Types of boiler room pumps and how to select them

The central component of a building’s heating system, boiler rooms provide warmth and coziness to homes during cold weather. Boiler room pumps are essential to ensuring the system functions well. They facilitate the flow of steam or hot water through the pipes, providing warmth where it is needed. Choosing the appropriate pump is essential for ensuring dependable and efficient operation, regardless of whether you’re installing a new heating system or remodeling an old one.

Boiler room pumps come in a variety of varieties, each intended to fulfill a particular purpose. While some pumps operate with steam systems, others circulate hot water for underfloor heating or radiators throughout a building. The size of the building, the kind of heating system, and the objectives for energy efficiency can all influence the choice of pump. When selecting a pump for your boiler room, being aware of these various types and their uses will help you make a wise choice.

A few important considerations must be made when choosing a boiler room pump. These include the pressure the pump can withstand and the flow rate, which establishes how much water or steam it can move. Energy efficiency is another important consideration because, over time, more energy-efficient pumps can contribute to lower energy expenses. It’s also crucial to take into account the pump’s maintenance needs and compatibility with your current heating system.

This post will discuss the various kinds of boiler room pumps and the things you should know about them. Additionally, we’ll go over some useful advice for selecting the best pump for your heating system. You’ll know more about how these pumps operate and what to consider when choosing one for your house by the end.

Type of Pump Selection Considerations
Centrifugal Pump Ideal for high flow rates; check for proper sizing to avoid energy waste.
Reciprocating Pump Best for high-pressure applications; ensure it"s suitable for your system"s pressure.
Submersible Pump Good for areas with water accumulation; consider the depth and capacity needed.
Circulating Pump Designed for closed-loop systems; ensure it matches the flow requirements.
Gear Pump Suitable for high-viscosity fluids; make sure it"s compatible with the boiler fluid type.

In order for heating systems to circulate hot water or steam effectively, boiler room pumps are necessary. Think about things like head pressure, pump flow rate, and system size when selecting the appropriate pump. Pumps for smaller homes tend to be simpler, but larger homes might need more robust, high-capacity models. The comfort and efficiency of your heating system can be affected by energy efficiency and noise levels, so pay attention to both. If you’re not sure, speak with a heating expert to make sure you choose the right pump for the requirements of your boiler room.

Types of boiler room pumps

Although they are not the only pumping mechanisms in the boiler room, mains units are among the largest.

In boiler installations, the following kinds of pumps are utilized:

  • steam and water feeders;
  • make-up units;
  • raw water;
  • circulation pumps network;
  • The pump can be used to recirculate liquid fuel;
  • fuel oil pumps;
  • condensate.

Every unit is meticulously computed and pre-selected in the pertinent boiler plant design project sections. This is because the machinery used to generate heat energy has especially high reliability requirements.

Every pump’s primary function is to supply and circulate the medium to the distribution point. They also have to work nonstop for an extended amount of time.

Mains pump and its function

Depending on the outside air temperature, this unit must pump the heating medium in the supply pipe at the best head and speed in accordance with a temperature schedule of 150–70 C. The close proximity of the cooling system circuit to its seals is what makes them unique.

Their high availability and performance are additional characteristics. The robust cast iron alloy used to make the unit’s casing and impeller assures the structural integrity of the whole thing.

Many years of operating the units in high-temperature and hydraulic shock environments attests to the design’s reliability. The circulation unit is simple and requires little manual labor for maintenance.

Their straightforward design, extended guaranteed operating life, and ease of installation make them a great choice for thermal systems. The operating head, the heated water’s maximum temperature, and the working medium’s quality are the criteria for choosing the feed unit. They are intended for use with water that has mechanical impurity concentrations no more than 5 mg/l.

Feed pump and its purpose

This group of units only uses steam boilers that have a pressure greater than 0.7 ati. They are used to blow salt water out of the boiler and fill the boiler with water to replace the water used to generate steam.

This is a crucial component because the boiler’s performance is dependent on its dependability. Without water, the heating pipe surfaces will overheat, which will cause the steam generator to explode.

As a result, the installation of at least two feed units, each with a different working surface movement and one equipped with an electric source and one with a steam converter, is required by the requirements of the Boiler Inspection.

Additionally, each device must have a minimum capacity of 150% of the load of boilers operating simultaneously, meaning that it must operate with a sizable reserve.

According to the scheme, if three or more units are installed in the boiler room, the type should be chosen so that, in the event that the most powerful unit stops working, the combined capacity of the remaining pumps would still be able to provide 100% of the nominal boiler load. There are electric piston and centrifugal steam pumps in use.

Raw water pump

This set of pumps is part of the system for treating water with chemicals. Their job is to remove the medium from the raw water tank, treat the water chemically to remove suspended solids and hardness salts, and then transfer the treated water to a deaerator or chemically treated water tank to remove excess oxygen.

Since they run in a closed circuit of the piping system with little to no hydraulic loss, these units are typically low capacity and working pressure.

The CHWO operator can operate it manually, by pressing the "Start" button, or by using the automation system in accordance with the tank’s water level sensors. The choice is based on the chemical water treatment system’s design capacity, accounting for 100% reserve capacity.

The deaerator will not be fed in the event of a raw water unit failure, which is typically sufficient for several hours of boiler operation. The boiler will then be stopped by the safety automation as a result of the deaerator’s low water level.


Large thermal facilities, such as CHPPs, use condensate pumps to pump condensate obtained from the exhaust steam and its supply through a series of low-pressure heaters to deaerators. They are also used in industrial enterprises’ steam heating schemes when it’s necessary to pump the boiler house’s exhaust condensate from consumers.

Since the pressure of the medium in condensate collectors limits their operating pressure, they are characterized by low operating pressures. As a result, they require high anti-cavitation protection because even a slight drop in medium pressure during pumping will cause the medium to boil.

Schemes install condensate pumps with two to four units installed as a reserve. The maximum volume of condensate is used to calculate capacity, and pressure must be high enough to compensate for system resistance between the deaerator and the condensate pipeline while also accounting for hydrostatic head caused by the equipment installation sites’ different elevations: Condensate collector: the deaerator is located at the top, roughly on the second or third floor of the boiler room building, and the bottom installation is at the "zero" mark.

booster pump

This device is intended to replenish water leaks from the main network and serves the boiler house’s heating unit within the heat scheme.

Its capacity is determined when calculating the thermal scheme, based on the volume of the heat supply network and the norms established by SNIP. The resulting capacity is equivalent to twice the network’s normative leakage reserve, or 0.75% of the system’s total water volume.

There should be a minimum of two units with equal capacity, one of which should serve as a backup. Since the pumps are mounted on the return line, their operating pressure needs to be at least 50% higher than the pressure within the line. Boiler house operators can manually control it, or it can be automatically controlled when the network’s low pressure sensor is triggered or when there is a pressure drop in the return water.

How the pumps are controlled

Complex automatics govern pump control in contemporary boiler rooms. This does not, however, rule out the possibility of manual operation by operating staff in emergency situations.

There is backup equipment for process fluid movement in all directions, and the availability of a backup power source is also required.

Large thermal schemes should have a separate electrical supply, such as one from a different transformer substation, and small- and medium-sized devices should have self-sufficient power sources, like diesel generators.

Recently, a frequency converter (pch) system has been used to reduce emergencies, particularly in heat networks caused by hydrostroke. This helps with:

  • energy savings of up to 20%;
  • reducing water consumption, due to the reduction of leakage by up to 5%;
  • reduce the cost of repair of heating systems, because due to the change in frequency, the service life of a group of pumps increases 1.5 times;
  • reduced fuel consumption for heating of network water.

It’s important to take your heating system’s particular requirements into account when selecting a boiler room pump. The right pump for you depends on a number of factors, including the fuel type used, the size of your home, and the desired efficiency. Every kind of pump has advantages and disadvantages, so the key to selecting the right one for your system is knowing what it needs.

Smaller residential systems frequently use circulator pumps because they effectively distribute heated water throughout the structure. For greater power, you might think about installing a booster pump if your house or place of business is larger. On the other hand, a constant speed pump might be the best option if your system needs a constant flow rate. Because they change speed in response to demand, variable speed pumps are an excellent choice if you require flexibility and energy efficiency.

When choosing a pump, bear in mind that durability and quality are crucial considerations. Seek for pumps constructed of robust materials that are able to tolerate the system’s pressure and heat. Furthermore, make sure the pump you select is compatible with your boiler and any current parts to prevent future expensive repairs or replacements.

Finally, if in doubt, think about seeking professional counsel or advice. An expert in insulation and heating can assist you in determining the specific requirements of your system and recommend the best pump. Purchasing a high-quality pump specifically designed for your heating system will guarantee effective operation, reduced energy expenses, and a cozy home all year long.

In conclusion, selecting the ideal boiler room pump requires striking a balance between durability, compatibility, and efficiency. Your heating system will function smoothly and effectively with the correct pump, keeping your house warm and energy expenses under control.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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