Technical characteristics of the boiler BKZ: device, principle of operation

Having a dependable heating system is crucial for keeping our homes toasty and comfortable during the cold months. This is where boilers come in, the beating heart of the heating system that supplies hot water for home use and heating. The BKZ boiler is distinguished from other boiler types by its dependable operation and effective design.

Many homes choose the BKZ boiler, also referred to as the "boiler with a circulating water pump," for their heating systems. Its technical features ensure longevity and user-friendliness, making it an excellent choice for effectively heating spaces. Gaining an understanding of the device’s parts and functioning can help you optimize both performance and energy efficiency.

The BKZ boiler is essentially made up of a few essential parts that cooperate to heat water and distribute it throughout the house. These parts consist of a heat exchanger, circulating water pump, controls, safety mechanisms, and a combustion chamber. Every component is essential to guaranteeing the boiler operates smoothly and effectively.

The BKZ boiler’s basic method of operation is the combustion of fuel, usually oil or natural gas, to heat water. The fuel is ignited and heat is produced during the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. After that, the heat exchanger transfers this heat to the water, increasing its temperature and producing hot water for heating.

Device The boiler BKZ is a heating appliance that utilizes a combustion chamber to generate heat.
Principle of Operation It operates by burning fuel, typically natural gas or oil, to heat water or air, which is then circulated throughout the house via pipes or ducts to provide warmth.

Boiler modification decoding

The Russian unit manufacturer Barnaul Boiler Plant, now known as LLC "Sibenergomash – BKZ," started operations in 1942 in the midst of the Great Patriotic War and was based in Leningrad.

The boiler units were formerly known as BKZ, but after obtaining a new standard EN ISO 9001:2000 in conjunction with the entry into the foreign market, the boilers started to have new names. For instance, the unit BKZ 670-140-3 was renamed as Ep-670-13,8-545, and BKZ 220-100-9 as E-220-9,8-540 KBT.

In addition, the initial letter designations have essentially changed, but the unit’s drum pressure and steam capacity measurements have stayed the same. The only difference is that the system now uses MPa instead of kgf/cm2, which is a change in dimensionality.

The manufacturer follows a stringent equipment labeling policy that allows you to ascertain many crucial aspects of how it operates. For instance, boiler unit BKZ-420-140 NGM-3’s labeling follows this principle:

  • BKZ – manufacturer LLC "Sibenergomash – BKZ";
  • 420 – hourly steam capacity of superheated steam, t/h;
  • 140 – PP pressure, kgf/cm2 ;
  • H – operates under supercharging,49 MPa;
  • GM – gas and oil burner, operates on gaseous and oil fuel.

As per the updated guidelines, this boiler bears the E-420-13,8-560 label.

  • E – natural water circulation;
  • 420 – hourly output of superheated steam, t/h;
  • 13,8 – steam pressure P, MPa;
  • 560 – PP temperature, С.

Technical characteristics of boiler units

BKZ steam water-tube boiler units are used in CHPPs and are categorized as energy devices. Boilers can produce steam at a wide range of temperatures (450–540 C), pressures (3,9–14 MPa), and capacities (75 t/h for units BKZ 75-39FB to 690 t/h).

The primary list of GRES and CHPPs with BKZ boiler installations is as follows:

  1. Minsk CHPP-4, BKZ-420-140GM, gas-oil with natural circulation, PP flow rate – 420 t/h, PP pressure – 140 atm.
  2. Krasnoyarskaya CHPP-2, BKZ-420-140-PT1 and BKZ-500-140-1, specially designed for the use of Berezovsky and other brown coals of the Siberian region, PP flow rate – 500 t/h, P – 140 atm.
  3. Vologda CHPP, BKZ-50-39F BKZ-75-39FB, are designed to burn brown coal, for which they are equipped with two shaft mills, steam flow rate – 50 t/h, P – 39 kgf/cm2.
  4. Abakanskaya CHPP 4, boilers BKZ-420-140 PT-2, for use of solid fuel with dust systems and prombunkers, PP flow rate – 420 t/h, P – 140 atm.
  5. Kirovskaya CHPP-4 BKZ – 210-140F, designed for burning Chelyabinsk brown coal and natural gas, steam flow rate – 210 t/h, P – 140 atm.
  6. Gusinoozerskaya GRES, BKZ 640-140PT-1, designed for combustion of furnace of Okino-Klyuchevskiy cut and Gusinoozerskiy deposit, steam flow rate – 640 t/h, P – 140 atm.

Principle scheme

The BKZ 160 boilers are water-tube vertical devices. Water moves naturally. where the water and steam streams are connected in the design at the top of the drum. The process of vapor separation occurs in the distant cyclones. The units can run on supercharging or a vacuum inside the furnace.

The units are arranged in a tower or P/T configuration. The design may be suspended or require supports. The draught blowers are at the zero level of the U-shaped arrangement, which requires substantially less space. Boilers are designed to run on various fuel types, and the specific fuel resources in the area where the boiler is located are taken into consideration during the calculation process.

Main operating principle of BKZ 160 single-drum boilers:

  1. Fuel is fed into a vertical furnace, closed from all sides by screens, the top and bottom of which are united by pipe manifolds.
  2. On the front wall of the furnace chamber on 2 tiers are placed burners in the number of 2 to 8 units, depending on the boiler output.
  3. In the flue gas heated screens, the boiler water is heated to form a steam-water mixture.
  4. Steam-water mixture due to natural circulation moves to the upper collector devices.
  5. Then the steam-water mixture enters the drum and through remote separators is directed to the steam collector.
  6. Heated in the economizer feed water with high pressure pumps are sent to the upper drum to replenish the volume of water, which was taken out of the water path by extraction of superheated steam.
  7. Through the cooler downpipes, the boiler water descends from the drum to the lower screen collector manifold system to repeat the heating cycle.
  8. Steam, cleaned from moisture in separators from the boiler drum is directed to steam superheaters, of which there are several: radiation and convection.
  9. After the steam superheaters, the steam is used for industrial extraction for the steam turbine or for technological processes.
  10. The boiler has a recuperative type air heater, where the flue gas temperature is used to heat the air to be fed to the burner. Usually a two-stage air heating system is installed, with temperatures up to 200 C.
  11. The smoke pump maintains the vacuum in the furnace minus 2 mm. в. st.
  12. After the furnace the flue gases are directed to the intertube space of superheaters with the temperature of 1180 C, and further to the economizer with the temperature of 250 C and air heating system with the temperature of 130 C. The smoke pump then discharges the escaping gases into the flue pipe.

Anyone considering heating and insulation options for their home must comprehend the technical aspects of the BKZ boiler. The efficiency and effectiveness of the device are largely determined by its design and operating principles.

The BKZ boiler offers a dependable solution for home heating thanks to its robust construction and dependable components. Its uncomplicated design makes troubleshooting and maintenance easier, guaranteeing steady performance over time.

The BKZ boiler’s effective combustion system, which maximizes heat output while minimizing fuel consumption, is one of its primary features. This is an eco-friendly option for homeowners as it lowers environmental impact and energy costs.

Moreover, the boiler’s versatility enables it to accommodate different heating needs, be they for smaller homes or larger commercial structures. Because of its fuel options’ flexibility, users can select the fuel source that is both most affordable and easily accessible.

In summary, the BKZ boiler’s technical attributes render it a dependable and effective option for both heating and insulation requirements. Because of its strong build, effective combustion system, and adaptability, it’s a great buy for homeowners trying to maximize comfort and cut down on energy costs.

We will examine the internal workings of the BKZ boiler, an essential part for home insulation and heating, in the article "Technical Characteristics of the BKZ Boiler: Device and Operation Principles." We hope to provide both technicians and homeowners a clear understanding by examining its device and operation principles. We’ll break down the important details without using too much technical jargon, from its fundamental construction to how well it heats water for different household needs. This article will provide helpful information in an understandable way, regardless of whether you’re thinking about installing a BKZ boiler or are just interested in learning more about how it operates.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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