The parameters of the heating system of the heating system of an apartment building

For any homeowner or renter, having a warm and inviting home during the winter months is of utmost importance. An effective and well-thought-out heating system is essential to reaching this aim. In apartment buildings, where several units share a common heating system, it becomes essential for building managers and residents to comprehend the heating system’s parameters.

Apartment buildings’ complex networks of pipes, boilers, radiators, and control devices make up their heating systems. Numerous factors, such as the building’s size, insulation levels, climate considerations, and the type of heating fuel used, affect these systems’ efficacy and efficiency. Every parameter is important in figuring out how well the heating system works overall and how economical it is.

The boiler’s or heating source’s heat output capacity is one of the most important factors to take into account. This is a reference to the quantity of thermal energy that the system is able to produce and disperse throughout the structure. Even in the most severe weather, there must be enough heat output to keep interior temperatures comfortable. Insufficient heat output can cause heating inconsistencies, cold spots, and eventually discomfort in the residents.

The heating system’s distribution efficiency is equally significant. This includes the way the network of pipes is laid out and designed, how the pipes are insulated, and how well each radiator or heating unit works. A well-thought-out distribution system makes sure that heat is dispersed uniformly throughout the building, reducing energy waste and enhancing occupant comfort.

The heating system’s control mechanism is another important factor. Smart controls or programmable thermostats are common in modern heating systems, enabling precise temperature control and scheduling. In addition to improving comfort, these controls help save energy because they let residents modify the heating according to their own requirements and occupancy patterns.

Parameter Description
Boiler type The type of boiler used for heating, such as gas, electric, or oil.
Heating capacity The amount of heat the system can generate to warm the building.
Energy efficiency A measure of how effectively the heating system converts energy into heat.
Distribution method How the heat is distributed throughout the building, such as radiators, underfloor heating, or air vents.

Features of the heating systems of a multi -storey building: an overview of pipelines, coolant parameters, autonomous and centralized heat supply

Professional heating systems require careful consideration of all external and internal factors during the design process. This is particularly valid for apartment building heat supply systems. What constitutes a multi-story building’s special heating system, including pipes, pressure, and diagrams? You must take care of the arrangement’s specifics first.

Features of heat supply of multi -storey buildings

The heating system of a multi-story structure

A multi-story building’s autonomous heating system should only be able to deliver coolant to each customer on time while maintaining the coolant’s technical specifications (temperature and pressure). The building must have a single distribution unit that can be regulated in order to accomplish this. Boilers are used in conjunction with it in autonomous systems.

An multi-story building’s heating system is distinguished by the way it is organized. It must include the following essential elements:

  • Distribution node. With its help, hot water is supplied along the highways;
  • Pipelines. They are designed to transport the coolant to separate rooms and the premises of the house. Depending on the method of organization, there is a single -pipe or two -pipe heating system of a multi -storey building;
  • Control and regulating equipment. Its function is a change in the characteristics of the coolant depending on external and internal factors, as well as its qualitative and quantitative accounting.

In reality, a residential multi-story building’s heating scheme is made up of multiple documents, including the calculated portion in addition to the drawings. Compiling it involves special design bureaus adhering to the most recent regulatory standards.

An essential component of a multi-story building is the heating system. When passing through the facility or carrying out planned inspections, its quality is examined. The management company bears responsibility for this.

Pipe wiring in a multi -storey building

Types of pipes found in buildings with multiple stories

You must be aware of the heat supply’s primary operating parameters for it to function normally. What is the ideal temperature regime and pressure in the heating system of a multi-story building? The following values are recommended for these characteristics based on the standards:

  • Pressure. For buildings up to 5 floors-2-4 atm. If the number of floors is nine-5-7 atm. The difference lies in the pressure of hot water to transport it to the upper levels of the house;
  • Temperature. It can vary from +18 ° C to +22 ° C. This applies only to residential premises. On stairwells and non -residential rooms, a decrease is allowed to +15 ° C.

Once the ideal parameter values have been established, you can begin selecting the heating wiring for a multi-story building.

It primarily depends on the building’s area, number of stories, and total system power. Another factor considered is the house’s level of thermal insulation.

Up to 10% of the normative pressure difference can be found in the pipes between the first and ninth floors. This is typical for a building with multiple stories.

One -pipe heating wiring

Kinds of heating using a single pipe

This is a cost-effective solution for setting up the building’s thermal supply in a space that is reasonably large. Khrushchevs used a massive one-pipe heating system of a multi-story building for the first time. Its basic working principle involves connecting consumers to multiple distribution risers.

The pipes are one way that the coolant is supplied. The lack of feedback lowers the cost of the system and makes installation much simpler. On the other hand, a multi-story building’s Leningrad heating system has a number of drawbacks:

  • Uneven heating of the room depending on the remoteness of the hot water fence (boiler or collector node). T.e. There are options when the consumer has previously connected according to the scheme, the batteries will be hot than the next in the chain;
  • Problems with adjusting the degree of heating of radiators. To do this, on each radiator you need to make a bypass;
  • Complex balancing of a single -pipe heating system of a multi -storey building. It is carried out using thermostat and shut -off valves. In this case, the system failure is possible even with a slight change in the input parameters – temperature or pressure.

It is currently very uncommon to install a single-pipe heating system in a multi-story building when building a new structure. This is because it is challenging to account for the coolant separately in each separate apartment. Thus, in the Khrushchev project’s residential buildings, an apartment may have up to five distribution risers. An energy consumption meter needs to be installed for each of them.

An accurate estimate for heating a multi-story building with a single-pipe system should account for both the cost of upkeep and pipeline modernization, which involves swapping out individual parts for more efficient ones.

Two -pipe heating wiring

Diagram of a two-pipe hot water distribution system

It is ideal to install a two-pipe heating system in a multi-story building to maximize productivity. It has distribution risers as well, but the coolant enters the return pipe after going through the radiator.

The primary distinction lies in the existence of an additional circuit that serves as the reverse line. For additional heating, cooled water must be gathered and transported to the heat station or boiler. A multi-story building of this kind has a number of heating system features that must be considered during design and operation:

  • The possibility of adjusting the temperature level in individual apartments and throughout the highway in general. To do this, it is necessary to install mixing nodes;
  • To carry out repairs or preventive work, you do not need to turn off the entire system, as in the Leningrad heating scheme of a multi -storey building. It is enough to block the intake into a separate heating circuit using locking reinforcement;
  • Low inertia. Even with good balancing a single-pipe heating system of a multi-storey building, the consumer needs to wait 20-30 seconds, while hot water over pipelines reaches radiators.

What is the ideal pressure for a multi-story building’s heating system? Everything is based on how many stories it has. It ought to guarantee that the coolant is raised to the appropriate level. Installing intermediate pumping stations can sometimes be a more effective way to lower the overall system load. The ideal pressure range in this situation should be between 3 and 5 atm.

Prior to buying radiators, you should ascertain the pressure and temperature regime of the residential multi-story building in accordance with its heating scheme. Batteries are chosen in accordance with these data.

In understanding the heating system of an apartment building, several key parameters come into play. First and foremost is the efficiency of the heating system, which directly impacts both energy consumption and the comfort level of residents. The type of heating fuel used, whether it"s gas, oil, electricity, or renewable sources, significantly influences operating costs and environmental impact. Proper insulation of the building envelope plays a crucial role in minimizing heat loss and ensuring the effectiveness of the heating system. Additionally, the size and capacity of the heating system must match the building"s heating requirements to avoid under or over-heating issues. Lastly, regular maintenance and monitoring are essential to ensure the longevity and optimal performance of the heating system, providing a comfortable living environment while also promoting energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Heat supply of a multi -storey building

Distributing the apartment building’s heating unit

The functioning parameters of the system depend on the heating wiring in a multi-story building. But it’s also important to consider the heat supply’s characteristics. Among them, the method of supplying hot water—autonomous or centralized—is crucial.

If the situation is particularly dire, connect to the central heating system. This enables you to lower the estimate of current heating costs for multi-story buildings. However, the quality of these services is still essentially very low. Therefore, autonomous heating of a multi-story building is preferred, if possible.

Autonomous heating of a multi -storey building

Heating a multi-story building autonomously

An independent heat supply system can be set up in contemporary multi-story residential buildings. It can be either a common house or an apartment. In the first scenario, a multi-story building’s autonomous heating system operates independently in each apartment. Installing a boiler and wiring pipelines independently will accomplish this (most often – gas). The boiler room installation is implied by the common house and comes with specific requirements.

Its organizational concept is exactly the same as one for a private country estate. Nonetheless, there are several crucial considerations that need to be made:

  • Installation of several heating boilers. Must one or more of them must perform a duplicate function. In case of failure of one boiler – the other must replace it;
  • Installation of a two -pipe heating system of a multi -storey building as the most effective;
  • Drawing up schedule of scheduled repair and preventive work. This is especially true for heating heating equipment and security groups.

Setting up an apartment heat metering system is essential given the characteristics of a specific multi-story building’s heating system. Energy meters must be installed for each incoming pipe coming from the central riser in order to accomplish this. For this reason, cutting current expenses is not a good use for a multi-story building’s Leningrad heating system.

Centralized heating of a multi -storey building

The elevator node’s chart

When an apartment building’s heating wiring is connected to a central heat supply, how can that wiring change? An elevator node, which serves as the system’s central component, normalizes the coolant’s parameters to allowable levels.

The central thermal highways span a considerable distance overall. As a result, they set the coolant parameters in the heating unit to minimize heat losses. In order to achieve this, raise the pressure to 20 atm, which raises the temperature of the hot water to +120 °C. However, it is not permitted to provide customers with hot water that has such qualities due to the features of the heating system in an apartment building. In order to standardize the coolant’s parameters, an elevator node is installed.

It can be made for multi-story buildings with either a one-pipe or two-pipe heating system. Its primary duties are:

  • Reducing pressure using an elevator. A special conical valve regulates the volume of the flow of coolant into the distribution system;
  • Reduced temperature level to +90-85 ° C. For this, the mixing node of hot and cooled water is intended;
  • Filtering of the coolant and a decrease in oxygen content.

The house’s single-pipe heating system’s primary balancing is also handled by the elevator node. It achieves this by offering a locking and regulatory reinforcement that can be temperature- and pressure-adjusted in an automatic or semi-automatic mode.

Additionally, keep in mind that an autonomous system will not perform the same way as a multi-story building’s estimated centralized heating system. These systems’ comparative features are displayed in the table.

Pressure in the heating system of a multi -storey building

The actual value of pressure is influenced by the following factors:

  • Condition and power of the equipment supplying coolant.
  • The diameter of the pipes through which the coolant circulates in the apartment. It happens that wanting to increase the temperature indicators, the owners themselves change their diameter in the larger direction, reducing the general value of the pressure.
  • The location of a specific apartment. Ideally, this should not matter, but in reality there is dependence on the floor, and on the remoteness of the riser.
  • The degree of wear of the pipeline and heating devices. In the presence of old batteries and pipes, it should not be expected that pressure indicators will remain normal. It is better to warn the emergence of emergency situations, replacing his heating engineering.

How temperature affects pressure

Using tubular deformation pressure gauges, check the working pressure in a high-rise structure. In the event that the system’s designers incorporated automatic pressure adjustment and control, various types of sensors will be installed. Control is exercised in the following key areas, per the specifications outlined in regulatory documents:

  • on the supply of the coolant from the source and at the output;
  • in front of the pump, filters, pressure regulators, mud and after these elements;
  • at the output of the pipeline from the boiler room or CHP, as well as at the entrance to the house.

Note that there is a normal difference of 10% between the first and ninth floors’ normative working pressures.

Pressure in the summer

Both the heating system and its maintained pressure, whose value is greater than static, are inactive during this time. If not, air will seep into the system, causing the pipes to corrode.

This parameter’s minimum value is established by adding a supply of three to five meters to the building’s height.

How to raise pressure

Pressure gauges are essential in the heating highways of multi-story buildings. They let you examine how well the system works. Serious failures can result from even a small decrease in pressure.

When centralized heating is present, cold water is most frequently affected by the system. The presence of a rush is indicated by a pressure difference of more than 0.06 MPa in 0.5 hours. The system is ready to operate if this is not noticed.

Prematurely before the heating season begins, a hot check is carried out with maximum pressure.

The owner of an apartment typically has no influence over changes made to a multi-story building’s heating system. Attempting to exert pressure is a pointless endeavor. Removing air traffic jams caused by misaligned connections or incorrectly operated air valve control is the only action that can be taken.

A distinctive noise in the system indicates the existence of an issue. This phenomenon poses a serious risk to heating equipment and pipes:

  • Relaxation of thread and destruction of welded joints during the vibration of the pipeline.
  • Stopping the supply of the coolant into separate risers or batteries due to difficulties with fragmentation of the system, the impossibility of adjustment, which can lead to defrosting it.
  • Decreasing the efficiency of the system, if the coolant stops moving not completely.

Before preparing it as part of the heating season preparation, it is necessary to check all compounds, cranes for water skipping, to prevent air from entering the system. When testing the system, if you hear a distinct hiss, find and fix any leaks right away.

Applying a soap solution to the joints will cause bubbles to form where the tightness is disturbed.

Occasionally, pressure decreases when new aluminum batteries are installed in place of old ones. When this metal comes into contact with water, a thin film forms on its surface. Hydrogen is a reaction byproduct, and as a result of its compression, the pressure drops.

In this instance, interfering with the system’s operation is not worth it because the issue is transient and will eventually resolve itself. This only occurs the first time around following radiator installation.

Installing a circulation pump in a high-rise building will raise the pressure on the upper floors.

Be aware that the corner room is the furthest point from the pipeline, meaning that there is less pressure there.

Minimum pressure

Minimum pressure is obtained from the state in which the heating system’s overheated water does not boil.

It can be ascertained in this manner:

To prevent feloning, a supply of roughly 5 m is added to the house’s height (geodetic), plus an additional 3 m for the resistance of the interior heating system. The upper floors’ batteries won’t be imaginable if there isn’t enough pressure at the supply.

In the event that you choose a five-story building, the presentation should consider the minimum pressure:

2.3 Ata = 0.23 MPa = 5×3+5+3 = 23 m

Pressure drop

The pressure drop, or the difference between its values on the feed and return, needs to be a specific and constant value for the heating system to operate normally. To put it numerically, it should be between 0.1 and 0.2 mPa.

A breakdown in the coolant circulation through the pipes is indicated by the parameter’s deviation in the shorter direction. Variations that point to the heating system being bullied in the direction of an increase in the indicator.

In any event, you should investigate the cause of the modification, or else specific components might disappear from the system.

If the pressure drops, turn off the pump and monitor any changes in the static pressure to look for leaks. If it keeps falling, they consistently remove themselves from the various sections’ schemes in an attempt to find the site of damage.

If the static pressure remains constant, there is a malfunction in the equipment.

The designers’ hydraulic calculations and the proper installation of the highway are the primary determinants of the stability of the working pressure differential. When installing heating in a high-rise building, the following factors are taken into consideration:

  • The supply pipeline, with rare exceptions, is at the top, the reverse below.
  • The spills are made of pipes by a cross section from 50 to 80 mm, and risers and submarines to batteries are from 20 to 25 mm.
  • In the heating system into the bypass line of the pump or jumper, connecting the supply and return, regulators are cut, guaranteeing that even with sharp pressure drops, the disgrace is not emerging.
  • There is a locking reinforcement in the heat supply scheme.

There are no perfect operating circumstances for the heating system. Even though losses occasionally lower pressure indicators, they shouldn’t exceed the bounds set by Russian Federation SNiP 41-01-2003 construction codes and regulations.

When the apartment is heated centrally or when autonomous heating is installed and used in the home, the idea of the heating norm can be entirely different.

Apartment with central heating

What is the difference in heating norms of centralized and autonomous heating?

When it comes to central heating, the apartment’s location—whether it is angular or not—as well as the coolant’s calculated temperatures, should be considered. They are specifically calculated for every area of the nation, taking into consideration the weather patterns during the winter months.

Heat plan for multi-apartment buildings

Owners of self-contained heating systems will have a lot more freedom in this regard. Here, the notion of the heating norm will be highly conditional, based primarily on the comfort of the home, while also considering the heating boiler’s capabilities and the owners’ financial situation.

The question of heating in relation to buildings where built-in split systems provide ventilation, air conditioning, and temperature rise should be considered separately. The entire cost of establishing a microclimate in each room—whose indicators will be ideal for both temperature and air humidity—determines their work.

In particular, it was shown that people perceive a temperature as higher when there is higher humidity in the room than when there is lower humidity maintained. Thus, in this instance, the set of microclimate parameters should be used rather than the normative heating regulation.

Heating standards for apartment buildings heated centrally

These customs are the oldest. They were computed when the batteries were hot and the coolant was not saving fuel for heating. However, the majority of the "cold" heat-saving materials used to build houses were concrete panels.

Although the times have changed, the standards have not. As per the current GOST R 52617-2000, residential premises must have air that is no colder than 18 °C (or at least 20 °C in corner rooms). Additionally, the company—the provider of the heat supply—has the authority to lower the nighttime air temperature by no more than 3 °C (0–5 hours). Separate heating requirements are set for the apartment’s different rooms. For instance, the bathroom’s temperature should be at least 25 °C, while the hallway’s temperature should be at least 16 °C.

The average temperature of the coolant is used to determine the heating norms, instead of the air temperature in the rooms, a change that has been carefully fought for a long time by society. Although it is not profitable for the thermal energy provider, this indicator is far more objective for the end user. Make your own judgment: the nature of human life and the conditions of a person’s residence often influence the temperature in residential buildings in addition to the operating system.

The heating devices’ own design elements also play a significant role. Let’s say that at the same air temperature, panel heating systems will transfer heat more quickly than cast-iron batteries. As a result, air temperature-based heating standards are not totally equitable. Below 8 °C, the outside air temperature is considered using this method. Customers should undoubtedly receive heat from the heat-generating company when this value is fixed for three days in a row.

The calculated coolant temperature values for the middle strip, which depend on the outside air temperature, are as follows (temperature indicators are rounded for ease of use when using these values with home thermometers):

The temperature outside, in degrees Celsius

The supply pipeline’s network water temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius

With the help of the above table and a standard thermometer, you can quickly ascertain the water’s temperature in the panel heating system—or any other—when the coolant begins to drain from it. Graphs 5 and 6 are used for a straight branch, and column 7 data is used for the return. It should be noted that the first three columns determine the water’s vacation temperature—that is, without accounting for transmission losses in trunk pipelines.

The rationale behind the proportionate decrease in the cost of the services rendered by the central heat supply services is if the coolant’s actual temperature deviates from the normative.

Installing heat meters is an additional option, but it is only effective in situations where the house’s apartments are connected to a central heating system. These counters must also undergo an annual verification process.

For an apartment building’s heating system to be as efficient and comfortable as possible, certain parameters must be met. Building managers and residents can minimize energy consumption and costs while creating a cozy living environment by making informed decisions based on their understanding of the key factors influencing heating performance.

Appropriate heating equipment sizing is one crucial factor. Larger radiators or boilers may cycle on and off frequently, wasting energy and resulting in temperature fluctuations. This can lead to inefficiencies. On the other hand, undersized equipment might find it difficult to keep up with demand for heating, which could lead to discomfort and increased energy costs. Thus, choosing the right size equipment requires precisely estimating the heating load based on variables like building size, insulation, and climate.

Moreover, the efficiency of the heating system is greatly influenced by the distribution system. Proper insulation and well-planned piping layouts reduce heat loss during distribution, guaranteeing that each apartment receives the warmth produced by the boiler in an effective manner. Maintaining pipes and valves on a regular basis is also essential to avoiding leaks and guaranteeing even heating distribution throughout the building.

The kind of fuel used for heating is another essential factor. Even though conventional fossil fuels like natural gas are widely used, there are ways to lessen your impact on the environment and your long-term operating costs by switching to electricity, solar power, or geothermal energy. Building owners can choose more environmentally friendly heating systems by weighing the availability, cost, and effects of various fuel sources.

In the end, attaining ideal parameters for an apartment building’s heating system necessitates a comprehensive strategy that takes into account a number of variables, such as fuel choice, distribution efficiency, and equipment sizing. Building managers can minimize operating costs and lower carbon emissions while providing residents with a cozy and welcoming living environment by placing a high priority on comfort, energy efficiency, and environmental sustainability.

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