The power of the circulation pump for heating a private house

For homeowners, having a warm and inviting living area during the colder months is paramount. The circulation pump is one of the many parts of a heating system that is essential to providing heat for a private home. Optimizing heating efficiency and preserving the perfect indoor climate require an understanding of the capabilities and operation of this crucial appliance.

A home’s heating system is essentially powered by a circulation pump, which actively moves hot water or steam from the boiler or furnace to baseboards, radiators, and underfloor heating systems. Even on the coldest of days, a comfortable atmosphere is created throughout the house thanks to this constant flow of heated fluid that guarantees constant warmth in every corner.

Deciding which size or power of circulation pump is best for a private residence’s needs is one of the most important factors to take into account. The pump’s capacity to effectively circulate steam or heated water throughout the system is directly impacted by its power. Insufficient heating could be caused by a pump that is too weak, and higher utility bills could result from an excessively powerful pump that uses unnecessary energy.

The size of the home, the kind and quantity of heating elements, the length and complexity of the plumbing system, and the intended temperature differential between the heating system’s input and output are all taken into consideration when determining the optimal power of the circulation pump. Homeowners can choose a circulation pump with the right power rating to get the best performance and energy savings by precisely measuring these factors.

Furthermore, developments in pump technology have produced energy-efficient models that reduce electricity usage without sacrificing heating efficiency. Purchasing a contemporary, high-efficiency circulation pump fits with the growing trend of eco-friendly living practices by lowering energy expenses and promoting a more sustainable home.

The circulation pump is essential to the effective distribution of hot water throughout the heating system when heating a private residence. To balance efficiency and energy usage, the circulation pump’s power must be selected carefully. While too little power may result in uncomfortable and insufficient heating, too much power can cause wasteful energy use and higher expenses. When choosing the right power for the circulation pump, one should take into account various factors, including the size of the home, the length and complexity of the plumbing system, and the kind of underfloor heating or radiators. Homeowners can attain both comfortable warmth and energy efficiency in their dwellings by striking the right balance.

Purpose and types

As mentioned previously, the circulation pump’s primary function is to guarantee that the coolant moves through the pipes at the proper speed. The design capacity for mandatory circulation systems will only be reached in these circumstances. Although it is not its purpose, the system’s circulation causes a slight increase in pressure while it is operating. This is more of a byproduct. There are specific increasing pumps that raise the system’s pressure.

Wet rotor circulation water pumps are more widely used.

Circulation pumps come in two varieties: wet and dry rotor models. Though they are not designed alike, they do some functions. To select the type of circulation pump you wish to install, you must be aware of its benefits and drawbacks.

With a dry rotor

Derived its name from the characteristics of the design. The rotor, which separates multiple sealing rings from the liquid, is enclosed in an airtight case and is the only part of the impeller submerged in coolant.

The dry rotor circulation pump, which only has the impeller submerged in water

The following characteristics of these devices:

  • Have a high efficiency – about 80%. And this is their main plus.
  • Require regular service. During operation, solid particles contained in the coolant fall on the sealing rings, violating the tightness. To prevent depressurization and it is necessary to maintain.
  • Operating service life is about 3 years.
  • During work, they publish a high noise level.

Installing such a set of features in residential heating systems is not highly recommended. Their primary benefit is their high efficiency, which results in less electricity being used. Consequently, circulation pumps with a dry rotor are more cost-effective and are typically utilized in large networks.

With a wet rotor

As the name suggests, the rotor and impeller of this kind of equipment are both submerged in liquid. The starter and other electric components are protected by a metal casing with a sealed glass.

Only the electric portion of the pump’s device with a wet rotor is dry.

The characteristics of this kind of equipment are as follows:

  • Efficiency about 50%. Not the best indicator, but for small private heating systems this is uncritical.
  • Service is not required.
  • The service life is 5-10 years, depending on the brand, mode of operation and the condition of the coolant.
  • During work are almost not heard.

It is easy to select a circulation pump by type based on the aforementioned characteristics. Wet rotor pumps are preferred for use in apartments and private homes.

How to choose a circulation pump

Every circulation pump has a unique set of technical specs. They are chosen according to the specific requirements of every system.

We select the technical characteristics

First, let’s address the choice of technical attributes. There are many formulas for professional calculations, but average standards can be used when choosing a pump for a private home or apartment’s heating system:

  • The performance of the pump is taken equal to the power of the installed heating boiler. That is, if the boiler costs 35 kW, then the pump is selected with a capacity of 35 l/min.
  • Next, you need to calculate the required pressure (lift height). On average, it is believed that for 10 meters of the pipeline there should be a pressure of the pump 0.6 m. To determine which pressure of the circulation pump is needed for the system, it is necessary to divide its total length by 10 and multiply by 0.6 m/s. For example, if the total length of the heating system, for example, 80 m, the required pressure will be: 0.6 m * 8 = 4.2 m. That is, the technical specifications of the pressure should not be less.
  • It is better if the speed of the coolant in the system can change. This will make it possible to adjust the heat transfer depending on the temperature on the street: the higher the speed, the more heat is tolerated. Therefore, it is better to choose models that can work at several speeds. But in any case, the speed of the coolant should not exceed 1.6 m/s. This is the threshold of silent operation of the heating system, if the coolant is overcame faster, noise will appear.
  • The electrical power of the circulation pump is selected depending on the diameter of the pipes. The smaller the cross section of the pipe, the greater the hydraulic resistance it has. That is, for systems diluted by small diameter pipes, more powerful pumps are required.
  • Choose a circulation pump for heating following these rules is not difficult. The calculations are elementary. But I must say that these numbers are average. If your house in some paragraph is very different from the "medium indicators", you need to make amendments either towards the increase, or in the direction of decreasing technical characteristics. For example, you have well -insulated the house, the power of the previously bought boiler turned out to be excess. In this case, it makes sense to take a pump with less performance. In the reverse situation – in the house in strong cold chilly – you can put a more productive circulation. He will temporarily solve the problem (in the future it is necessary to either insulate or change the boiler).

    Selection of the model

    Consider the schedule along with the pump’s pressure characteristic when selecting a particular model. You must locate the intersection of the pressure and performance values on the graph. It ought to be situated in the curve’s middle third. Pick the model whose schedule is closer if it does not fall on any of the curves, which are typically several and represent various models. Pick the less productive option (the one below) if the point is in the middle.

    The middle portion of the schedule should contain the working point.

    What else to pay attention to

    There are a few more points in the technical specifications of circulation pumps that require consideration. The pumped environment’s acceptable temperature is the first. That is, the coolant’s temperature. This indicator ranges from +110 °C to +130 °C in high-quality products. Cheap ones can be as low as 90 °C (actually closer to 70–80 °C). The temperature at which the coolant can be warmed up is crucial if you decide to install a solid fuel boiler, but it’s not mandatory if your system is built for low temperatures.

    First, you need to select a circulation pump based on its features.

    It is important to be aware of the highest pressure at which the pump is capable of operating. It is rarely higher than 3–4 atm (for a two-story house) in a private home’s heating system; 1.5–2 atm is typical. Nevertheless, keep an eye on this signal.

    The source material used to make the case is something else to consider. Better than cast iron, but less expensive thanks to a unique heat-resistant plastic.

    The kind and dimensions of the link. There could be flange or thread joints on the circulation pump. The appropriate adapters are chosen for the thread, which is both external and internal. G1, G2, and G3/4 are examples of connecting dimensions.

    It is also important to consider whether protection is available. There might be defense against dryness. It is highly desirable in circulation pumps with a wet rotor because the moving environment cools the engine. If there is water, the motor fails due to overheating.

    Overheating protection is an additional form of security. The pump stops when the motor reaches a critical temperature, causing the tromemorle to cut off the power. The equipment’s lifespan will be increased by these two features.

    Manufacturers and prices

    The method for selecting circulation pump manufacturers is the same as it is for choosing any other technological arc. It is preferable to use European manufacturers’ equipment, which has been gaining popularity for a while. The Grundfos (Golo), Dab (Dub), and Willo circulation pumps (Villo) are the most dependable in this industry. There are other reputable brands, but you must read consumer reviews.

    Calculation of the circulation pump for the heating system of a private house

    The selection of the circulation pump is based on a number of factors, the most crucial of which being its technical attributes, specifically its power.

    Because of the coolant’s unique properties, it moves as a result of common physical phenomena, such as warm water rising to push cold water downward. However, the heat flow’s inherent power isn’t always sufficient, which eventually lowers the heating system’s overall efficiency. A circulation pump needs to be installed on the pipeline to guarantee that water flows through the system at a specific speed all the time.

    This low-power device, which runs on a 220 V power network, is intended to circulate water throughout the closed heating system by pumping it out of the pipeline. You must comprehend the technical specifications of the equipment in order to select the appropriate one.

    Technical specifications

    Three indicators comprise the primary ones:

    Technical documentation for the pump reflects these parameters, so it’s critical to accurately interpret them and perform the required calculations.


    Line of circulation pumps in Photo 1

    The structure of the entire heating system pump line is the same. The primary distinction is the rotor operation principle, which has an impact on the system’s functionality and quality of work. Thus, two primary groups are identified:

    The type of rotor determines the type of circulation pump: one that is in contact with the coolant (wet) and one that is not (dry).

    The rotor is said to be totally isolated from the coolant according to the dry principle of operation. These kinds of pumps fall into the category of industrial samples, which are stronger but also noisier.

    When selecting such equipment, a separate, isolated room must be provided.

    The presence of clamping ceramic rings to protect the electric motor is the primary distinction between the "wet" and "dry" rotors. The smallest possible layer of water serves as a lubricant, and the rings are composed of stainless steel. The rings are tightly fitted to one another to create a spring, which gets compressed more force as the elements deteriorate and tightens the rings.

    The "wet" type of rotor allows the rotor to be placed directly in the coolant, and a unique hermetic metal glass ensures that the electric motor is consistently shielded from moisture infiltration.

    Although this kind of pump is nearly silent, its low efficiency should be sufficient to heat even large homes if the right equipment is chosen.

    The following can be listed as some of the primary benefits of such equipment:

    • compact dimensions;
    • Absolutely silent work;
    • The lack of the need for maintenance due to the fact that the coolant itself acts as a cooling element and at the same time lubricant.

    Calculation of the power of the pump with forced circulation

    There are multiple methods for figuring out the pump’s power for a given heating system.

    A specialist should perform the calculations and draw up the calculations based on different parameters. They will accurately determine the required power and provide recommendations for the type of boiler.

    Compliance of SNiP

    It goes without saying that there are standard parameters that must be met in order to determine how much heat is appropriate for a given area. Boilers and pumps are installed in multistory buildings, production facilities, and public buildings based on these parameters.

    Sanitary regulations governing the provision of warmth in residential buildings must also be followed; this information can be used to estimate the pump’s power.

    Therefore, the next amount of heat should be released in accordance with SNiP 2.04.07-86 per square meter of space at an outside temperature of -25 to 30 0 C.

    Specifications of the object (floor count)

    It suffices to adjust the room’s overall area to the matching indicator in order to calculate the necessary amount.

    When selecting a universal pump, this type of calculation is warranted since the pump’s automatic control system verifies the features of the design and configures the functionalities.

    Photo 2: Undone thermal power table for different rooms

    Calculation of the operating capacity according to the heating system

    Determining the circulation pump’s power based on the boiler’s features and capacities is far more effective. The following formula ought to serve as a guide in this situation:

    • N is the calculated power of the pump;
    • NTo – power of boiler equipment;
    • T1-T2-temperature difference in the opposite and supply contours. As a rule, this indicator is up to 15 0 s.

    The power calculation is also impacted by the hydraulic resistance in the pipeline, so the corresponding coefficient—a decreasing or increasing initial value—is applied. The coolant’s primary resistance is found in the pipe’s indirect sections or in connecting parts.

    For example, hydraulic resistance can reach 1.5 cm/m even in a straight section of the pipe. You can use the following indicators to independently calculate the resistance throughout the pipeline based on this indicator:

    • Fiting – 30%
    • Court reinforcement, various cranes – 70%
    • Three -way mixer – 20%
    • turns, bounces – 10%

    The increase in resistance is independent of the building’s condition. The principle of communicating vessels, which states that there are two pillars with an equal amount of liquid in the system, governs how coolant moves through the pipes.

    Video 1: Diameters, pump, and heating calculation

    Only when the entire heating system is installed in the customer’s presence or when a trigger scheme for pipe wiring is in place can the total resistance be computed. Based on the total area of the room, it is preferable to use the universal type of pump if such a scheme is absent or if a portion of the pipeline is hidden.

    Following the completion of the necessary computations, you are able to select a pump from a catalog that is provided by each equipment manufacturer. At the same time, take note of the fact that the heating system’s maximum load calculation always indicates all of the technical parameters of the circulation pumps. The unit whose power is an order of magnitude less is the one you should select. In this scenario, savings on acquisition, ongoing upkeep, and electricity costs will all be achievable.

    The circulation pump’s working parameter, like that of any other piece of equipment, is consistently less than the estimated value.

    What to pay attention to when installing?

    Installing a circulation pump is shown in Photo 3.

    A marking on the aggregate’s body itself will indicate the precise direction in which all circulation pumps must pass the coolant.

    1. Installation for an expansion tank in a reverse outline.

    This is the essential parameter, adhering to which will guarantee the pump’s long-term, effective operation. The rubberized gaskets and seals that are installed on all devices become deformed and destroyed when exposed to high temperatures. If the pump is installed on the supply pipe, where the coolant temperature is consistently higher, the pump will malfunction by the end of the season.

    Make sure the pump is mounted on the reverse pipe, which is where the pre-cooled coolant enters.

    1. If there is an existing heating system with natural circulation of the coolant, there is no need to redo the entire wiring. It is enough to install a jumper between the feeding and the return (bypass) and cut the circulation pump into it.

    Conclusion, reviews, tips

    Long-term, comfortable heating system operation can only be ensured by properly calculating the pump’s power and installing it. The purpose of the circulation pump’s design is to maintain uniform water pressure and speed throughout the system.

    However, keep in mind that the pump installation makes the system energy-dependent, meaning that the room won’t heat up if there is no voltage in the network. The 12-volt circulation pump, which runs on a battery, will be the means of escape from this predicament. The system will boot up and continue to function with this backup power source until the network voltage shows up.

    How to choose a pump for heating: Basic rules

    A circulation pump is necessary for the heating system to adequately heat private residences. This device allows the coolant to be continuously circulated through the pipes. The space heats up rapidly and uniformly. The house’s heating is unevenly distributed depending on how quickly the coolant moves. As a result, you should handle decisions like choosing a circulation pump for a heating system with caution.

    The type of fuel required for the heating boiler has no bearing on the circulation pump choice for heating.

    1 Why do you need a pump in the heating circuit?

    The fluid in the heating circuit cannot circulate naturally because it is always overcoming resistance, which slows down its progress. As a result, the liquid must be heated again and is sent back to the boiler to cool. This incurs additional expenses.

    The CTP’s hot water system schematic diagram

    The issue can only be partially resolved by using smaller pipes, but rebuilding would be far more expensive than using a circulation pump.

    The liquid is forced to circulate more quickly along the system’s contour and return to the boiler at a slightly warmer temperature. As a result, fuel consumption costs are decreased.

    Coolant must be used in large volumes in systems without a pump in order to maintain the required temperature. You will need both radiators with wide blades and pipes with a large diameter to accomplish this.

    There is no need for a significant amount of fluid during forced circulation. Pipes with a smaller diameter are therefore appropriate. Additionally, this saves on materials.

    This heating method’s drawback is its reliance on energy. Electric current powers the gadget. to the menu

    1.1 structure

    The majority of this design’s devices:

    • the case to which the snail is attached;
    • The system pipes are connected to the snail;
    • The case has an electric motor with terminals and controls;
    • Rotor with the impeller, thanks to which water movement occurs.

    The discharge at the device’s input and the intended pressure at the output are achieved while the pump is operating. to the menu

    2 types of devices

    The market offers a sizable assortment of circulation pumps. How should a heating pump be selected? Wet and dry rotor circulation pumps are the most widely used types of pumps. to the menu

    2.1 mechanism with wet rotor

    A working wheel and rotor are submerged in coolant in a device with a wet rotor. This prevents the device from overheating by aiding in the cooling of the pump engine. The materials used to make these details are resistant to corrosion.

    Features of certain circulation pump models

    Because they are inefficient, there aren’t many of these kinds of devices. Benefits of this species:

    • low noise;
    • availability;
    • does not need regular maintenance.

    Small homes are heated by devices with wet rotors. In situations where the volume of liquid in the system is small, you can select a circulation pump for heating this type due to the pump’s modest power. to the menu

    2.2 device with a dry rotor

    This kind of device has an impeller submerged in the coolant, and sealed gaskets shield the rotor from the liquid.

    The high power of the pump will be advantageous when choosing it for this kind of heating system. It is utilized in rooms with a lot of space because of this. The efficiency of the device is fairly high.

    But there are drawbacks to a pump with a dry rotor as well:

    • vibration and noise level are quite high;
    • As a result of rapid use of lubrication, it needs regular service.

    3 what to pay attention to?

    You should decide what qualities the heating system’s pump should have before moving further with the selection. What is the private home heating system and what factors should be considered when selecting the best circulation pump for a heating system?

    • total heated area of the room;
    • the necessary level of temperature in the building;
    • fuel type;
    • the number of floors in the room;
    • What functionality and type of heating boiler has;
    • fluid pressure in the circuit and the temperature at the output and entrance of the boiler.
    1. It is built directly into the boiler – observed in many modern models.
    2. The pump is welded as a separate part of the heating circuit. It is used more often in old models of heating boilers. Water circulation in systems occurred due to the difference in density and mass of cold and hot coolant. Pipes in such systems were located under the slope. The introduction of a circulation pump into such a system increases the speed of movement of the coolant and, therefore, the premises are heated faster.

    The unique characteristics of the heating system are also taken into consideration when choosing a pump.

    1. Type of heating system. For networks with natural circulation, it is recommended to install a device with a wet rotor with a capacity of up to 50-60 watts. If the circulation is forced, you need a more powerful unit up to 80 watts, if there is a slope, and up to 90 watts without a slope.
    2. Heated area and volume of coolant. The higher these parameters, the more powerful the mechanism is necessary. To calculate the exact power of the apparatus, it is recommended to contact a henchind.
    3. Limit on the maximum noise level. For heating a private house, where a separate room for the pump is not provided at a sufficient distance from living rooms, it is not recommended to choose devices with a dry rotor.
    4. Technical condition of the heating system. Any pump is suitable for the new heating system. For systems whose age is 15-20 years or more, it is necessary to take into account the presence of impurities in the liquid. 25-35%are added to the calculated power, especially when choosing an apparatus with a wet engine. However, for old networks, a device with a dry rotor is best suited, because it is less sensitive to the quality of the liquid.
    House Size Recommended Pump Power
    Small (up to 1,000 sq ft) 1/25 to 1/12 horsepower
    Medium (1,000 – 2,000 sq ft) 1/12 to 1/8 horsepower
    Large (2,000+ sq ft) 1/8 to 1/6 horsepower

    Selecting the appropriate circulation pump for your home heating system is essential to guaranteeing effective heat distribution and reducing energy expenditures. In order to maximize energy consumption and maintain a comfortable indoor temperature, the circulation pump’s power is crucial.

    It’s important to take your home’s size, the type of heating system you have, and the plumbing layout into account when choosing a circulation pump. While a pump that is too weak might find it difficult to move enough hot water around the house, one that is too powerful might waste energy.

    When it comes to the circulation pump’s power, efficiency is everything. Purchasing a pump with variable speed settings allows homeowners to customize the flow rate to meet their unique heating requirements and save energy during off-peak hours.

    Furthermore, contemporary circulation pumps frequently have cutting-edge features like energy-saving modes and automated temperature sensors. By consuming less energy, these features not only improve comfort but also help save money over the long run.

    Maintaining your circulation pump at optimal performance requires routine maintenance. Regularly inspecting the pump for indications of wear and tear, such as odd noises or leaks, can help save expensive repairs and extend its lifespan.

    In conclusion, the effectiveness and efficiency of your home heating system are greatly influenced by the circulation pump’s power. Through appropriate pump sizing, the selection of energy-efficient models, and routine maintenance, homeowners can maintain a comfortable indoor environment while controlling energy expenses.

    Video on the topic

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