Schematic diagram of the heat unit

For comfort and energy economy, it’s imperative that your house stays cool in the summer and warm in the winter. A well-thought-out heating system that incorporates a heat unit is essential to reaching this balance. It is imperative to comprehend the schematic diagram of this crucial component because it operates in the background to effectively distribute warmth throughout your home.

Fundamentally, a heat unit’s schematic diagram serves as a kind of road map, directing you through the complex system of pipes, valves, and other parts that come together to keep your house warm. It’s basically a schematic that illustrates the operation of the heat unit by decomposing intricate workings into simple to comprehend symbols and relationships.

Consider your heat pump as the central component of your house’s heating system, providing warmth throughout. The schematic diagram sheds light on how this process works, showing how heated water or air flows, how control valves function, and how it integrates with other systems like pumps and thermostats.

Knowing your heat unit’s schematic diagram is like having a blueprint of your house’s comfort system. It enables you to carry out regular maintenance, troubleshoot possible problems, and even make well-informed choices about upgrades or modifications to improve performance and efficiency.

  1. How to choose the best heat meter
  2. Structure and principles of operation
  3. The design of the UUTE includes:
  4. Heat meter schematics
  5. Installation procedure instructions
  6. 2 Design and schematic diagram of the thermal unit
  7. 2.1 Who installs and maintains the heating unit in apartment buildings?
  8. 2.2 Heat metering unit (video)
  9. How best to install a heat meter
  10. Purpose of installation
  11. 4. Determination of the amount of heat energy and heat carrier released to steam heat supply systems
  12. Calculate the cost of installing a heat metering unit for you
  13. Installation of heat metering units
  14. Adjustment of heat meter and sensors
  15. Commissioning of heat metering units
  16. Instruction
  17. Sequence of installation of UUTE
  18. Installation of UUTE
  19. Algorithm of UUTE installation
  20. Project development
  21. Selection of devices
  22. Coordination with the heat supplying organization
  23. Installation
  24. Installation of the heat metering unit at the heat point is carried out in several stages:
  25. Each device in the UUTE is very important
  26. These devices are often used:
  27. Basic elements
  28. Who should be in charge of equipment maintenance
  29. What is a thermal unit in heating systems
  30. Design of a heating unit in an apartment building
  31. Types of heat sensors
  32. Stages of work
  33. Installation of the heat metering unit is carried out in several stages:
  34. Is it profitable to install a meter in an apartment?
  35. Individual heat meters
  36. Varieties pros and cons
  37. Structural elements description and purpose
  38. Structurally, the metering unit includes:
  39. Measurement in an automated way:
  40. Calculation:
  41. How the installation of a heat meter will affect the heating bill
  42. Procedure for calculating heating bills
  43. Conclusion
  44. Video on the topic
  45. Scheme of operation of the individual heating unit. Characteristics and advantages.
  46. What a heat point consists of? Overview on the example of Residential Complex Atmosphere. Samara.
  47. Individual heating unit. How it works.
  48. Overview of an existing ITP with heating and DHW heat exchangers

How to choose the best heat meter

Although there are many different kinds of heat meters, the following five are the best for installation in apartments:

  • mechanical (otherwise – tachometric);
  • electromagnetic;
  • vortex;
  • ultrasonic;
  • battery-mounted sensors.

The reason mechanical heat meters got their name is that an impeller submerged in coolant is used to measure the coolant’s flow rate. Two sensors are used to measure the temperature differential; these sensors are inserted into the supply and return pipelines. The calculator provides the result of heat energy consumption based on these data. These heat meters are relatively inexpensive, but they also have strict requirements regarding the coolant’s quality.

Companies that supply heat are not big fans of these devices, not so much because they care about the coolant’s quality as much as experts do because these devices are not well shielded from outside interference by unauthorized individuals who could misjudge the readings.

Meters that use electromagnetic fields. These meters operate on the basis of the coolant passing through a magnetic field, which generates an electric current. These gadgets work quite well and are highly stable. Measurement errors may arise from coolant impurities or improper wiring connections made during installation.

Heat meters with vortex flow. The way that this kind of equipment operates is by measuring the vortices that form behind obstructions in the coolant’s path. mounted on pipelines that are both vertical and horizontal. These meters have high standards for the quality of the coolant’s impurities, the quality of the welding job, and the presence of air in the system.

They require the installation of a magnetic mesh filter in order to function properly. Deposits inside the pipeline don’t prevent the device from working as intended. The size of straight pipe sections before and after the flow meter is highly required by this device.

The drawbacks of ultrasonic heat meters are essentially nonexistent. They don’t need to know the coolant’s quality because the working section ultrasound determines the coolant’s flow rate. With the aid of sensors placed on the supply and return pipes, the temperature difference is computed. The only drawback is that this device costs at least 15% more than the mechanical one, but management firms advise installing these devices. This makes sense because it is impossible to tamper with the way this device works.

The temperature of the air inside the room and the radiator’s surface are measured by heat meters that are mounted on it. Subsequently, the calculator generates data regarding heat consumption by utilizing the manually entered passport data regarding radiator capacity.

It is unlikely that the company providing the heat will allow this kind of device to operate, but if there is a communal heat meter, this device will help determine the amount of heat consumed in each apartment more precisely. It should be noted, though, that these devices need to be installed in every room.

A heat meter needs a passport and certificate, just like any other metering and measuring equipment. Records must unavoidably include information from the manufacturer’s initial verification. Additionally, this information needs to be displayed on the device’s body in the form of a unique sticker or branding. Periodic verification is an inevitable requirement for these devices while they are in operation. The terms used vary based on the kind of device. Verification is done once every four years on average.

Structure and principles of operation

The design of the UUTE includes:

  1. Heat meter.

This device is intended to calculate the amount of energy used to heat the served premises and to automatically measure the temperature, flow rate, and pressure of the medium in the circuit. What makes up the meter is:

  • resistance thermocouple;
  • Parameter recorder and sensor of the working medium flow rate.

Some varieties of heat meters also come with filters and pressure gauges.

A shut-off valve is used to disconnect the main pipeline’s heating circuit. Mud trap: to shield the meter from contaminants and dirt found in the heat medium. A flow meter is used to calculate the heat carrier’s volume. Thermosensor: used to regulate the medium’s temperature at the network’s inlet and outlet.

Heat meter schematics

When discussing heat point schemes, it should be mentioned that the following kinds are the most prevalent:

  • Heating circuit – scheme with parallel single-stage hot water connection. This scheme is the most common and simple. In this case, the hot water supply is connected in parallel to the same network as the heating system of the building. The heat carrier is fed into the heater from the external network, then the cooled liquid flows directly into the heat pipe in reverse order. The main disadvantage of such a system, compared to other types, is a large consumption of network water, which is used to organize hot water supply.

  • Scheme of the heat supply unit with sequential two-stage connection of the hot water heater. This scheme can be divided into two stages. The first stage is responsible for the return pipe of the heating system, the second stage is responsible for the supply pipe. The main advantage that thermal units connected according to this scheme have is that there is no special supply of mains water, which significantly reduces its flow rate. As for the disadvantages – it is the need to install a system of automatic regulation to adjust and correct the distribution of heat. It is recommended to use such connection in case the ratio of the maximum heat consumption for heating and hot water supply is between 0.2 and 1.

  • Heat unit – scheme with mixed two-stage connection of the hot water heater. This is the most universal and flexible in settings connection scheme. It can be used not only for normal temperature schedule, but also for increased temperature schedule. The main distinctive feature is the fact that the connection of the heat exchanger to the supply pipeline is not in parallel, but in series. The further principle of construction is similar to the second scheme of the heat supply unit. Heat units connected according to the third scheme need additional consumption of network water for the heating element.

Installation procedure instructions

It is imperative that the following steps be taken:

  1. Hold a meeting of all tenants of the building and document the decision to install a heat meter, select a responsible person (make and sign a protocol).
  2. Apply with a letter to the heat supplying organization in order to obtain technical conditions for installation. It is important to take into account that the place of installation of the heat meter will be the boundary of responsibility for the condition of the pipelines. Up to the metering unit of the TGO – after the apartment owners or the management company. The technical specifications will state:
  3. place of installation;
  4. its technical characteristics;
  5. diameters of pipelines to be installed;
  6. With the received technical conditions It is necessary to apply to a design organization to draw up the design documentation. The project for the installation of a heat meter, as a rule, is typical, but requires adaptation to a specific installation site. The period of documentation production may extend up to two months. It is mandatory to specify as part of the project:
  7. Specific model of heat meter (to be agreed with the customer in advance), corresponding to the received technical specifications.
  8. Installation diagram.
  9. Estimated documentation.
  10. The developed project must be approved by the organization, which issued technical specifications. Approval period of 1 to 2 weeks, provided that the documentation has not been sent for revision.
  11. It is necessary to purchase the meter specified in the project documentation. When buying a heat meter, make sure that the passport has a valid stamp of the state verifier.
  12. Installation of the heat meter. Installation of heating meters is carried out only by specialists, and such work cannot be carried out by own efforts. It is necessary to contact a company that has all the necessary authorization documents for the provision of services of this kind.
  13. For commissioning It is necessary to sign a contract with the heat supplier. Although this step seems simple, it can take a considerable period of time. It must be sealed before it is put into operation. Responsibility for the integrity of the seals during the entire period of operation falls on the owner.

It needs to be turned in for state verification every four years while it’s in use. This is carried out to ensure proper operation. Additionally, the mechanical filter needs to be cleaned and the batteries need to be changed during the non-heating season.

It is the owner’s responsibility to operate the meter correctly and in compliance with the specifications. As a result, the metering unit owner needs to have a maintenance contract with a service provider (such as an installation, power supply, or management company) for the metering devices.

Once a month, on the dates mentioned in the contract, readings are taken for billing purposes regarding the heat supplied. Both the consumer and the heat supplier’s representatives are present when readings are taken. Both parties’ signatures verify that the recorded data is entered into the applicable act.

2 Design and schematic diagram of the thermal unit

A thermal unit consists of a complex set of devices and equipment whose installation is done in accordance with the preliminary project in the communal systems of apartment buildings. A device of this kind can be used for one or more purposes, like:

  1. Measurement of the quantity and mass of heat energy, its pressure, temperature of the liquid circulating through the pipeline and the time of operation.
  2. Accumulation and storage of this information on a local medium.
  3. Displaying it on the metering devices.

The operation of apartment building heating equipment is inspected, controlled, and maintained based on the data collected.

The accounting tool is a meter of sorts, with a scheme that includes the following:

  1. Thermal resistance converter.
  2. Heat meter.
  3. Primary flow converter.

The heat meter’s composition may include filters and pressure sensors, depending on the primary converter model installed (with vortex, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or tachometric variants of measurement).

Schematic of a heat meter’s circuit

The components of the heat energy metering unit are as follows:

  1. Shut-off valves.
  2. Heat meter.
  3. thermal converter.
  4. Dirt trap.
  5. Flow meter.
  6. Thermal sensor of the return pipe.
  7. Additional equipment.

In turn, installing a heat energy metering system in an apartment building necessitates the following basic prerequisites:

  • the need to install the scheme of metering equipment only at the boundaries of the balance belonging of pipelines in places closest to the main gate valves of the heating source;
  • prohibition on organizing a project of heat transfer medium withdrawal for personal needs in the communal heat supply system;
  • regulation of average hourly and average daily parameters of the heat carrier are made according to the readings of metering equipment;
  • meters are installed on the return pipelines of the mains and are placed up to the connection point of the subbit pipeline.

Competent services conduct a competent examination of the installation and operation of the equipment in question in order to competently regulate and control it.

2.1 Who installs and maintains the heating unit in apartment buildings?

Apartment buildings have hot water supply (HWS) and central heating (CH), with the main supply pipeline situated in the basements and fitted with shut-off valves. The latter makes it possible to unplug the internal heating system from the external network.

The thermal unit itself has an elevator built into its design, along with strainers, shut-off valves, control, and measurement devices. Typically, for continuous upkeep, a dirt trap—a steel pipe with a diameter of Du=159–200 mm—is needed to collect dirt from the main pipeline in order to shield heating devices and pipelines from contamination.

Plumbers servicing the residential building installed the thermo-node and maintained it, including cleaning it, in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the housing and community services organization.

2.2 Heat metering unit (video)

How best to install a heat meter

Installing a surface-mounted device is the easiest solution because it doesn’t involve cutting pipes or hiring a specialist. Just fastening the heat meter to the radiator will suffice. The case with mechanical devices is different; in order to install them, you must disconnect the risers, empty the water, and disassemble a portion of the pipe. Similar circumstances apply to ultrasonic devices, which are inserted straight into the pipeline.

As previously mentioned, a project that is ready and a permit should be obtained before deploying this equipment. Furthermore, the device’s installation needs to be done by a licensed business, as stated in the certificate of work completed, to prevent issues with commissioning and supplier payment. This company’s specialists complete tasks in accordance with the following phases:

  • make a connection project;
  • coordinate the necessary documentation with the heat supplier;
  • install the heat meter;
  • register the device;
  • put the device into operation, handing it over to the controlling organization.

If you choose to perform these tasks independently, make sure you thoroughly read the heat meter’s instructions first. The installation and operation of the device are subject to recommendations that must be strictly followed. It should be noted that mechanical and ultrasonic devices need to have a measuring area with specific measurements. In other words, a straight pipe that is installed both before and after the appliance must be free of bends and turns.

There should be a minimum of three pipe diameters between the mechanical heat meter’s measuring section and the flow meter. The measuring section of ultrasonic heat meters must be at least 5 diameters before and 3 after the device, depending on the manufacturer. These measurements are more stringent.

Let’s now discuss the possibility of installing a separate heat meter on the return pipeline. The majority of manufacturers produce meters that can be mounted on any trunk line; the most important thing is to keep the temperature sensor locations consistent. They are typically screwed into a tee or a unique tap that has a separate spigot just for that use.

It is actually frequently very difficult to legally install and commission an individual heat meter in the post-Soviet countries. Maybe the outcome of this device won’t justify the time and materials used to create it. Thus, it is advisable to speak with the thermal energy supplier before submitting an application to the individual metering organization.

Metering devices are a great resource for individuals looking to cut costs. It is advised that anyone who does not want to cover the costs associated with heat transportation consider installing a heat meter. especially considering how easy the task is. The most important thing is to decide whether you want to install a common or individual metering device; it is best to leave the other tasks to the experts.

Purpose of installation

Installing a meter enables decision-making regarding the application of energy-saving strategies and control over the cost of heat energy. Heat meters do not save money on their own, but they typically result in lower heat bills after installation.

The decrease in expenses can be attributed to paying for the heat that is actually provided, rather than making calculations using the apartment’s normative temperature and the average monthly ambient temperature.

Apartment buildings and individual apartments can both have heat energy meters installed.

An individual metering device is one that is installed for a single consumer; a collective metering device is one that is installed for multiple consumers. The general physics course taught us that the formula for calculating heat is Q= m × (t1-t2).

The following values are needed to calculate the heat energy:

  • Q – Quantity of heat;
  • m is the mass of water passing through the heat meter in one hour (water flow rate);
  • t1 is the temperature in the supply pipe;
  • t2 is the temperature in the return pipe;

They focus on these three indicators as well. Heat sensors are used to measure the temperature; these are placed in the supply and return pipelines. Variations in heat meters between water quantity measurement types.

4. Determination of the amount of heat energy and heat carrier released to steam heat supply systems

2.4.1. The total amount of heat energy released by the system’s outputs, which is the heat source for steam heating systems.

The algebraic sum of the products of the mass of the coolant in each pipeline (steam line and condensate pipeline) and the corresponding enthalpies is the quantity of heat energy supplied by the source heat for each individual outlet. Condensate pipeline mass of the heat carrier is measured with a negative sign.

The following formula is used to determine the quantity Q of heat energy released by the source heat:


Where the steam lines’ k-number of metering units;

Т-the quantity of condensate pipeline metering units;

The mass of steam that each steam line’s source heat releases;

Gкj: the condensate received from each source for each pipeline;

Steam’s high enthalpy in the corresponding steam line;

Hкj, the condensate’s enthalpy in the relevant condensate pipeline;

Hxv is the cold water’s enthalpy when used for makeup.

The hourly average measurements of pressure and temperature are used to calculate the average enthalpy values for the corresponding time intervals.

Calculate the cost of installing a heat metering unit for you

Installation of heat metering units

The technological process includes:
  • assembly of equipment and connection of main and auxiliary devices to the heat supply system;
  • electrical installation works for laying cable lines, installation of shields and earthing.

Adjustment of heat meter and sensors

It entails configuring the programmable elements’ software.

Commissioning of heat metering units

Based on an evaluation of the heating scheme’s operational viability. Based on the findings of visual inspection and system observation, a special commission representing the heat supply company makes the determination. Test durations range from 72 hours to one week.

The commission will definitely check:
  • availability of seals on meters of various parameters;
  • installation of a heat meter with a number coinciding with the data in the device passport into the scheme;
  • accuracy of the device;
  • absence of damage on the constituent elements;
  • quality of work performed.

The unit cannot be operated if this parameter is evaluated poorly. In order to prevent this issue, equipment installation should be left to a company that has a long history of success in this industry.


The responsible personnel must complete mandatory training in basic equipment operation after the unit is put into commission.

The technical aspects of the heat supply scheme and the complexity of the work involved determine the costs associated with installing heat metering units and completing the necessary paperwork.

Sequence of installation of UUTE

  • Preparation of design and estimate certificates for the heat metering unit;
  • Coordination of the planning documentation for UUTE at the energy supplying institution;
  • Modification of the metering device;
  • Production according to the schemes of straight lines (profiles) of the heat energy metering equipment;
  • Cutting profiles into existing networks;
  • Electrical assembly and commissioning of the taxation device;
  • Surrendering the mechanism to the management firm for taxation;

The manufacturing plant’s model and cost must be considered when configuring the mechanism. Cheaper mechanisms typically pay for themselves quickly, but more expensive ones last longer and have greater metrological clarity.

Taxation is a very active feature in many of the newest heat supply structures. Customers find it intriguing because they could save money, and contractors find it intriguing because they could keep an eye on the flow rate, check for leaks, and do a lot more.

The purpose of the metering unit is to determine the real heat energy that the customer uses in their computations with the heat contractor. These devices are programmed to identify multiple indicators, such as heating medium, DHW waste, and so forth.

Understanding the heat unit’s schematic diagram is essential to knowing how to effectively heat and insulate your house. This schematic basically shows how your home’s heating system works, including how heat moves from its source to different rooms. Through dissecting this schematic into basic elements such as the boiler, pipelines, heating elements, and controls, homeowners can gain a deeper understanding of the operation of their heating system. Comprehending this configuration enables people to troubleshoot problems, maximize energy efficiency, and make well-informed decisions about repairs or upgrades. Essentially, understanding the heat unit’s schematic diagram is the first step toward designing a comfortable, energy-efficient home.

Installation of UUTE

A heat metering unit is conceptually a complex system of interconnected sensors and devices that are connected to the heating system.

1. Heat meter: the heat metering unit’s primary component. Its composition consists of:

  • resistance thermocouple;
  • flow meter (installed at the coolant inlet);
  • Heat meter;

The apparatus is further fitted with sensors to measure the medium pressure in the pipeline, if needed.

The following categories are used to group these meters based on how the primary converter operates:

  • Tachometric (mechanical);
  • Ultrasonic;
  • Electromagnetic;
  • Vortex.

Heat metering unit installation can only be done correctly by highly skilled professionals. The entire heating system may fail as a result of installation errors.

All of the devices measure the temperature and the volume of the heat carrier at various pipeline sections, regardless of how they operate.

Data output is offered in several models:

  • to an external display;
  • in printed form (for this purpose the heat meter must be equipped with a printer socket);
  • electronically to a remote computer (the function is available if a GSM/GPRS modem is installed).

2. Thermal converters—either one or more of them—allow data on the temperature differential in pipeline sections to be tracked and recorded.

3. A mud trap keeps the dirt in the heating medium away from the heating network.

4. Tachometer transducers: these are sensors that measure the heating medium’s flow rate.

5. Shut-off valves: required to isolate a particular area from the wider network.

To determine the cost of the work, select the calculator.

  • Calculating the cost of a hydronic testing contract
  • Calculation of the cost of chemical flushing of the heat exchanger
  • Calculation of the cost of maintenance (MRO) of ITP and CHPP
  • Calculation of the cost of installation of the UUTE
  • Calculation of the cost of designing a heat supply system
  • Calculation of the cost of operation of engineering systems
  • Calculating the cost of chemical flushing of central heating pipelines

Algorithm of UUTE installation

It is possible to conditionally divide the UUTE equipment process into multiple stages.

Project development

The heat meter is placed at the heating circuit’s inlet, and the location of the heat metering unit’s installation is dictated by the main pipeline’s piping type (upper or lower).

Selection of devices

The project specifications include information on the types of devices and sensors. There are situations when setup instructions for automation tools are missing from project documentation. In this situation, it is preferable to leave the equipment selection to experts rather than making a snap decision.

Ultimately, the special commissioning committee will not approve the commissioning certificate if the purchased meter is intended for a temperature range that differs from the heating unit’s.

Coordination with the heat supplying organization

Regulatory documents forbid cutting into pipelines at locations not included in the design documentation and interfering with UUTE operation without authorization.


Installation of the heat metering unit at the heat point is carried out in several stages:

  1. Additions are made to the project of the operating heat point in the form of tapping heat meter and other means of automation and control, which includes the metering unit.
  2. Design documentation of a new TP is initially developed taking into account the mutual location of the equipment of the heat point with sensors and devices.
  3. Development of the project itself and its explanatory note is based on measurements (or calculations) of operating mode parameters.
  4. Specialists of the company, the sphere of activity of which includes design, installation and maintenance of heat points (including automated), will prepare project documentation in a short period of time. The customer receives a project approved in Gostekhnadzor.
  5. Installation of the equipment is carried out only by qualified personnel. Interference in the operation of communication networks by a private person is inadmissible.
  6. The time of installation and wiring works is coordinated with the power supplying organization.
  7. Upon completion of installation, the system is subjected to tests for strength and tightness.
  8. If the positive result of the test is drawn up Act of handing over to , the list of equipment which includes the metering unit.

In addition to showing the measured values on the screen, modern meter models also enable data recording, archiving, and registration.

A few changes enable printing or remote computer access to the data.

The metering unit can be operated remotely and is made to function without the need for expert maintenance. The metering unit has extra signaling, measuring, and processing tools for this reason, in addition to a way to process the data collected in a predetermined amount of time.

Each device in the UUTE is very important

Given that the metering unit is situated at the building’s heating system inlet, shut-off fittings, filtering fittings, and p and t measuring devices are all appropriately installed.

These devices are often used:

  1. Ball valves, rotary disk bolts – used to stop the flow of water, sometimes replace rheometers without draining the heating structure;
  2. Mesh filters – used to clean the coolant, at the same time protect rheometers and other components of the heating configuration from clogging;
  3. Manographs that show and meters p – measure p on supply and return pipelines, stabilize the difference of p on filters and flow meters;
  4. Bimetal thermometers – they measure and show the t of the heating medium;

Basic elements

The thermal unit is made up of a number of metering and storage devices that work together to fulfill one or more functions at the same time. These functions include information gathering, measurement, storage, accumulation, and display regarding the mass (volume), heat energy, pressure, temperature, and time of operation of the circulating liquid.

Heat meters, which come with thermal resistance converters, heat calculators, and primary flow converters, are typically used as metering devices. Depending on the primary converter’s model, the heat meter can also have filters and pressure sensors installed. The primary converters used by the heat meters have the following measurement options: tachometric, electromagnetic, vortex, and ultrasonic.

Who should be in charge of equipment maintenance

The hot water supply (HWS) and central heating system (HS) of apartment buildings are connected, and their supply pipelines are found in the basement. These pipelines have shut-off valves that enable the in-house heating system to be disconnected from the external network if needed.

The heat supply unit itself has an elevator built into its design, along with control and measurement devices, strainers, and shut-off valves. A dirt trap, which resembles a steel pipe with a diameter of Du-159–200 mm, is typically needed for more frequent maintenance of all devices. Its purpose is to collect dirt that may be brought from the main pipeline and shield heating devices and pipelines from contamination.

When it comes to installing or maintaining heat meters, only individuals with the necessary training who have been granted permission to carry out these tasks handle the matter. This can be attributed to the room’s elevated level of danger. You run the risk of suffering in addition to breaking the expensive equipment, which could cost several tens of thousands of dollars.

Therefore, you can customize as you like without having to go inside. There’s no reason to put your health at unnecessary risk. If there are any issues, get in touch with the relevant authorities right away. Fitters that work in this area install, maintain, and clean the heat metering unit after it has been given to them by the organization, which handles housing and community services.

All multi-story buildings must have a heat metering system installed. The system can be tuned to the ideal values since the coolant temperature within the machine can be determined. This extends the lifespan of the heating equipment and allows you to save a significant amount of money on heating. If private residences are linked to the central heating system, they can also be connected to these units. Despite the system’s high cost, you can optimize your comfort during the winter months because of it.

What is a thermal unit in heating systems

To keep each usable room in the apartment building at a comfortable temperature without requiring residents to connect an independent heating system, it is crucial to construct the proper project for the installation of the equipment that is being presented. Frequent verification of the data acquired from the specified apparatus enables the eradication of potential shortcomings or malfunctions in the previously constructed heating circuit.

By routinely reviewing the data gathered from the equipment mentioned above, you can rule out any potential flaws in the previously constructed heating scheme or its malfunctions.

Design of a heating unit in an apartment building

In cities with high population densities, heating networks can be fairly large. Every building has a heating system input and an output for additional heating medium distribution. Many buildings have boilers installed in order to keep the hot water supply and heating networks at the proper temperature. In an apartment building, heat metering enables the elimination of heat carrier losses during delivery to the point of consumption.

The typical heat metering unit is an automated device that does the following:

A heat meter is the node’s primary component. It is composed structurally of:

  • from the programmable calculator;
  • at least two thermocouples on the inlet and return pipelines;
  • from the flow meters of the consumed heat carrier volume.

The calculator is used to calculate and aggregate the data after the outputs of the temperature and water volume flow sensors are connected. Some more components of the node design are defined by the primary flow converter model. The heat metering system can make use of the following kinds of heat flow meters:

Quantitative. The most affordable and basic design meters count the turbine’s revolutions while the water is flowing. Although the flow meter is simple to use and maintain, hard water environments necessitate routine filter cleaning. It works best in private residences or homes with a limited number of apartments.

Magnetic in nature. insisting on the metal impurity content. If the filters on the inlet piping are cleaned on time, the readings are accurate.

Vortex. They can be installed on both risers and horizontal pipelines, and they provide precise cost calculations.

Exceedingly loud. These primary converters are the most sophisticated available today, but they are also the priciest. extremely strict with the heat carrier’s purity and technical specs.

Types of heat sensors

A heat meter is a measurement tool made up of a heat calculator, waste, t, and p converters. The calculator, which receives commands from the converters installed directly on the pipes, computes the amount of heat energy consumed based on the available parameters at multiple points. It can record emergency cases and out-of-order situations, archive diagnostic results, examine the heat supply configuration’s schedule of operation, and do a lot more.

By using this method, the heat sensor offers two solutions at once: it serves as a technical stabilization device in the heat supply structures and aids in commercial accounting, the results of which are utilized in calculations between the contractor and the heat customer.

Stages of work

Installation of the heat metering unit is carried out in several stages:

  1. Object equipment survey.

The purpose of the heating circuit testing is to:

  • Determination of the scheme of the process;
  • assessment of the total heat load of the consumer in parallel with the determination of its structural orientation;
  • calculation of the range of variation of the heating medium flow rate depending on the time of day and corrected for the temperature coefficient.

The design data and actual data are correlated, and a specific UUTE size and configuration is chosen based on generalized information.

Creation of the project’s documentation.

This is part of the UUTE’s functional design:

A) preliminary information:

  • heat supply contract;
  • a document confirming that the circuit belongs to the balance network;
  • Conditions of installation of heat meter and related equipment;
  • design task.

Choose a calculator to determine the project’s cost.

  • Calculation of the cost of the hydrotesting contract
  • Calculation of the cost of chemical flushing of the heat exchanger
  • Calculation of maintenance cost of ITP and TSP
  • Calculation of the cost of installation of the UUTE
  • Calculation of the design costs of the heat supply system
  • Calculation of the cost of operation of engineering systems
  • Calculation of the cost of chemical flushing of central heating pipelines
  • Calculation of the cost of diagnosing damage to pipelines

(b) Documentation in use:

  • schemes of the object:
  • functional, with notes on the installation of automation equipment;
  • technological (before reconstruction);
  • electrical connections and power supply of the electrical cabinets;
  • technological (after reconstruction, with heat meter installed)
  • specification.

C) technical details and a synopsis of the appliances and devices that are anticipated to be utilized in the equipment complex;

D) instructions for operation;

  • design heat loads;
  • economic substantiation of the node project.

The project’s quality is directly correlated with how well the complex of devices operates. The explanatory note’s economic section consists of the following:

  • calculation of operating mode parameters (for selection of devices);
  • conclusions on the project efficiency with indication of its payback period;
  • degree of efficiency of the circuit.

The power supplying organization must agree to the working design. The operational characteristics of the object and the specifics of the technological process are taken into consideration in the design documentation for the unit’s installation.

The explanatory note for the project provides technical solutions to problems that are calculated based on device and metering unit requirements.

Examining the heated spaces’ and the heat supply circuit’s technical state.

Recommendations on merging the equipment installation and heating unit reconstruction have been included in recent revisions to regulatory documents. By swapping out individual components for more energy-efficient ones and installing dependable control and shut-off valves, it is possible to lower the heat load and improve system performance. In this instance, the project calls for rebuilding and repairing TPs.

Included in the metering unit’s installation are:

  • Purchase of necessary components and materials.
  • Manufacturing and installation of cabinets for equipment placement.
  • Installation of measuring and control equipment.
  • electrical installation works.

A separate building is built to house the heat point if there isn’t a room set aside for it or if it doesn’t comply with building codes.

Prior to commissioning the UUTE, they are completed following the completion of the equipment installation. Their job is to modify the devices so they fit the manufacturing organization’s specifications.

An act formalizes the metering unit’s authorization for use. Representatives of the organization that provides heat issue the act, provided that:

  • compliance of the object with the project;
  • available technical data sheets for devices and appliances;
  • integrity of seals and verification mark on the heat meter and flow meter.

Is it profitable to install a meter in an apartment?

Installing a heating meter in the apartment makes financial sense. Only the heat produced by the heating batteries is purchased by the homeowner; any losses incurred during transit are not covered. Eliminate potential heat loss sources as much as you can (install airtight window frames, insulate the space, etc.) to optimize your savings. The entire apartment can have the heating system installed. д.

It is a given that you will be able to reduce your payment costs and recover your expenses if:

  • obtain a permit for installation and technical specifications from the organization supplying heat;
  • notify the responsible person elected by the general meeting;
  • It is possible to install 1 metering unit for the whole apartment;
  • coordinate the project documents with the heat supplier;
  • hand over the installed device to the same for operation, after that the device must be sealed.

Actually, it is pretty challenging to follow through on all of these requirements in order to install a heat meter in the apartment and adjust the heat supply based on the readings. Perhaps a new building with individual heat inlets for each apartment would be the most successful option. Then, different legislative acts may present different challenges. For instance, a decree in the Russian Federation stipulates that individual heat meter readings are subject to accounting in the following circumstances:

  • heat meters must be installed in all apartments;
  • at the input of central heating in the house must be installed a common heat meter.

Almost every high-rise constructed during the Soviet era has a one-pipe heating system with vertical risers. Just consider how many devices will need to be installed on each standpipe connection. Furthermore, it is improbable that you will be issued a permit, and the denial will have merit. Additionally, the riser pipes release heat, which is not measured by a single meter.

Even with the installation of a separate heat meter, you will still be responsible for paying for the heating of any stairwells and other technical rooms in the house that have heating radiators. This is a methodical approach to arranging all of your activities with the management of the condominium. While the actual installation process is not too complicated, the majority of the time should be devoted to registering the various permits and approvals.

The heat meter can be installed by you, but there might be issues when the management company commissions it. Hence, you can contact a contracting company, which will assist you in resolving the paperwork problem in exchange for a fee.

Individual heat meters

In the event that a common meter is installed, payment for the heat energy supply is made in accordance with the previous plan, which divided the charged amount among all apartments based on each apartment’s area. Not everyone can benefit from this distribution; some have energy-efficient windows and insulated walls, while others still live with outdated wooden windows. It is unfair to charge insulated apartment owners the same as the rest of us when they have invested in their modernization.

These factors have led to a high demand for individual heat meters in apartments among users. There are no other formalities or condominium registration requirements for their installation. The most important thing is to work with the company – service provider to develop a project, install the device, and arrange for all of your actions. Sadly, most apartment owners are not able to take advantage of this option, and here’s why.

Energy metering suggests that there is only one energy source, but because of the vertical heating system, most apartments have multiple. It implies that each riser pipe needs to have a device installed, which is incredibly costly; however, paying under the previous plan was simpler. Vertical reconstruction options are both difficult and pointless since they throw the system out of balance. Safe installation of individual apartment meters is only possible in newly constructed buildings equipped with a horizontal heating system.

Content owners of apartments with horizontal branches can buy a set that fits the pipe diameter and install it at the apartment’s heat-carrier inlet. Once a project has been approved and the necessary paperwork, documentation, and meter certificate has been obtained, the meter can be registered with the managing organization and pay for services on a pay-as-you-go basis. An installation diagram for the apartment metering device can be found below:

More recently, so-called overhead meters—meant to track the amount of heat expended by every radiator—have been available for purchase. Considering how reasonably priced they are, purchasing a device for every battery is quite feasible. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the company or service provider will want to deal with these meters and will decline to register them.

Varieties pros and cons

Heat meters come in various varieties:

  1. Tachometric. These are devices of mechanical action. The principle of their work is quite simple. The flow meter should be connected to the heat supply system of the house, and it will take into account the amount of heat carrier that has passed through it. Inside the flow meter is installed impeller, which rotates from the water flow. As you know, the radiators in the apartment and house are heated by hot water. For heating systems with very hard water, it is better not to use devices of mechanical type, The cost is relatively low.
  2. Ultrasonic. This type of meter has a large number of modifications. They all work, however, on the same principle. It is installed on the pipe of the supply or return pipeline. As an example, the following type of installation: the transmitter is installed after the radiator, and the sensors – before the radiator. These meters are characterized by a fairly high class of accuracy, while the price of such devices is quite acceptable and depends on the modification.
  3. Electromagnetic. This type can be categorized as the most expensive. This is the price to pay for the wide range of possibilities. It can be used for heat energy metering both in closed heating systems and in open ones. It additionally allows the water flow rate and temperature flow rate to be taken into account. All processes are automated and calculation data are displayed on the screen.
  4. Vortex. They are capable of measuring not only water, but also steam. According to the principle of operation they differ from other heating meters. The device is installed on the pipe between 2 branch pipes.
  5. Radiator atomizers. Most often installed on heating radiators in apartments where there are several heating risers.

Structural elements description and purpose

Structurally, the metering unit includes:

  1. Thermo meter.

Conversely, a classic meter consists of:

  • resistance thermocouple;
  • a device for registering medium parameters in hydraulic systems;
  • sensor of the heat carrier flow rate, which converts the obtained quantitative characteristics into a convenient form for measurement.

Filters and pressure gauges are examples of optional gear. No matter how the heat meter is configured, its duties are:

Measurement in an automated way:

  • operating time in the error zone;
  • operating time at a given voltage;
  • exceeding the pressure level of the medium in the system;
  • temperature and flow rate of the heat carrier in communication schemes.

To determine the cost of the work, select the calculator.

  • Calculating the cost of a hydronic testing contract
  • Calculation of the cost of chemical flushing of a heat exchanger
  • Calculation of the cost of maintenance (MRO) of the ITP and CHP
  • Calculation of the cost of installation of UUTE
  • Calculation of the cost of designing a heat supply unit
  • Calculation of the cost of operation of engineering systems
  • Calculation of the cost of chemical flushing of central heating pipelines
  • Calculation of the cost of diagnostics of pipeline damage


  • the energy used for heating;
  • the volume of medium-heating medium required to fill the circuit;
  • heat input power;
  • temperature difference between the forward (hot) and return (cold) pipelines.

The entry to the heating circuit is often where the heat point and metering unit designed by a specialized organization are located, as near to the main pipeline’s boundary as feasible. By doing this, the pipe section before the meter is inserted loses less heat.

Only experts can create a heating and water supply plan that is both cost-effective and efficient, taking into consideration all the subtleties of the technological process.

The device’s purpose is to be able to cut off the circuit from the balancing network while the pipeline is being tested, repaired, or rebuilt.

Installed at the heat meter’s inlet, it shields the device from contaminants and dirt found in the heating medium.

Thermal converter: installed via threaded connection or welding after the strainer in a grease-filled machine oil sleeve. A component of the heat unit called a flowmeter is responsible for converting the coolant flow rate.

The following algorithm governs how the network with the installed flow meter operates. After entering the heating circuit, the heat carrier is directed through the flow meter to the building’s heating system. The cooled medium is put back into the meter after losing heat. Installing gate valves at the meter’s inlet and outlet is advised since it will make future system maintenance easier.

A thermosensor is a device that is placed on the return to regulate the medium’s temperature at the communication’s inlet and outlet.

The device functions in conjunction with both the flow meter and the heat meter.

How the installation of a heat meter will affect the heating bill

One of the biggest concerns for people who live in apartment buildings is this. Installing a heat meter will result in a significant reduction in the amount of the heating bill. There is, nevertheless, also a particular principle of action at play here.

The amount in the bills will very slightly decrease if there are broken windows in the entrances and the door is always left open. It is very likely that it will either stay the same or even rise. This is because, in this instance, the street is heated, which is the result of heavy and justified heat consumption. By adding glazing, or even better, installing plastic windows in the foyer, you can prevent this situation. If there isn’t one, you should install one so that the heat stays inside the house during the cold months. Otherwise, keep it closed at all times.

Foam-insulated walls are becoming more and more common in houses these days. This is also done to keep the cost of heating down. By taking these steps, the bill can be lowered by up to 30%.

Procedure for calculating heating bills

The computation of the heating bill is a significant concern for users of the heating network. Here, a number of options are possible:

  • There is a communal heat meter, individual heat meters are absent;
  • There is both a communal and individual heat meter;
  • There is a community meter and several apartments have individual meters installed.

In the first version, you must first compute:

  1. Price for heating of one square meter. To do this, the readings for the past month are taken from the community meter and multiplied by the tariff. Then the obtained figure should be divided by the total area of all residential and non-residential heated premises.
  2. What is the apartment"s share of the communal property?. To calculate it, the area of entrances, attics, basements should be multiplied by the area of the apartment and divided by the sum of the areas of all apartments and non-residential premises.
    Now it remains only to add up the two areas: the apartment and its share in the property of the house, the resulting number is multiplied by the amount of heating cost per square meter.

Everything is a little bit different in the second variant. In this instance, the apartment’s portion of the house’s property as well as its own heating are covered by insurance. Every apartment has its meters read, and the information is cross-checked against the community meter. The share of basements, attics, and entrances changes as a result. According to the size of each tenant’s apartment, it is divided among them. As a result, the total cost of heating is comprised of two figures: the amount spent on heating the apartment itself and the total amount allocated to non-residential spaces (basements, attics, and entrances).

It is required to obtain readings from each individual heat meter in the third variant. The acquired data is condensed and deducted from the common meter’s data. The amount of heat used by the other apartments and the total floor area make up the difference that is obtained. The amount of heat in each apartment must be computed before determining the share of apartments. To accomplish this, start by completing the first step of the calculation’s first variant. After that, multiply the total by the apartment’s area. Proceed to step 2 and multiply the received total by the square meter heating cost. These two sums are due and payable.


You could gain more knowledge about heat units and heat metering systems from this article. As you can see, multi-story homes absolutely require this. It is feasible to adjust it to the ideal value because the coolant inside is controlled in temperature. By doing this, you can prolong the life of your heaters and save money on heating expenses. Furthermore, I would like to mention that if a private residence is connected to central heating, these units can be installed. You won’t pay a dime for the system, but you’ll be able to guarantee the highest possible standard of comfort going forward.

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Component Description
Boiler The boiler heats water or air, which is then circulated through the house to provide warmth.
Thermostat This device regulates the temperature inside the house by controlling the boiler to turn on or off as needed.

Anyone trying to maximize the insulation and heating in their home must be able to read a heat unit’s schematic diagram. It’s similar to having a blueprint for coziness and warmth in your home.

Through analyzing the parts and connections in the schematic diagram, homeowners can learn a great deal about how their heating system works. Their ability to troubleshoot problems more skillfully and interact with technicians during maintenance or repairs is enhanced by this knowledge.

Furthermore, a thorough comprehension of the schematic diagram of the heat unit can result in significant energy savings. With this knowledge, homeowners can spot potential inefficiencies and take proactive measures to fix them, such as replacing outdated equipment, strengthening insulation, or changing usage patterns.

In addition, understanding the schematic diagram helps one to have a greater understanding of how different heating system components are interconnected. Every part, from pumps and thermostats to boilers and furnaces, is essential to preserving a cozy interior environment.

In summary, studying a heat unit’s schematic diagram is a means to improve comfort, efficiency, and control in the house as well as a test of technical knowledge. Equipped with this understanding, homeowners can confidently navigate the intricacies of their heating systems and make well-informed decisions to maximize their living space.

Video on the topic

Scheme of operation of the individual heating unit. Characteristics and advantages.

What a heat point consists of? Overview on the example of Residential Complex Atmosphere. Samara.

Individual heating unit. How it works.

Overview of an existing ITP with heating and DHW heat exchangers

What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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