Which brick is better to use for the furnace

After the furnace’s construction is completed, the home’s owner will need to consider a number of issues that will undoubtedly come up during the planning phase. The choice of brick becomes more important if the stove or fireplace is not going to be covered in plaster or tile.

Which type of brick is ideal for the furnace?

If you use low-quality brick, the stove for embroidery will not lay perfectly, so you must approach its acquisition with the utmost care. It is vital to examine the features of the different types and forms of brick in order to determine which one is ideal for use in the furnace. It’s also important to learn how to tell good products from bad ones.

The main types of brick

These days, a large variety of brick types are offered for sale, and they vary from one another in a number of important ways.

  • Based on materials from manufacturing:
  • For use in construction:
  • By the internal structure:

Marking brick

Frequently, you can find out more about the characteristics of the selected brick by marking it with symbols that contain some encrypted information:

  • The size of the brick.
  • Name of the product or the abbreviation of the manufacturer.
  • Production material (silicate, ceramics or shamot).
  • The geometry of brick (thickened – u, hollow – p, with horizontal voids – g, full -bodied bricks are not designated).
  • The brand of strength showing what mechanical exposure can withstand the product, a kilogram per square centimeter (kgf /cm²). Indicated by the symbol m, can lie in the range from M-25 to M-500.
  • Frost resistance, that is, the estimated minimum number of deep freezing cycles and thawing without violation of strength qualities. Indicated by the letter symbol f. The usual rally for a brick-from F-15 to F-75.

When building furnaces and fireplaces, full-bodied stove bricks with the markings M-150—and, ideally, M-200 or M-250—are used.

Ways to determine the quality of brick

You have to be able to assess the material’s quality on your own in addition to adhering to alphanumeric marking. When selecting a brick, it is necessary to employ the following several tried-and-true methods to verify the manufacturer’s good faith:

  • Appearance. For the construction of the furnace, a brick is required that has the correct forms and sizes. High -quality material can have an error in size no more than 2 mm. If the wrong shape or curvature of surfaces or ribs is visually determined, it is better to immediately refuse such products.
  • If a mica -shaped film is found on the surfaces of the brick, then you need to know that this material will not withstand serious temperature changes.
  • Sound check. This method of determining the quality of building materials can be called the most reliable and affordable. If you can not notice small distortions during inspection, then the sound is immediately issued by the marriage.

A precise hammer blow to a high-quality brick should produce a clear, rich sound. Furthermore, there shouldn’t be any signs left at the scene, such as chips or dents. A dull-sounding brick should not be chosen as it indicates that it was not properly dried and solidified or that low-quality raw materials were utilized in its production.

Video: Checking the quality of brick "by ear"

  • Chips. When choosing a brick, you need to purchase one piece from the party and split it in two. By the internal structure to determine the quality is easier than when examining whole bricks. The homogeneity of the material on the chip speaks of its quality. There should be no foreign intransigns in the structure, including pieces of clay. Their availability indicates a violation of products manufacturing technology.

Criteria for choosing on technical characteristics

Since the temperature inside the furnace can occasionally reach extremely high values, refractory—the primary feature of a brick intended for furnace laying—should also have a number of other qualities that should be taken into consideration when purchasing it:

  • Strength is the already mentioned ability to withstand mechanical loads and stresses without deformation and damage.
  • Frost resistance, which was also mentioned above. It would seem that for the furnace installed in a residential building, this parameter is not so important, but still the higher this indicator, the more resistance the brick will show at any temperature differences.
  • Hygroscopicity (water absorption) is a parameter that is indicated in percentage terms: how much moisture in relative expression from its common mass is capable of absorbing the material. This indicator must be taken into account, since not for every part of the structure a brick with a high percentage of water absorption is suitable. For example, for the foundation of the furnace, you should choose a material with the most minimum indicator.
  • The size and mass of bricks are necessary to calculate its quantity for the future structure, and to determine the massiveness, on which the load on the base will depend.
  • The thermal conductivity of the material is very important when choosing a brick for laying furnaces, since a brick is not suitable for them, which does not accumulate well and gives heat. Therefore, the coefficient should be at least 0.61 W/(m² × ° K).

The main types of bricks according to the material of manufacture

Knowing what kinds of building materials are typically used will help you avoid making mistakes when selecting bricks and ensure that you buy the exact one you need to build a furnace.

First, the different kinds of bricks made with basic materials and additives.

Silicate brick

Lime additives and purified sand are used to make silicate brick. Generally, the composition is kneaded in a ratio of 90 by 10%; however, some manufacturers alter the ratio slightly based on the caliber of the ingredients they utilize.

Silica brick samples

In order to produce high-quality products, meticulous manufacturers first clean the sand to remove organic, manganese, and clay-interspersed impurities. They also select lime that has a low calcium oxide content.

Silicate brick prices

Brick silicate

The brick is made under high pressure, so its structure is quite dense. Thanks to the materials from which this type of brick is made, it is more “warm” compared to the ceramic version. Partitions and walls are most often built from silicate brick, but it is practically not used for laying the stove. Firstly, such bricks are very poorly falling on a clay fireproof solution, and secondly, at temperatures, they begin abundantly, literally like a sponge, to absorb moisture, which leads to rapid destruction. The only acceptable exception is the use of silicate bricks for that part of the chimney pipe that is located above the roof. But in this case, the brand of brick in strength should be at least M-150, and in frost resistance-not lower than F-35.

Silicate brick has the following markings:

Name Deciphering the letter marking Brand of strength, kgf/cm² (m) Frost resistance, number of freezing-staging cycles (F)
SOR -100/15 Silicature single private 100 15
SUR-200/35 Silicate thickened private 200 35
SLD-150/35 Silicate front decorative 150 35
SUL-175/50 Silicate thickened front 175 50

Hyperpressed brick

The shells are mined in the development of open quarries, and hyperpressed bricks are used to make shells, limestone, dolomite, and marble.

Bricks produced with the use of hyperpress technology

About 90% of the ingredients in the mixture used to make bricks are these ones, with Portland cement serving as a binder. The amount of water used to knead the solution is crucial to the quality of brick; if manufacturers do not follow the technology, the building material will not meet the required standards.

Bricks must have precise sizes and shapes after being held under intense pressure by the Protz SS of the SS while adhering to a unique temperature and humidity regime. This kind of brick can have a perfectly smooth surface or one that mimics a natural breed, like a "torn stone."

Often, these bricks are painted to resemble real rocks.

Manufacturers often assign high operational characteristics to this material, including as a material for laying or facing the furnace. However, this is not entirely true. Hyperpressed brick is perfect for facing buildings from the outside, but not suitable for furnace work. It is known that limestone does not withstand high temperatures, and besides, when heated, it begins to emit carbon dioxide, and then quickly collapses. If we talk about stoves, then hyperpressed brick can be used for street barbecue furnaces, and for heating buildings indoors such as brick stoves for the house, it is better to choose a fiery, full-bodied chamotopic brick, especially for those parts that are directly in contact with fire .

Ceramic brick

This kind of material is free of unnecessary contaminants like sulfates and marl and is composed of premium clay with a minimum amount of undamned calcite.

The most typical and well-liked kind are ceramic burned bricks.

The clay is cleaned, soaked, and kneaded. It then goes through the molding and drying processes. The final step is firing it in a special furnace at a temperature of 1000 degrees or higher.

The stove’s technology should strictly define high-quality ceramic brick; it cannot be burned or left unfinished. The brick will have a light shade if it doesn’t rain, but the overexposure will be excessively dark.

The brick’s surface becomes semi-meter when fired properly. He produces a rich sound when he hammers the block, and on a chip, the porous structure is uniform and lacks interspersion.

Ceramic brick prices

Ceramic brick

Regretfully, manufacturers have determined that the maximum temperature that contemporary ceramic materials can tolerate is only 700 degrees. Bricks are gradually destroyed over several years in a regular furnace. If it is still decided to use it, chamotis brick must be used at least for the furnace. When selecting bricks for furnaces or fireplaces, it is crucial to consider that they must be able to withstand temperatures of at least 1000 degrees.

There are two subspecies of ceramic brick: front and construction (private). Private is mostly utilized for laying the furnace’s base. Its size can vary slightly, and its structure is not uniform. The external masonry of the stove and fireplace is shaped like a face; it can have a tripartite chamfer or take on various curly shapes.

For the furnaces, full-bodied brick samples are advised by skilled artisans because they can endure high temperatures and hold heat longer. This kind of material has a much longer service life because the brick’s body is uniformly heated.

It is a misconception that vendors will occasionally give out regular ceramic brick for refractory stoves. It is not appropriate for laying the furnace, but it is used to build furnaces, smoke channels, decorative elements, and exterior walls.

Shamotic brick

A unique kind of chamotis clay with high refineries and refractory is used to make chamotis bricks. Since 70% of the mixture for the chamotomed brick is made of clay and the remaining 30% is made up of various natural additives, it is also known as clay earth.

Shamotic brick can withstand very high or very low temperatures.

A well-burned chamotis brick has a golden-soot tint; a poorly burned brick is nearly white in color.

High-quality charcoal is used in the furnace because it perfectly accumulates, retains, and releases heat in addition to withstanding high temperatures. This kind of brick will not need to be repaired for a very long time because of the stove structure. Furthermore, some seasoned stoves spread the stove with a lounger because they believe the heat from the chamotis brick has therapeutic qualities.

The same selection criteria and methods of verification apply to chamotum brick as they do to ceramic. It should be mentioned that the block should break into big chunks rather than tiny crumbs when it splits.

Low-grade chamota brick won’t hold heat; instead, it will actively absorb and retain moisture and evaporatively release it, ultimately causing the material to disintegrate rapidly.

According to GOST, the most popular standard sizes for chamotis brick are 250 × 124 × 65; 230 × 114 × 65; and 230 × 114 × 55 mm.

Shamotnaya brick prices

Shamotic brick

"W" is the marking on this kind of brick. A class of material is indicated by the second letter that comes after it; there can be two, "a" and "b." Their capacity to tolerate the highest temperatures separates them. For instance, "A" can be used without issue at 1400 degrees, and "B" can be used between 1300 and 1350 degrees. The size of the brick is indicated by numbers in addition to letters.

It is safe to say that this material is the greatest choice for installing heating structures, such as fireplaces or stoves, like the pounding of the Swede, when all of its qualities are taken into account.

Types of brick on functionality

Bricks are classified not only by the material used in their manufacture but also by the area in which they are used.

Construction (private) brick

This particular type of brick (GOST 530–2007 from 01. 03.08 g.) can be used to decorate interior and exterior walls with decorative materials and insulation. Since this kind of brick is meant to be used, it lacks aesthetic appeal and might have minor imperfections or chips that don’t compromise the material’s strength.

Common Private Construction Brick

This brick cannot withstand the heat load, so it is not appropriate to lay the furnace’s main warmed-ups. However, it is possible to construct the foundation and departments that are distant from the furnace from it. Nevertheless, this choice is only feasible if the building is plastered or tiled throughout.

Decoration ideas for brick stoves The stove’s straightforward brick construction isn’t to everyone’s taste; many would prefer different external decorations. She spent a good deal of time plastering the furnace with her extra whitewash. Ceramic tile cladding is an additional choice. Following their click on the links, readers will be taken to the relevant pages on our portal.

Facing brick

Facade or front also refers to brick used as cladding or decoration. The material appears flawless with no imperfections at all; GOST allows for a maximum 2 ÷ 3 mm departure in dimensions from the standard.

It’s common practice to apply a textured pattern to the facing brick spawn.

Hyperpressed brick, ceramic, and silicate are examples of this type. Because silicate brick is more hygroscopic than other types, it should first be coated with an antiseptic before being covered in colorless varnish if it is to be used for external decoration.

There are two subspecies of facing brick: shaped and textured.

  • Shaped brick can have different forms. It is used for laying arches, window sills, pillars, as well as for external masonry of individual furnaces elements.

Sometimes you just can’t decorate fireplaces and furnaces without using shaped brick.

The range of shades that this finishing material comes in is another attractive feature.

  • The textured brick can have a perfectly smooth surface, or imitating rocks of rock, natural stone and other relief drawings of natural materials.

Any material can be used to create a textured brick; it can be hyperpressed, silicate, or ceramic. It is advised to use only the ceramic version of these for the furnace.

Textured material on the stove’s exterior

While hyperpressed brick has been around for a while, not many people use it to decorate their furnaces. Therefore, it is impossible to predict with any degree of accuracy how the material will react to high temperatures. Should it be feasible, it should be utilized for the external siding of specific sections of the building that were taken out of the furnace.

Clinker brick

Superior clay refineries are used to make ceramic clinker brick, which is fired until it becomes a uniform mass. Only when clay has a high degree of plasticity and is completely free of chalk salts and alkaline metals will heat treatment improve the density, strength, and resistance to moisture in bricks. Clinker brick, also known as intentionally burned material, is heat-conductive, fire-resistant, and able to tolerate temperatures as high as 1200 degrees.

"Aristocrat" clinker brick among other bricks

Because of these characteristics, it’s used to finish fireplaces and stoves in addition to the exterior and interior walls of homes. Bricks come in an extensive array of hues and tones, making them suitable for any type of interior design.

Because clinker brick is so costly, clinker tiles that perfectly mimic brickwork are more frequently used in furnaces.

It should be mentioned, though, that this material is rather costly and isn’t utilized all that frequently.

Fire -resistant stove brick

Refractory chamotis brick is the best choice for the furnace’s construction. Nevertheless, because it is somewhat expensive, many masters only use it to place it in the furnace chamber.

Stove made of chamotte brick, which resists fire. It is the usual ordinary only for the foundation.

The material warms up quickly and provides heat to the area while perfectly withstanding high temperatures without compromising its structural integrity. When the furnace is set up properly, it acts as a heat-resistant shell that shields ceramic brick from hot coals and covered fires.

Chamotum bricks can also be arranged in a wedge-like pattern.

Not only can the ball-free fire brick be made in the right shape, but it can also be made in the wedge shape; these samples are identified by Sha-25 and Sha-47.

Video: Examples of refractory bricks for stoves and fireplaces

Types of brick on the internal structure

As was already mentioned, bricks can be hollow or full-bodied. The fact that it will be constructed from it will determine which of them to select.

Full brick

This type of brick is ideal for building load-bearing walls because it doesn’t contain any internal voids. A full-bodied chamotis brick for the furnace is ideal for laying, and a ceramic front version is ideal for walls.

I have a lot of voids in silicate whole brick, but they are limited to pores and range from 10 to 12 percent. Clinker products have porosity levels of no more than 5% and 4-5%, respectively, in hyperpressed.

Hollow brick

Bricks that are hollow have a distinct percentage of empty space relative to the product’s mass. Hence, cavities account for 24–30% of the overall volume of silicate brick. It is possible for ceramic building materials to comprise up to 45% of voids in one or more configurations.

Brick with internal cavities is typically not utilized for stoves.

The brick’s internal cavities improve both its sound and thermal insulation, not cause any flaws. The cells produce an air cushion to stop sound from penetrating and delay heat. Extremely beneficial attributes for residential walls, however these are exactly the opposite of what is needed for installing fireplaces and furnaces.

Because the hollow brick fears thermal curses at temperatures with large amplitudes, it is not suited for heating structures. They aid in the development of tensions surrounding the internal voids, which eventually causes their walls to collapse. Furthermore, the low coefficient is not at all advantageous, as was already mentioned.

The choice of ceramic brick by the method of manufacture

One more thing needs to be considered, since the walls of the furnace are typically constructed with ceramic brick. These bricks are produced using two primary technologies: plastic molding and semi-dry pressing.

The characteristics of the technology used in the production of ceramic bricks must be considered.

What kind of material is better suited for work in a furnace?

  • With semi -dry pressing, the prepared clay mass is first brought to the humidity necessary for the process, which is only 8 – 14%, and only then is pressed into forms. After that, raw bricks enter special furnaces, where they are fired. The low humidity of the composition allows you to obtain clear edges of the product and the correct shape, but for the construction of the furnace, a brick made in this way is not suitable . Therefore, when acquiring the material, it is necessary to ask what technology this building material has been produced.
  • With plastic molding, a clay mass is used, which has much greater humidity – 18 ÷ 21%. The manufacturing process takes place by extrusion – pushing plastic mass through special molding mouthpiece of screw presses .

Vacuum and standard installations are used for this. A brick with a full body is pressed using standard machinery without the need for a vacuum, while hollow products are only pressed using vacuum presses.

The formed bricks are then burned after that. Simultaneously, the clay mass’s elevated humidity contributes to the ongoing chemical reactions during firing in addition to providing the composition of plasticity. The clay composition that is created at the same time as the product dries out creates a lot of pores that let the product "breathe" and withstand heat loads with stability.

Many private home owners wonder if old bricks can be used to construct a new heating structure when they need to move an oven that has already been installed.

I must admit that some, but not all, of the old bricks can be used. These include the first and last rows of masonry, as well as the bricks that were located far from the furnace chamber.

The antique stove is meticulously dismantled, and all of the bricks are cleared of soot and solution. They can then be used once more, this time with the smoked side facing inside to prevent any remaining soot from showing through the decorative plaster. Given that the furnace is constructed of old bricks, it will undoubtedly need to have its walls plastered or tiled.

It is not possible to reuse the bricks that were installed in the old furnace.

When buying a new brick, it is preferable to choose reputable manufacturers who have already established a reputation for producing high-quality goods. Some of them are included in these tables. Furthermore, the primary attributes of the ceramic bricks they produce are:

Manufacturer OJSC "Ceramics" g. Vitebsk BKSM CJSC
Appearance of products
Type of brick Full -bodied, private, single Full -bodied, private, single smooth Full, private, single, corrugated "birch"
Size 250 × 120 × 65 250 × 120 × 65 250 × 120 × 65
Frost resistance 25 cycles 25 cycles 25 cycles
Water absorption No more than 8% 9-11% 9-11%
Mark M-200 M 150-200 M 150-200
Weight 3.6-3.8 3.9 3.9
Thermal conductivity W/(m K) 0.615-0.635 0.59 0.59
Manufacturer OJSC "Victory LSR"
Appearance of products
Type of brick Full, facial Full, facial, figured R-60 Full -bodied, facial "moraine oak" Ceramic, chopped, front, full -bodied "legend" Facial ceramic for fireplaces and stoves
Size 250 × 120 × 65
Frost resistance F35 F35 F35 F50 ÷ 75 F75
Water absorption, % 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.0 6.0
Mark M-250 M-250 M-250 M-200 M-200
Mass (kg) 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 ÷ 4.0 4.1
Thermal conductivity W/(m² × ° K) 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.72 0.72
Manufacturer CJSC "Lode"
Appearance of products
Type of brick Janka Brunis R-60
Size 250 × 120 × 65 250 × 120 × 65
Frost resistance F35 F35 F35 F35
Water absorption, % 8 ÷ 9 8 ÷ 9 8 ÷ 9 8 ÷ 9
Mark M-500 M-500 M-500 M-500
Mass (kg) 4.2 4.4 3.4 3.5
Thermal conductivity W/(m² × ° K) 0.65 0.65 0.71 0.71

You should keep in mind that stoves and fireplaces are meant to last for many years when selecting a brick for them. Thus, it is not worth it to obtain just that, concentrating solely on appearance and financial gain. The longevity of the furnace as well as the safety of the occupants of the home will depend on the method used when selecting masonry materials, so the decision must be made carefully. Learn more about heating propylene pipes by clicking the link.

Video: High -quality Kirpich Lode

Afanasyev Evgeny, Chief Editor

The publication’s author 09.09.2015

Selecting the right kind of brick is essential for building a furnace because it will guarantee longevity, heat retention, and safety. The best option is to use refractory bricks, sometimes referred to as fire bricks, since they are made especially to withstand extreme heat and thermal shock. This makes them perfect for both boosting the heating system’s energy efficiency and preserving the intense heat needed in a furnace. Even though they are less expensive, regular clay bricks are not as durable or heat resistant, making them vulnerable to damage in extremely hot weather. This could result in increased maintenance costs and less effective heating.

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Michael Kuznetsov

I love to create beauty and comfort with my own hands. In my articles I share tips on warming the house and repairing with my own hands.

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