Tichelman loop: diagram of the heating system in private two -story and one -story houses, pros and cons of

The insulation and heating systems are essential to maintaining a comfortable and energy-efficient home. The Tichelman loop is one of the most popular heating systems because it works well in both one- and two-story homes. This system is an interesting choice for homeowners trying to maximize their heating setup because it makes use of a special diagram that guarantees effective heat distribution throughout the house.

The Tichelman loop heating system works on a straightforward but clever idea. It entails moving hot water through a system of pipes that are set into the house’s floors or walls. Heat is absorbed by the water from a central source, like a heat pump or boiler, and is then circulated through the pipes to provide warmth to the living areas. This arrangement makes sure that the heat is distributed evenly throughout the house, preventing cold spots and ensuring constant comfort.

The adaptability of the Tichelman loop system is one of its main benefits. This heating system can be customized to fit your needs, regardless of whether you live in a spacious two-story home or a small, cozy one-story home. No matter how the installation is set up, it can be customized to fit the size and design of the house and still perform at its best.

The Tichelman loop heating system also has outstanding energy efficiency. In comparison to conventional heating techniques, this system minimizes heat loss and uses less energy by using water as the heat transfer medium and distributing it evenly throughout the house. Homeowners can thus take advantage of reduced utility costs without sacrificing a cozy interior atmosphere.

The Tichelman loop heating system has certain disadvantages in spite of all of its advantages. The initial installation cost, which can be more than that of traditional heating systems, is one significant issue. The system’s intricacy and the requirement for specialized equipment could result in greater initial costs. However, because of the Tichelman loop’s improved comfort and long-term energy savings, many homeowners consider this investment to be worthwhile.

To sum up, the Tichelman loop heating system presents a strong option for homeowners looking to heat their homes effectively and efficiently. This system uses less energy to maintain constant warmth thanks to its creative design and flexibility in fitting different house layouts. Some people may find the initial cost prohibitive, but for those who value comfort and sustainability above all else, it’s a wise investment in the long run.

Diagram of Tichelman loop heating system Pros and cons
Efficient distribution of heat in two-story houses Pros: Even heat distribution, lower energy bills. Cons: Initial installation cost.
Easy installation in one-story houses Pros: Simple installation process, cost-effective. Cons: Limited to single-story homes.

Is it worth it to mount yourself

As it could already be understood from all of the above, heating “Tichelman loop” has a fairly simple design. In any case, it will not be more difficult to assemble it than an ordinary dead end system. However, it is worth taking into account the fact that the loop of Tichelman is most often mounted in houses of very large area. The assembly of heating systems in such buildings already in itself has a lot of nuances. In addition, the calculation of communications for such an object should be made as accurately as possible. Just take the average values (10 kW of the boiler per 1 m 2 rooms, the diameter of the pipes 26 and 16) in this case will not work. Make the right calculations on the tables and even using the relevant programs on your own will be quite difficult. Therefore, for the design and installation of the Tikhelman loop system, it is still worth hiring specialists in a large house.

The process of installing the system

The boiler must be installed first, and it must be positioned at least 250 cm from the wall of the room in order to complete the Tichalman heating installation. The device’s power is determined by the heated area; a 10 m2 area will require 1000 watts of power.

Following that, you must carry out the following tasks:

  1. Hang sections of radiators. Having determined the right number of elements, mark their future localization – usually they are placed under the windows. Strengthen the radiators with brackets.
  2. Stretch pipes from metal -plastic, along which the feed and return will go. Such material is recommended due to the simplicity of installation and resistance to high temperatures. The diameters should be 20-25 mm (for trunk pipes) and 16 mm (battery connection).
  3. Mount the circulation pump on the return next to the boiler. In front of him you need to place the filtering device. Cut the pump through a bypass with three cranes.
  4. Install an expansion tank and safety parts responsible for the safety of the system.

Using an indirect boiler in the Tichelman loop is the simplest and least expensive way to prepare water. Automated boilers are typically simple to switch on and off with the heating appliance. Otherwise, a binding will need to be made in order to include the boiler.

Heating scheme with Tichelman loop pros and cons of

Private homes with two-pipe heating systems typically have dead-end systems, which means that the heating element warms less in the final radiator because of its greatest distance from the source and its lower coolant duct pressure. Adding regulators to each radiator or expanding the number of radiator sections solves this issue.

The balancing of the system is the second solution utilized in the installation of two-pipe heating systems in private homes.

The tichelman’s plan is very straightforward. The reverse heating system in a traditional two-pipe circuit starts at the last radiator and ends with a boiler, and the feed system starts at the boiler and ends with the last radiator.

The feed, like in the classical scheme, starts with the boiler and ends with the last radiator in the loop of Tichelman. The "return" starts with the first radiator, travels to the last, and then returns to the boiler.

As it happens, the first radiator from the boiler is actually the first on the return and the last at the presentation; the last radiator is actually the latter on the feed, which is the first at the presentation.

In this type of direct-flow system, the coolant flows in a single direction through the supply and reverse heating sections.

Private homes with two-pipe heating systems, installed in accordance with the Tichelman scheme, benefit from both two-pipe and direct-flow single-pipe systems (Leningradka) in addition to several other advantages.

Firstly, we observe that the system is in balance and that there is no need to install expensive adjusting equipment.

In this instance, the coolant duct running through the entire system is the same, and the heat-generating machinery operates at peak efficiency.

The Tichalman scheme’s drawbacks include the requirement for extra pipes, ideally with a large diameter, which adds to the expense.

Furthermore, a private home’s architectural features aren’t always installed by the three-pipe opening heating system. Such a heating system’s installation, for instance, may conflict with doorways and other architectural features.

Consequently, it is not always feasible to arrange the intermediate coolant’s circular movement in a private home’s two-pipe heating system.

It is also observed that horizontal wiring in accordance with the Tichelman scheme is typically employed during the installation of reverse-type return heating systems.

The Tichelman loop’s other features, along with the heating apparatus and heat generators employed, are the same as those of two-pipe analogs.

How to calculate the required diameter of the pipes?

Naturally, determining the appropriate pipe diameter for a given architectural object is a necessary step in the design process of the heating system scheme. The general heat-power indicators are to be calculated in this instance. The installation of the heating system will be challenging if this isn’t done first. Therefore, we compute the power power while figuring out the pipe diameter. It is essential to ascertain the subsequent parameters beforehand:

  • the volume of the house;
  • the difference in temperature indoors and in the environment;
  • The standard heat loss factor, which in turn, directly depends on how insulated is the architectural volume in general.

In relation to the coefficient, there are already predetermined numbers that depend on the degree of thermal insulation of the architectural object. So, if there is minimal thermal insulation or it is completely absent, then the coefficient is 3 or 4. In the case of facing the building with a brick, this indicator varies in the range from 2 to 2.9. Subject to the average level of heat insulation in the premises, a coefficient with a value of the order of 1 is proposed.8. In conclusion, it is worth saying that if the house is insulated with high -quality building materials, as well as on condition that the installation of double -glazed windows and modern doors at all entrances to the building was carried out, the heat loss coefficient is minimal – no more than 0.9.

The coolant’s flow rate through the pipes must be ascertained following the above-described computations. This parameter’s traditional value range is 0.36 to 0.7 meters per second. Analysts refer to this framework as ideal. Generally speaking, pipes with a diameter of about 26 millimeters work best for both the supply and the reverse line. The experts advise using 16-type pipes to connect radiators to the system.

How the dead end system works

As the above figure illustrates, a dead end diagram is a two-pipe heating device in which hot coolant is supplied to each radiator via one pipe (feed), exits the radiators via the other pipe, and enters the boiler via the return. Furthermore, the coolant flows in the opposite direction in this scheme based on the supply and reverse pipes, whereas the liquid flows in a single direction in other (non-single-pipe) schemes. Not only can radiators be connected using this method, but also cast-iron or bimetallic batteries, as well as homemade registers.

Single-pipe heating is unpopular because of its poor heat efficiency and difficult implementation, even though it can be used in accordance with a dead end scheme. The execution of a dead-end single-pipe scheme is depicted below; if the house is built for two or three stories, you will also need to install a Maevsky crane or air vent on each radiator in addition to the standard security group and riser wiring. Because of its high cost, this plan is rarely approved for implementation.

The dead end scheme’s indirect benefit is that it can be used to solve the fluid’s gravitational movement in the pipes as well as for forced coolant circulation during heating. A system with natural circulation is becoming more and more popular for a private home’s dependent heating, so in this scenario, don’t overlook a dead end scheme with the upper wiring of pipes.

In any case, the following is evident for a dead end option with a single- or double-circuit scheme: the more radiators connected to the pipe, the slower all subsequent heating appliances will warm up. Consequently, it is best to split up the system into multiple branches, with no more than 5–6 radiators in each branch. This remedy applies to both the forced and natural coolant movement circuits.

In practice, the advantage of a dead end circuit is obvious: these are simple calculations, a simple level of installation, the minimum number of shut -off valves and fittings, the cheapness of the entire project. If we compare with such popular solutions as a two -pipe system with a passing fluid and with a radial scheme (with a collector), then in terms of compliance with hydraulics, they are clearly better than dead end – the coolant moves faster, there are no oncoming movement, radiators are warmed up evenly and at the same speed. But often it is the economy of the dead end option that wins, especially for heating a house with a small common heated area.

There are several variations in the horizontal scheme with dead end where the central highway is utilized. One way to implement this kind of plan is to install a hidden pipeline in the wall or floor. This type of pipeline is popular among homeowners because it doesn’t require any redesigning, development, or interior renovations.

When installing a hidden pipeline, for example, when starting pipes into a concrete floor screed or into strokes in the walls, the pipes should not be used by steel, but metal -plastic without joints or polymeric with a fixed sleeve or welding to prevent the possibility of leaks. The only problem when laying a hidden pipeline is its correct and beautiful conclusion from the wall or from under the floor. Also, any intersections of the pipes in the hidden version of installation should be avoided. To avoid intersections, they use the cross. When joining the pipe to the radiator using a cross, you can, without a protrusion by the installation plane, go around the pipe of the central line.

The central highway’s implementation of a dead end system creates opportunities for connecting to other schemes, such as heated towel rails or the "warm floor" system, and heating. These are the connected nodes of a feast of assistance to a special mixing module, which is composed of temperature sensors, mixing cranes, and circulation pumps. The main contour’s operation remains unaffected by the addition of additional connected contours due to the mixing module’s ability to decouple connected modules’ operations from the main heating scheme.

Installation algorithm

The process of installing a passing heating system follows a predetermined algorithm, whereby the diameter of the pipes is chosen first, and the installation of a circulatory pump comes last.


The steps listed below are involved in installing the Tichalman heating system:

  1. First, the boiler is installed. In order to place it in the room, the minimum height from floor to ceiling should be 2.5 m, the permissible volume of the room is 8 m³. In order to find out the necessary power of the unit, you need to complete the calculation (examples can be found in specialized reference publications). For heating 10 m² you will need approximately a power of 1 kW.
  2. The next stage is the hanging of the radiator sections. Initially, you need to determine how many radiators you need, then you need to mark their location (usually placed under window openings) and fastening through special brackets.
  3. Next, we move to the stage of extending the highway of a passing heating system. It is best to use metal -plastic pipes that cope well with high temperatures, and will also delight owners with a long service life and ease of installation. The main pipelines (feed and “return”) from 20 to 26 mm and 16 mm to connect radiators.
  4. Installation of the circulation pump. It should be installed on the return pipe as close as possible to the boiler. You need to cut it through a bypass with three taps. A special filter should be in front of the pump. It is not worth neglecting this requirement, since it has a direct impact on the life of the equipment.
  5. Installation of an expansion tank and elements that are responsible for the safety of equipment operation. For a heating system with a passing coolant, exclusively membrane expansion tanks are suitable. Elements of the security group are included in a complete set together with the boiler.

Instead of attaching pipe wiring to each floor independently, the building as a whole is wired. Additionally, it must be installed on each floor along a single circulation pump, leaving the supply and reverse pipelines for each radiator at equal lengths in compliance with the fundamental specifications of the passing two-pipe heating system. Installing a single pump means that in the event of its failure, the entire house’s heating system will be rendered inoperable.

A common riser on two floors with separate tube wiring on each floor is deemed appropriate by many experts. This allows you to determine the required number of sections in batteries as well as the necessary pipe diameters, accounting for the variations in heat loss on each floor.

The system can be set up much more easily and the building’s heating can be optimally balanced with the help of separate passing heating schemes for each floor. Here, though, each floor in the circuit will require the passing crane to be cut. Cranes can be arranged in close proximity to each other, right next to the boiler.

The Tichalman heating scheme’s popularity and widespread use are entirely justified; the many glowing testimonials from happy homeowners who have used the scheme directly attest to this.

Calculation of the diameter of the pipeline

There is a reliable scientific method of calculation. The amount of coolant that flows through the pipe in a given amount of time determines the pipe’s cross section. The formula is used to start the calculation from the distant radiator.

Where: g is the amount of water used per hour to heat the house (kg/h);

Q is the amount of thermal power needed to heat (kW);

C is the water’s heat capacity (4.187 kJ/kg × ° C);

Δt: the difference in temperature between the hot and cold coolant is assumed to be 20 °C.

Next, use the following formula to determine the pipes’ cross section:

Where S is the pipe’s cross-sectional area (M2);

GV stands for volumetric water use (m3/h);

The water speed, or v, ranges from 0.3 to 0.7 m/s.

Choose the inner diameter of the pipeline based on the section that results from it.

You can also use the table showing how the internal diameter of the pipe depends on the thermal load when doing calculations.

The following recommendations can be considered:

  1. With heat loss up to 15 kW (150 m kV.) the areas are suitable pipes of diameters of 20 mm.
  2. With losses from 15 to to 27 kW (up to 250 m kV. area) will require pipes with a diameter of at least 25 mm.

Since it can be challenging for a homeowner to calculate using the provided formulas or hydraulic tables, you can instead base your calculations on the suggested pipe diameters.

To guarantee steady battery operation, the pipeline’s diameter should remain constant throughout. Minimum inner diameter for pipes should be 20 mm.

The following guidelines need to be followed:

  • Put the pipes under the floor covering to avoid high -altitude contours. If this is not possible, then you need to take into account the configuration of the house and strive as much as possible for the same height of the pipe laying.
  • Pipe material – metal -plastic or polypropylene with reinforcing aluminum foil. Such pipes are stronger and will last a long time.
  • Radiators put bimetallic or steel with the lower connection system. Such batteries have higher hydraulic resistance, which balances the system. The capacity of radiators should be the same throughout the area of the house.
  • A balancing crane on the return is put on each battery. The installation of thermostats is desirable.

Hydraulic calculation

This plan necessitates figuring out the circulation pump’s power based on the line’s length.

An important component of the scheme is a hydraulic pump that creates pressure on the feed and vacuum on the way back. The calculation data demonstrate that the values of both parameters are reduced as the distance from the pump in the direction of moving the coolant increases. If you measure the data on a hundred -meter pipe, it turns out that when it is removed by 10 m, the pressure on the supply will be 90% of the face value, and the reverse rarefaction – 5%. With a range of 20 m, these parameters will be 75% and 20%, respectively, and the fall on the radiator element in both cases will be 95%. At a distance of 50-60 m, the numbers are shifted to the middle (45 and 40, 40 and 45, respectively), and the decline on the radiator is 85%. With a further distance from the pump, the proportions continue to change in the direction of increasing the vacuum; A reduction in pressure at a distance of 70 m will be 90%, and by 80 m or more – 95%. Thus, in the middle part of the pressure loss will be slightly greater than at the beginning and end. In proportion to changing indicators allow you to maintain approximately equal pressure drops of radiators.

The system runs without interruption if the radiators are installed correctly, the main pipe’s cross-section is not altered, and their locations are at the same height. Each of the batteries involved will have an identical capacity.

Extending the highway

The following considerations must be made while building a highway or passing heating system:

  • The lifting branch of the highway must be placed below the supply.
  • Pipelines for the supply and removal of heat should be parallel to each other.
  • The expansion tank must be installed above the heating boiler.
  • On the closing radiators, you need to install valves for water descent. It is recommended to install a thermostatic head on each battery to ensure temperature comfort.
  • When laying the highway, right angles are excluded to avoid the occurrence of air plugs in the system.
  • The expansion tank should be installed in a heated room.
  • All diameters of pipes, fittings and cranes must correspond to each other. You can not put pipes of different diameters due to an attempt to save. Water pressure in the system will be disturbed.

Possible complications

There won’t be any issues with the passing scheme’s operation if the main pipe’s cross-section is the same and each battery is situated at the same height. The power of each radiator will be roughly the same.

Individual heating device malfunctions only arise when installation guidelines are broken. For instance, an influx of plastic will occur on the inner section during the soldering of polypropylene pipes, making the diameter. Although it is impossible to go against the suggestions made during the creation of the passing system, it is extremely stable.

All that is required is the fusion of extremely potent radiators with others. The network won’t be able to function normally if this isn’t done. For instance, a heating appliance with a 6 kW capacity is placed in one room, while a 0.5 kW appliance is placed in the other. In order to set up heating under a 6-killer to a 0.5 kW radiator, too much pressure will be applied. Such an issue is being resolved by balancing valves. On low-power devices at the very least, they must be installed.

Assembles easily with your hands. Only these primary factors need to be considered:

  1. 1. Type and cross section.
  2. 2. Binding of radiators, as well as a boiler.
  3. 3. Correct choice of batteries capacity.
  4. 4. Selection of fittings.
  5. 5. Possible problems that may occur during installation.
  6. 6. Ways to create a heating network.

Installation of a circulation pump

Considering that the passing heating system contains ten or more batteries, relying solely on natural circulation is impractical. Without applied force, gravity cannot function. On the return branch close to the boiler is where the circulation pump is situated. Three valves plus a bypass are used to stop the pump. Installing a filter is advised.

Every floor has a circulation pump installed.

Both one-story and two-story homes have the passing heating system installed. When installing, you need to consider a few details in two-story buildings:

  • The circulation pump is installed on each floor. If there is a breakdown within the same floor, the other heating will work fully.
  • For each floor, installation is recommended according to a separate scheme.

Factors of the appropriateness of choice

There is a vast array of modern heating systems available in the domestic and international construction industry markets. All of the helpful suggestions, though, are advised to be used in certain particular circumstances. When examining the Tichelman loop system in particular, installing it makes sense if and when

  • You have a large house, the organization of heating in which involves the installation of a large number of batteries;
  • There is the possibility of laying pipes exclusively around the perimeter of rooms;
  • You are ready to spend a relatively large amount of finance on the organization of heating in the house.

The conventional minimum list of requirements, which was previously submitted, states that selecting the "Potka" is reasonable and rational. Therefore, the passing scheme will work best in your home if the circular pump’s operation is dictated by the influence of balancing and there is no need to install a three-pipe system with large loops.

Diagram showing the coolant’s dead end movement in the valve setup

The Tichelman loop system is an important concept to comprehend when analyzing the insulation and heating of homes. The operation of the heating system in both one-story and two-story homes is shown in this diagram. To put it simply, radiant heat is produced by hot water circulated through pipes inserted into the floors from a central source. Even heat distribution and energy efficiency are two benefits of the system, especially with the introduction of smart thermostats and other more modern technologies. However, there are disadvantages as well, such as possible maintenance problems and installation expenses. Making educated decisions regarding their heating systems can help homeowners ensure long-term comfort and cost-effectiveness by being aware of these benefits and drawbacks.

Myths around the device

Uncertain reviews and myths about the first option are likely to fill the network space if you are ever forced to choose between such systems for heating a house as a passing and dead end. In the meantime, experience demonstrates that the majority of pseudo-professional publications lack any real-world application and are solely theoretical in nature. Experts have thus determined the three most widespread misconceptions that undermine the splendor of heating with the coolant’s passing movement:

  • There is no need for balancing such a system, and therefore, on the heating device in its design, it is not necessary to install a balancing type;
  • In this design, you can specially reduce both the diameter and the length of the pipeline.
  • In each circulation ring there is the same hydraulic resistance.

It is important to remember that there are specific state requirements and specialized textbooks you can use to quickly confirm the above myths are false.

Due to its simplicity and efficiency, the Tichelman loop heating system has become more and more popular, particularly in private one- and two-story homes. This system heats the entire house evenly and consistently by running hot water through a closed loop of pipes continuously.

The Tichelman loop’s ability to keep all rooms at a constant temperature, preventing cold spots and guaranteeing comfort throughout the house, is one of its main benefits. Larger homes with multiple floors, where traditional heating systems might find it difficult to distribute heat evenly, would benefit most from this.

The Tichelman loop is renowned for its energy efficiency as well. In comparison to other heating systems, it reduces energy waste and can result in lower heating costs by using a closed-loop system and circulating hot water only when needed.

The Tichelman loop is also reasonably simple to install and maintain due to its simplicity. Installing a system with fewer parts and simpler piping configurations can save money, and maintenance needs are usually low.

However, the Tichelman loop has disadvantages just like any other heating system. One possible problem is the possibility of pipe leaks, which, if left unchecked, could result in water damage. This risk can be reduced with routine maintenance and inspections.

The initial installation cost, which might be more than for conventional heating systems, is another factor to take into account. Homeowners should consider the Tichelman loop’s comfort advantages and long-term energy savings before making the initial investment.

To sum up, the Tichelman loop provides a practical and economical heating option for individual one- and two-story homes. For homeowners hoping to cut heating expenses and increase comfort, its energy efficiency and capacity to deliver steady, even heating make it a desirable choice. Although there are a few possible disadvantages, the Tichelman loop’s overall advantages make it an appealing option for a lot of homes.

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