The elevator node of the heating system: the principle of operation of the elevator unit of the heating system, the scheme

Having a thorough understanding of the workings of the heating system is crucial for maintaining a warm and comfortable home. The elevator node is an essential part of this system that helps to ensure effective heat distribution throughout the house.

The circulation pump of the heating system, sometimes referred to as the elevator node, serves as the system’s brains. Its main function is to heat various parts of the house by moving hot water from the boiler via the pipes and radiators. Heat is essentially transported to areas that require it most through the action of a lift.

So how does this elevator apparatus function? See it as a network of connected channels, similar to the veins in our bodies. The heated water is forced through these channels by the pump, which sits at the hub of the network, generating a steady flow. By distributing the heat evenly among the radiators, this flow keeps the house at a comfortable temperature.

Let’s now examine the elevator node’s schematic representation. Imagine a schematic that shows the boiler, pump, pipes, and radiators, among other parts of the system. The sequence in which each component is connected creates a closed loop that facilitates the effective transfer of heat.

The pump, which represents its pivotal role in the heating process, is at the center of the schematic. The water flow is then represented by arrows, showing how it leaves the boiler, passes through the pipes, enters the radiators, and then returns to the boiler to be reheated. This cyclical motion guarantees that there is always heat in the entire house.

Essentially, the heating system’s elevator node works on a straightforward but efficient principle: it circulates hot water effectively, giving the entire house a constant temperature. Comprehending the internal mechanisms of a heating system enables homeowners to address possible problems and make knowledgeable choices about their heating needs.

Device and principle of operation of the heating elevator

A node that connects the feed and return pipes is thrown into the eyes at the entrance point of the heating network pipeline, which is typically located in the basement. This is a mixing unit for heating a house, an elevator. An elevator is constructed as a steel or cast-iron framework with three flanges. This is a standard heating elevator, and it operates according to the rules of physics. A diffuser, mixing neck, nozzle, and reception camera are all located inside the elevator. The flange is used to connect the reception camera to the "reference".

Water that has been overheated enters the elevator and travels through the nozzle. Bernoulli Law states that as the nozzle narrows, the flow rate rises and the pressure falls. The elevator’s mixing chamber is filled with mixed water from the "return," which is drawn into the area of lower pressure. Water lowers the temperature to the appropriate level while also lowering pressure. The elevator functions as a mixer and circulation pump at the same time. This is the general idea behind how an elevator works with a building’s or structure’s heating system.

The circuit of the thermal unit

The house’s elevator heating units are responsible for adjusting the heat carrier supply. The primary component of the heat unit, the elevator, requires strapping. Due to the sensitivity of the adjusting equipment to pollution, the binding has mud filters attached to the "feed" and "return."

The elevator’s tie consists of:

  • Mud filters;
  • pressure gauges (at the entrance and output);
  • thermal attires (thermometers at the inlet of the elevator, at the output and on the “return”);
  • gate valves (for conducting preventive or emergency work).

Although it is the simplest way to change the coolant’s temperature, this is frequently the heat unit’s primary component. The basic unit of any building or structure’s elevator heating system makes sure that the coolant’s pressure and temperature can be adjusted within the circuit.

Benefits of using it to heat big items, buildings, and skyscrapers:

  1. reliability, due to the simplicity of the structure;
  2. low installation price and components;
  3. Absolute energy dependence;
  4. Significant saving of coolant consumption up to 30%.

However, despite the undeniable benefits of utilizing an elevator for heating systems, the following drawbacks should also be considered:

  • The calculation is made individually for each system;
  • We need a mandatory pressure drop in the heating system of the object;
  • If the elevator is unregulated, then it is impossible to change the parameters of the heating circuit.

Elevator with automatic adjustment

Nowadays, elevators have been developed where the nozzle section can be changed electronically. There is a mechanism in such an elevator that moves the throttle needle. It modifies the nozzle’s lumen, which modifies the heat carrier consumption. The speed of water varies with the lumen. The temperature of the coolant in the "feed" changes as a result of a change in the coefficient of mixing hot water and water from the "return." It is now evident why the heating system requires water pressure.

The coolant supply and pressure are controlled by the elevator, and the coolant’s pressure controls the flow of the heated circuit.

Why do you need a thermal unit

The main entrance to the house’s heating system is where the heat station is located. The modification of the coolant’s parameters is its primary goal. To put it more simply, the thermal node lowers the coolant’s temperature and pressure before it reaches your radiator or convector. This is required to prolong the life of the heating system’s entire equipment in addition to preventing burns from touching the heating device.

This is crucial if the house’s heating is separated using metal-plastic or polypropylene pipes. Thermal units have controlled modes of operation:

These figures represent the heating main coolant’s maximum and lowest temperatures.

Additionally, each heat unit must have a heat metering device installed in accordance with current regulations. Let’s proceed to installing the heat units now.

Determination of the value of the thermal node

The elevator is referred to as an energy-dependent, independent device that carries out pumping equipment functions related to cutting water. The heat unit mixes chilled water from the heating system and reduces the coolant’s temperature and pressure.

A coolant that has been heated to the highest temperatures can be transmitted by equipment, which is advantageous from an economic standpoint. When heated to +150 C, a ton of water has a lot more thermal energy than a ton of coolant that is only +90 s.

The principles of work and a detailed circuit of the thermal unit

You must interact with the equipment’s device in order to comprehend how it operates. The elevator heating node’s scheme is not complicated. The apparatus consists of a metal tee with end-to-end connecting flanges.

Among the design elements are:

  • The left pipe is a nozzle narrowed to the end to the calculated diameter;
  • Behind the nozzle there is a camera in a cylindrical shape;
  • The lower pipe is needed to join the pipeline of the reverse circulation of water;
  • The right pipe is a diffuser with an extension transporting hot coolant to the network.

The heat unit elevator may have a straightforward device, but its working principle is far more intricate:

  1. The coolant heated to high temperature is moved through the pipe into the nozzle, then under pressure the transportation rate increases, and the water quickly flows through the nozzle into the chamber. The effect of the water -jet pump maintains the specified intensity of the coolant in the system.
  2. When water passes through the chamber, the pressure is reduced, and the stream passes through the diffuser, providing a vacuum in the cell chamber. Then, under high pressure, the coolant moves through the jumper a liquid returned from the heating line. The pressure is created by the effect of eceneration due to the discharge that supports the flow of the supplied coolant.
  3. The temperature regime of flows is reduced to +95 s in the confidence chamber, this is the optimal indicator for transportation according to the heating system of the house.

Maintaining the recommended difference in pressure indicators in the feed and return pipeline requires an understanding of the functions of the elevator, what an apartment building’s heat unit is, and how it operates. The device itself and the home network’s hydraulic resistance must be overcome by the difference.

The heating system’s elevator node is integrated in the manner described below:

  • The left pipe joins the supply line;
  • lower – to pipes with reverse transportation;
  • Cutting valves are mounted on both sides, complemented by a mud filter to prevent clogging of the knot.

Manometers, heat consumption meters, and thermometers are all part of the system’s equipment. The jumper into the reverse feed pipeline crashes at a 45-degree angle to improve flow resistance.

Advantages and disadvantages of thermal nodes

The energy-dependent heating elevator is cheap, doesn’t require a power source, and functions perfectly with any type of coolant. These characteristics guaranteed that equipment would be needed in homes with central heating, which supplies coolant to a high degree of heating.

  1. Maintaining the pressure of the water pressure in the pipelines of the reverse current and supply.
  2. Each highway requires specific calculations and parameters of the heat unit. With the slightest changes in the temperature of the fluid, you will have to adjust the holes of the nozzles, install a new nozzle.
  3. There is no way to smoothly regulate the intensity and heating of the transported coolant.

Nodes with movable passing cross sections that can be adjusted via an electric or manual gear gear drive in the pre-Comer are available for purchase. However, in this scenario, the gadget no longer depends on energy.

The main malfunctions of the elevator node

Even something as basic as an elevator node can malfunction. Manometer testimony from the elevator node’s control points can be analyzed to identify the malfunctions:

  1. Malfunctions are often caused by clogging pipelines with mud and solid particles in water. If there is a drop in the pressure in the heating system, which is much higher to the mud, then this malfunction is caused by the clogging of the mud, which is in the supply pipeline. The dirt is dumped through the descent channels of the mud, clean the nets and the inner surfaces of the device.
  2. If the pressure in the heating system jumps, then the possible causes may be corrosion or clogging of the nozzle. If the nozzle is destroyed, then the pressure in the expansion heating tank may exceed the permissible.
  3. A case is possible in which the pressure in the heating system is growing, and the pressure gauges before and after the mud in the “return” show different values. In this case, you need to clean the mud "Reverse". Drain cranes are opened on it, a grid is cleaned, and pollution from the inside is removed.
  4. With the change in the size of the nozzle due to corrosion, a vertical cessation of the heating circuit occurs due to corrosion. Below the batteries will be hot, and on the upper floors are not heated enough. Replacing the nozzle with a nozzle with a calculated diameter eliminates such a malfunction.

Introduction circuits for connecting the heating system

Heating and the water heating processes used in hot water supply systems (DHW) are somewhat related.

Owing to the fact that the hot water’s temperature should always be kept between 60 and 65 degrees, hotter coolant may be used in the elevator than is necessary at higher outside air temperatures.

There is also an excess of heat at 5% to 13% at the same time. To prevent this phenomenon, an elevator node is connected using one of three circuits:

  • with a water flow regulator;
  • with adjustable nozzle;
  • With the regulatory pump.

With a water flow regulator

By meeting this requirement, it is possible to avoid the stages that occur in single-pipe systems when the coolant flow rate decreases.

The "Elevator + Consumption Regulatory" scheme, however, is unable to keep the temperature after this device at a reasonable level in the event that the regular temperature schedule is altered.

With adjustable nozzle

The needle that is inserted into the nozzle controls the cross-sectional area of the outlet. In this instance, as the elevator descends, the mixing coefficient rises and the coolant’s temperature does as well.

The drawback of this scheme is that the hydraulic resistance of the cone increases when the needle is inserted into its hole. This causes the coolant flow rate to decrease, which in turn reduces the amount of heat supplied.

The elevator node’s adjustable schematic diagram

With a regulatory pump

The pump is installed either parallel to or on the elevator node’s mixing line. Furthermore, mounted are regulators for the coolant’s temperature and flow rate. This is a very efficient solution because it enables:

  • adjust the temperature of the coolant at any outdoor temperature, and not only with plus;
  • maintain the circulation of the coolant in the internal network when stopping the external.

The scheme’s drawbacks include its high cost, intricacy, and rising operating expenses as a result of the pump’s energy supply.

DHW from an individual heat station

The simplest and most popular configuration involves hot water heaters connected in single stages in parallel (rice, 10). The heating systems and they are connected to the same heating network. The hotel heater gets its water from the external water supply system. The network water from the heat source heats it inside.

10. A diagram showing a single-stage parallel connection for the hot water heat exchanger and a dependent connection for the heating system to the external network

Network water that has cooled returns to the heat source. Heated tap water enters the DHW system after the hot water heater. Hot water is once more supplied to the hot water heat exchanger through the circulation pipeline if any of the system’s devices are closed, as they might be at night.

In addition, a two -stage water heating system is used in the hot water. In the winter period, cold water water is first heated in the heat exchanger of the first stage (from 5 to 30 ° C) by the coolant from the return pipeline of the heating system, and then for the final water water to the required temperature (60 ° C), water from the supply pipeline of the external network is used. The idea is to use the rolling thermal energy of the reverse line from the heating system for heating. In this case, the consumption of network water for heating water in the hot water is reduced. In the summer, heating occurs according to a single -stage scheme.

11. Rice. The plan for a single heating point that connects the heating system to the heating network independently and the DOS system in parallel

For a multi -storey high -altitude (more than 20 floors) housing construction, schemes with independent connection of the heating system to the heating network and parallel connection of the hot water are mainly used (rice. eleven). This solution allows you to divide the heating systems and the DOS of the building into several independent hydraulic zones, when one ITP is in the basement and ensures the work of the lower part of the building, for example, from 1 to 12 floor, and on the technical floor of the building there is exactly the same heat point for 13 – 24 floors. In this case, heating and DHW are easier to regulate in the case of a change in thermal load, and also have less inertia from the point of view of the hydraulic regime and balancing.

The principle of central heating

The overall plan is fairly straightforward: water is heated in boiler rooms or thermal power plants, where it is then supplied to main thermal pipes and thermal points such as homes, businesses, and so forth. The water cools slightly as it passes through the pipes and reaches a lower temperature at the end. The boiler room heats the water to a higher temperature in order to make up for cooling. The street temperature and the temperature schedule determine the heating value.

For example, the water parameter supplied to the highway is 76 degrees at a graph of 130/70 at a street temperature of 0 C. And at least 115 at -22 s. Since the coolant moves under pressure and the pipes are a closed vessel, the latter falls neatly into the framework of physical laws.

Since the effect of renewal occurs, it is evident that the system cannot receive such overheated water. Simultaneously, the materials used for radiators and pipelines experience significant deterioration, the battery surface overheats to the point of potential fire, and plastic pipes are generally not intended for coolant temperatures higher than 90 degrees.

There are a few more requirements that must be met for normal heating.

  • Firstly, the pressure and speed of water. If it is small, then overheated water is delivered to the nearest apartments, and the corner is too cold to the far, especially the corner, as a result of which the house is heated uneven.
  • Secondly-for proper heating, a certain volume of the coolant is necessary. From the highway, the thermal node receives about 5-6 cubic meters, while the system is needed 12–13.

The heating elevator is utilized in order to address each of the aforementioned problems. A sample is shown in the photo.

2 device and heat unit diagram

The heating unit is composed of an entire complex of devices and equipment, the installation of which is provided by a preliminary project in the communal systems of apartment buildings. Such a gadget is capable of carrying out one or more tasks, including:

  1. Measuring the amount and mass of thermal energy, its pressure, fluid temperature circulating through the pipeline and functioning time.
  2. Accumulation and storage of this information on a local medium.
  3. Display of it on metering devices.

The operation, regulation, and maintenance of apartment building heating equipment are examined based on the data collected.

The discount is a counter-like device with a scheme that includes:

  1. Thermal transformer of resistance.
  2. Heat computer.
  3. Primary consumption converter.

The heat meter may have filters and pressure sensors, depending on which primary converter model was installed (with vortex, ultrasound, electromagnetic, or tachometric measurement options).

The thermal unit’s main schematic

The components of the thermal energy accounting unit are as follows:

  1. Locking reinforcement.
  2. Thermal counter.
  3. Thermal transformer.
  4. Gryazer.
  5. Consumable.
  6. The heat sensor of the reverse pipeline.
  7. Additional equipment.

In turn, the following essential conditions must be met for the thermal energy scheme to be installed in the apartment building.

  • the need to install the scheme of accounting equipment exclusively in the boundaries of the section of the balance sheet of pipelines in places, which are close to the main valves of the heating source;
  • a ban on the organization of the project selection project for personal needs in the communal heat supply system;
  • regulation of medium -hour and average daily parameters of the coolant are made according to the readings of the accounting equipment;
  • The accounting devices are mounted on the reverse pipelines of the highways and are placed to the place of connection of the bulk pipeline.

A competent inspection of the installation and operation of the equipment is conducted in order for competent services to competently regulate and control the equipment mentioned.

2.1 who sets and serves the heat unit in apartment buildings?

The primary pipeline for the supply of hot water (DHW) and central heating (TS) in apartment buildings is situated in the basements and is equipped with shut-off valves. With the latter, you are able to cut off the internal heating system from the external network.

The heating unit itself has an elevator-like device built into the design, along with mud, shut-off valves, and other instrumental devices. Of these, mud, a steel pipe with a diameter of DU = 159–200 mm, is typically needed for permanent maintenance in order to collect dirt from the main pipeline and shield heating devices and pipelines from pollution.

Installing a thermo-nurse and keeping it maintained—including cleaning—as well as the locksmiths’ work servicing a residential building meet the requirements of the housing and community services organization.

The elevator node is essential to the effective distribution of heat in a home’s insulation and heating system. The elevator unit works on a straightforward principle: it raises the boiler’s heated water and distributes it throughout the house’s plumbing system. Consider it as a warm-weather elevator that delivers hot water to the desired location. Typically, the system consists of sensors to track temperature, valves to regulate flow, and a pump to force water through the pipes. The elevator node contributes to energy savings and general comfort by effectively distributing heat throughout the house to keep the living area at a comfortable and constant temperature.

The principle of action of the elevator node

Before being supplied to the intra-house heating system, the overheated water from the heating system is cooled to a standard temperature using the mixing elevator. The process of combining hot water from the supply pipeline with chilled water from the return pipeline is what causes its reduction.

The elevator is divided into multiple main sections. This is the receiving chamber (converting from the return), the diffuser (exit from the elevator directly into the network with the set pressure), the nozzle (throttle), the mixing camera (the middle part of the elevator, where two streams are mixed and the pressure is trimmed), and the absorption collector (entrance from the feed).

A narrowing device called a nozzle is housed inside the elevator device’s steel body. It is where hot water from the heating system and the reverse pipeline is combined by sucking, entering the mixing chamber at a high speed and low pressure. Stated differently, hot water from the main heating system enters the elevator, travels quickly through the narrowing nozzle (which lowers pressure), mixes with return pipeline water, and then enters the intra-house pipeline at a low temperature. This is how the mechanical elevator’s nozzle appears in the picture below.

An executive mechanism, consisting of a direction of travel and a throttle needle powered by a gear roller, ensures the steady operation of this elevator structure. The coolant flow rate is controlled by the throttle needle’s action.

The role of the elevator node

A centralized heating system pays for the heating of residential apartment buildings. Both small and large cities are building boiler rooms and small CHPs for this reason. Each of these items provides heat to a number of homes or small communities. One major drawback of this type of system is the loss of heat.

The principle of operation of the node

The exterior walls, the top of the tallest ceiling, the basement in buildings with basements, or the level of the land in buildings without basements serve as the building’s borders. If there is a joint between the two walls, the boundary between the buildings passes through the center. In the case of compact buildings, the boundary between individual objects is the plane of the upper wall’s contact.

The limits of the building’s installation, contingent on the nature of the installation (e.g., fittings, inspection hatches, locking valves for gas, water, heating, etc. D). Construction equipment encompasses all installations that are integrated into a permanent structure, such as conventional construction equipment like built-in furniture and sanitary, electric, alarm, computer, telecommunication, and fire systems.

The temperature of the movable fluid cannot be changed if the coolant’s path is too long. Because of this, every home ought to have an elevator node installed. Numerous issues will be resolved by doing this, including drastically lowering heat consumption and averting mishaps brought on by equipment failure or de-energization.

This problem is particularly pertinent in the fall and spring of the year. Although the coolant is heated in compliance with the prescribed standards, the temperature of the coolant is contingent upon the outside air temperature.

As a result, a hotter coolant arrives in the closest homes as opposed to those farther away. This explains why the central heating system’s elevator node is so essential. In order to make up for heat losses, it will dilute overheated coolant with cold water.

The valve is three -way

When it becomes necessary to split the coolant flow between the two consumers, a three-way heating valve that functions in two ways is utilized:

  • constant mode;
  • Variable hydroeum.

Wherever in the heating circuit it may be required to divide or stop the water flow entirely, a three-way crane is installed. Material for crane: brass, cast iron, or steel. A locking mechanism, which may be ball, cylindrical, or conical, is located inside the crane. The tap has a tee-like appearance and can function as a mixer if a three-way valve on the heating system is connected to it. The ratios used for mixing can be altered greatly.

The main purposes of the ball valve are:

  1. adjusting the temperature of warm floors;
  2. adjusting the temperature of the batteries;
  3. The distribution of the coolant into two directions.

Three-way cranes come in two varieties: locking and adjusting. Although they are nearly equal in theory, smoothly controlling the temperature with shut-off three-way taps is more challenging.

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A heating system’s elevator node must be understood for effective home heating. This part is essential to the process of distributing hot water throughout the house from the boiler. In essence, the elevator unit controls the flow of hot water, making sure that every radiator is heated to the ideal temperature.

There is not much to the elevator node’s operating principle. It functions according to the laws of pressure differentials and fluid dynamics. There is pressure in the system when the boiler heats the water. By regulating this pressure, the elevator unit can target the areas that require the most hot water.

The elevator node’s scheme can be visualized to better understand how it works. Imagine a network of pipes connecting a central boiler to several radiators spread throughout the house. Within this network, the elevator unit occupies a strategic position and controls the flow of heated water. It modifies flow rates and valves to keep each room’s temperature at the ideal level.

A comfortable home is one that has efficient insulation and heating, especially in the winter. Homeowners can guarantee their homes stay warm and comfortable without wasting energy or resources by being aware of how the elevator node functions and its part in the heating system.

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