an electric boiler, which is a squeezing champion, and a gas unit, which surpasses that of his background.

A comparison between conventional boilers and hydrogen fuel boilers:

Type of fuel Energy efficiency
hydrogen 10–11 %
electricity 35–45 %
Methane, propane 82–96 %

You can estimate the energy consumption of these fuel types by knowing that 1 kg of hydrogen burns to release 121 MJ of energy and 1 kg of natural gas releases 32 MJ.

Natural gas has a density of 0.765 kg/m 3, or 1300 liters, and hydrogen has a density of 0.09 kg/m 3, or 11100 liters. We conclude that such a volume can be obtained by burning 22 MD of energy, given the needs of the electrolyzer in the power supply of 1.8 kW per hour necessary for the production of 2040 liters or 0.185 kg of hydrogen.

One meter three or 0.765 kg of natural gas per hour, or 25 MJ of energy, will be needed for every 1 kW of boiler power, which is sufficient to heat 10 m 2 of the space. This is more energy than the electrolyzer produces in the same amount of time. Additionally, the amounts will differ: 1 kW of gas will only cost 0.65 rubles, while hydrogen energy will cost 18.71 rubles.

Although 40 kg of hydrogen will last a 60 m 2 home for just 1.5 days, hydrogen cylinders can be purchased and do not waste water or electricity. Each cylinder costs between 2500-5000 rubles.

Additionally, he is unable to fully compete with an electric boiler, as 1 kW will typically cost 4.76 rubles, nearly four times less than 18.71 rubles. Consequently, it makes more sense to use the energy used to generate hydrogen right away to run electrical appliances.

Reliable diesel boilers that only have a burner that separates them from gas boilers are ideal for heating private homes.

Reviews of household hydrogen plants: advantages and disadvantages

The amount of information regarding the actual use of hydrogen boilers is so small that it must be gathered "bit by bit," but the essential elements can be identified (for example, by looking at the evaluations of actual users who have used hydrogen boilers for heating).

pros Minuses
"Quiet burning" – heating the coolant is carried out due to catalytic reactions, which means there is no open flame Dangerous operation – with an increase in standardized pressure, the risk of depressurization of the seams and the explosion of the boiler is high
High environmental friendliness – during work, neither carbon monoxide, nor bar, or other substances harmful to health are produced Low energy efficiency – As already mentioned, the energy costs of the production of HHO above its heat transfer
Lack of chimney – From the previous paragraph it also follows that such units do not need to remove the withdrawal gases Lack of specialists – There are no certified organizations engaged in the repair of such boilers in the regions
The availability of resources – Formally, for refueling they only need electricity and water (+ replacement of the catalyst once a year) Search for cylinders – If you buy pure hydrogen, then you need to consider that they are also unlikely to be found nearby

It is important to remember that the aforementioned characteristics are found in factory models. Moreover, changing a unit’s composition frequently has no bearing on the economy.

Naturally, homemade hydrogen boilers made from solid fuel or gas predecessors are less expensive than equipment from companies, but it is nearly hard to find a functional boiler without a solid understanding of physics, chemistry, and math. Furthermore, nobody is in charge of maintaining safety.

The best models of household hydrogen heating boilers

Kingkar 3000

The device, which is well-liked in Asian nations, can produce up to 3.0 m 3 of hydrogen per hour while using 1.6 liters of water and 9.0 kW of electricity. It stands out due to the ability to adjust the combustion temperature in a flexible manner by varying the percentage ratio of the fuel mixture’s constituent parts within the 800–3200°C range.

380,000–460,000 rubles is the price.

China’s Kingkar Eco-Technologies (Kingcar Eco-Technology) is the manufacturer.

Star-1.1 + Star 2000 generator

A hydrogen boiler made in Russia functions best when combined with a suitable generator. In addition to consuming only 1.1 liters of water and 300 W + 3 kW of electricity per hour, it can produce up to 2 m 3 fuels in the same amount of time. Has an additional water heating circuit if needed.

Cost: 200,000 – 185,000 + 60 000 – 73,000 rubles.

Manufacturer: Russian company Star Industries (Star Indastastes).

Home Energy Station

Not just a boiler, but an entire third-generation HES III energy station. It uses 1.8 liters of water and 5.0 kW of electricity to produce up to 2.0 m 3 of hydrogen per hour using electrolysis and natural gas. The composition consists of solar panels, a compressor, a cleaning unit, a ritorver, and a gas storage.

Cost: from 310,000 to 450,000 rubles.

Manufacturer: Japan and USA-based Honda and Plug Power (Honda and Plag Power).

Cost Initial installation and maintenance expenses are higher compared to traditional boilers.
Infrastructure Hydrogen infrastructure is not widespread, making it difficult to obtain and store hydrogen.
Efficiency Hydrogen boilers are currently less efficient than natural gas boilers, leading to higher energy consumption.
Carbon emissions Producing hydrogen often involves emitting carbon dioxide, defeating the purpose of reducing carbon emissions.

Although the idea of heating homes with hydrogen boilers has drawn attention due to its potential to lower carbon emissions, there are still a number of real-world obstacles in the way of their widespread adoption.

First off, many places lack the infrastructure needed for the widespread use of hydrogen boilers. The process of converting the current natural gas infrastructure to handle hydrogen is expensive, intricate, and time- and resource-consuming.

Furthermore, the process of producing hydrogen itself frequently involves the release of greenhouse gases, such as steam methane reforming. Hydrogen boilers may not offer as many environmental benefits as they could until renewable energy sources can produce hydrogen at scale with reliability and efficiency.

Furthermore, the cost of hydrogen boilers is currently higher than that of conventional gas or electric boilers. While costs might go down as demand rises and technology develops, many homeowners might be put off by the initial outlay.

Furthermore, careful thought needs to be given to the safety implications of using hydrogen in residential settings. Because hydrogen is extremely flammable, severe safety precautions must be taken to avoid mishaps. It would be crucial to guarantee the safe handling, storage, and operation of hydrogen boilers.

Taking these things into account, domestic hydrogen boilers show promise as a possible way to cut down on carbon emissions from heating, but there are still a lot of issues that need to be resolved before they can be widely adopted. Up until then, the shift to a more sustainable future depends heavily on enhancing the effectiveness of currently installed heating systems and expanding the use of renewable energy sources.

In considering options for heating and insulating your home, it"s essential to weigh the pros and cons of various systems. While hydrogen boilers have been touted as a potential eco-friendly solution, they"re not yet ready for prime time as the primary heating source for most households. Firstly, the infrastructure for producing and distributing hydrogen isn"t widely developed, making it less accessible and more costly than natural gas. Additionally, hydrogen boilers currently lack the efficiency and reliability of traditional gas or electric systems. Furthermore, the environmental benefits of hydrogen can be undermined if it"s produced from fossil fuels rather than renewable sources. While hydrogen technology holds promise for the future, for now, it"s prudent to focus on proven methods like efficient insulation and heating systems to make our homes more sustainable and comfortable.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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