Norms of heat supply in an apartment building

As winter’s chill descends, our homes’ warmth and coziness become increasingly important. In addition to keeping us warm, maintaining adequate insulation and heating is essential for both cost- and energy-effectiveness. Knowing the standard for heat supply in apartment buildings is one of the most important aspects of this.

Apartment buildings share common insulation and heating systems, making them distinct ecosystems of energy consumption. These buildings’ heat supply regulations aim to combine sustainability, economy, and comfort in a way that makes sense. They offer recommendations for the amount of heat that should be delivered to each unit, accounting for variables such as building dimensions, local climate, and energy-saving objectives.

It is imperative that both building managers and tenants comprehend these standards. It guarantees that tenants have enough heating during the winter and makes them conscious of how much energy they use. Following these guidelines is essential for building managers to ensure smooth operations, reduce energy waste, and meet regulatory requirements.

Apartment building heat supply norms are usually established by industry standards organizations or local regulatory bodies. These standards might change based on a building’s type, location, and other elements. They frequently suggest insulation levels, set minimum temperature requirements for living areas, and describe how heating systems should be monitored and controlled.

Furthermore, adhering to these standards helps to ensure that residents live in a sustainable and comfortable environment in addition to fulfilling legal requirements. Apartment buildings can lower their utility costs, lessen their carbon footprint, and support broader energy conservation initiatives by following these guidelines.

Residential heating norms – standards and features

The degree of warmth in a dwelling house determines how comfortable it will be to live in. One of the most crucial elements in creating the ideal microclimate in a city apartment is the air temperature. However, different rooms have different standard temperatures. Thus, the standards for heating residential buildings and the primary causes of inadequate heating will be discussed in this article.

What is meant by the heating norm?

The temperature range at which no heating or cooling compensation mechanisms activate is understood as the norm. It should be mentioned that the majority of people find that temperatures between +21 and +25 degrees Celsius are comfortable.

There are slight variations in this indicator for different population groups. For instance, studies show that +23 to +25 degrees Celsius is the ideal air temperature for women and children in apartments. Additionally, these values are slightly lower for men, ranging from +21 to +23 degrees. The ideal temperature range for an apartment’s heating system, according to psychologists and hygienists, is between 18 and 24 degrees above zero. Thus, +18 degrees Celsius is the lowest temperature that can be achieved in a room.

At this level, a person can spend a considerable amount of time inside the house without needing to wear outer clothing or risking health problems. Apartment heating standards are governed by law. Certain climate conditions need to be maintained in residential homes and apartments during the cold months. The documentation contains a detailed explanation of everything. The payment for heating is also calculated in accordance with the norms. Different situations call for different standards to be set.

Given that the apartment’s heating parameters are determined by three factors:

  1. Climatic peculiarities of the country"s region.
  2. Type of heating: centralized or autonomous. In the first case, the location of the apartment is taken into account for the calculation of the normative rate. For example, corner or not. The temperature of the heat carrier is also taken into account. In the second case, the concept of norm is somewhat conditional. It all depends on the comfort of living, heating boiler.
  3. Type of heated space.

When the heating period starts?

It is evident from the custom of turning on the heat that the heating season officially starts when the five-day average outside temperature outside the window is less than or equal to +8 degrees Celsius. If the outside temperature rises above +8 degrees Celsius for longer than five days, the heat supply is cut off.

The heating season typically runs from mid-October to the beginning of April.

However, it should be mentioned that social facilities and educational establishments are able to request an early start to the heating system. City homes typically undergo a test start-up of their heating system 1.5–2 months prior to the heating season. Notices about the dates of the verification run are posted at each entrance. This is carried out to verify the system’s suitability for use.

Apartment residents would be better off staying at home at the designated time. After all, the system might leak during the test run. Following installation, repair, or modernization of the heating system, commissioning of the system is required. This makes it possible to assess the engineering systems’ level of readiness. Moreover, to get them to the necessary operating parameters.

Apartment heating standards

In residential buildings, the standard temperature ranges from +20 to +22 degrees Celsius. Of course, there could be some exceptions. The temperature range that is acceptable is +18 to +24 degrees Celsius. However, a room in a corner is more vulnerable to the elements and frost. Consequently, the temperature in these apartments shouldn’t drop below +20 degrees.

Based on the kind of room, certain standards are set:

  • For kitchen and toilet: +19 to +21 degrees Celsius. Allowed values: +18 to 26 degrees.
  • For the bathroom: from +18 to +24 degrees. Acceptable and +26 degrees.
  • For the corridor: from +18 to +20 degrees. +16 degrees is also allowed.
  • For pantry: from +16 to +18. Permissible parameters: +12-22 degrees Celsius.

The need for heat is somewhat diminished while you sleep. Thus, in residential premises, the temperature can be lowered by 3 degrees between 24:00 and 5:00, per GOST. Residents have the right to request a recalculation of the payment for heating services and to avoid paying for the heat they do not receive if the heating in their apartment building has started, but the batteries are not providing enough heat and the temperature inside the apartment is below the standard level.

What are the peculiarities of heat supply systems in urban apartments?

At the start of the heating season, the temperature in the room can occasionally drop below the standard level. This could be due to a variety of factors. Understanding how an apartment building’s heating system operates makes it much simpler to find and fix issues.

The way the system works in short can be summed up like this. The building’s heating unit receives the heat carrier from the central boiler house, which is then distributed to each apartment through the main pipelines. Further adjustments are made to the hot water supply temperature if the heating system is unable to adequately heat the space. At the heating station, this is carried out. For such applications, specialized circulating pumps are employed. We refer to this technique of supplying water as independent.

A dependent heating system is also present in an apartment building, where coolant is distributed directly from the CHPP into each apartment’s batteries. Additionally, heating systems can be single-pipe or double-pipe systems based on the wiring layout. The secret to efficient and superior heating is the careful and accurate distribution of heat throughout the home.

There are several drawbacks to single-pipe heat supply in apartment buildings. The main drawback is that hot water loses a lot of heat during transportation. Coolant is supplied from the bottom to the top. The upper floor radiators are frequently only slightly warm because of this.

A distribution plan like this makes radiator adjustments unfeasible. Furthermore, changing batteries cannot be done without completely draining the circuit. But installing jumpers fixes the problem. Although a multi-story building with this kind of heating system saves money, it also causes an uneven distribution of heat among the apartments. Wintertime in upper apartment buildings can be bitterly cold.

However, all apartments on all floors of the house can now have more uniform heating thanks to the two-pipe system. The water that cools in the radiator flows into the return duct rather than back into the same pipe, which distinguishes the two-pipe circuit.

Why the temperature in the apartment is below the norm and what to do?

In order to find out why a multi-story building’s batteries aren’t heating as well as they could, you should get in touch with the utility office after turning on the building’s heating system. When the temperature deviates from the standard setting, the service staff should arrive and correct the issue. The issue ought to be resolved in a week. Tenants may appeal to higher authorities in the event that this isn’t the case.

A systemic air lock is a common reason for cold batteries.

In the event that the heating is disconnected during the heating season, it is probably only temporary and related to maintenance. It’s also possible that one of the neighbors decided to add new sections or replace the radiator, which required turning off the heating system.

Most often, cast iron radiators are installed in buildings with central heating. The heating risers in apartment buildings can occasionally become clogged and require flushing. This is something that only experts should do. After all, specific knowledge, abilities, and experience are needed. It takes specialized hydropneumatic equipment, which uses compressed air and water mixed together. It is possible to clean heating systems without flushing the risers. This process can be done independently or by the apartment’s owner. Nevertheless, it necessitates disassembling the batteries and takes a long time. All of this enables you to raise the system’s efficiency.

Low power from the heating battery may also be the cause of poor heating. The oddities of the equipment installation may be the source of this predicament. The thermal capacity of a radiator, for instance, will be significantly reduced if it is installed in a niche. The system won’t be able to heat the entire room as needed if there aren’t enough battery sections. For this reason, installing heating units with the appropriate capacity is crucial. The recommended radiator power is one kilowatt per ten square meters. м.

Some renters heat their homes with electricity. Naturally, the cost of this kind of home heating is fairly high. However, this heating technique is the most dependable and easiest to use. There are three types of electric heating: combined, water, and pure electric. Let’s look at the kilowatts required for electric heating in order to heat the house. This figure is dependent upon the type of heating system the apartment’s owner intends to use, such as an electric boiler, convector, or "warm floor" system.

It is preferable to select a three-phase electric boiler. The equipment has different powers. The area of the house must be divided by ten to get the necessary boiler capacity. Thus, if the house has 140 square meters of space. It will be necessary to use a 14 kW boiler for м. It is possible to set an electric energy use mode with two tariffs in order to save money. The calculation is performed using a similar scheme for convectors.

The most practical heating option is a floor heating system. Considering that every room can have a specific temperature set. for a 90 square meter home in total. The range of electricity consumed is 5.5 to 9 kW.

As a result, there are legally mandated standards for apartment temperature. Additionally, tenants have the right to apply to the Housing and Utilities Department in order to request an improvement in the quality of heat supply and to identify the cause of the situation if these standards are not followed and the apartment building’s heating systems fail to adequately heat the building’s interior.

When an apartment is heated centrally versus when autonomous heating is installed and run in the home, the notion of the norm for heating can be very different.

Apartment with central heating

What is the difference between the heating norms of centralized and autonomous heating?

When considering centralized heating, it is important to consider the apartment’s location—whether it is on a corner or not—as well as the design temperatures of the heating medium. They are specifically determined for every area of the nation, accounting for the cold-season climatic regime.

Apartment building heating scheme

Owners of autonomous heating systems will feel much more liberated in this regard. In this case, the idea of the standard for heating will be highly conditional, based primarily on the comfort of the occupants and also considering the heating boiler’s capabilities and their financial situation.

It would be worthwhile to draw attention to the issue of heating standards for structures with built-in split systems that provide ventilation, air conditioning, and temperature rise. The entire cost of establishing a microclimate in each room—whose indicators will be ideal in terms of both temperature and air humidity—determines their scope of work.

Specifically, it has been shown that people perceive a higher temperature when there is greater air humidity than when the indoor humidity is maintained at a lower level. Consequently, in this instance, using a set of microclimate parameters would be required rather than the clause on standard heating.

In the realm of apartment living, understanding the norms of heat supply is crucial for both comfort and cost-efficiency. These norms serve as guidelines for maintaining a cozy indoor environment while also ensuring energy usage remains within reasonable bounds. By adhering to these standards, apartment buildings can effectively regulate temperatures, optimize energy consumption, and ultimately provide residents with a comfortable and sustainable living environment. Whether it"s through efficient insulation, modern heating systems, or smart energy management practices, the implementation of these norms plays a significant role in creating a warm and inviting atmosphere within apartment complexes. Through awareness and adherence to these norms, both residents and building managers can contribute to a more energy-efficient and environmentally conscious community.

Heating norms for centrally heated apartment buildings

These customs are the oldest. They were computed when the radiators were hot and fuel was not being used efficiently to heat the coolant. Concurrently, the majority of "cold" materials used in house construction were concrete panels, which were "cold" in the sense that they retained heat.

The standards haven’t changed even though the times have. The current GOST R 52617-2000 states that living rooms’ air temperatures shouldn’t drop below 18 °C (or at least 20 °C in corner rooms). Simultaneously, the company that provides the heat energy is entitled to lower the nighttime air temperature (0–5 hours) by no more than 3°C. Establish distinct temperature requirements for each room in the apartment. For instance, the bathroom should be kept at a minimum of 25 °C, while the hallway should be kept at a minimum of 16 °C.

The society has been trying, sometimes with little success, to modify the process that establishes heating norms by tying them to the heat carrier’s average temperature rather than the temperature of the interior air. This indicator is detrimental to the heat supplier, but it is far more objective for the consumer. You be the judge of whether or not residential buildings’ temperatures are influenced by human activity and living conditions in addition to the functioning of the system.

The heating devices’ own design elements also play a significant role. For instance, at the same air temperature, cast iron radiators will not produce as much heat as panel heating systems. As a result, heating standards based on air temperature are not totally equitable. When using this method, the outside air temperature is less than 8°C. Customers must receive heat from the heat-generating organization without question if such a value is maintained for three days in a row.

The following values (rounded to one standard deviation for convenience of use when using household thermometers) represent the calculated values of the coolant temperature for the middle band based on the outside air temperature:

Temperature of air outside, °¡

The supply pipe’s network water temperature, expressed in °Ρ

Using an ordinary thermometer and the above table, you can quickly ascertain the water temperature in the panel heating system (or any other) at the time of partially draining the coolant from the system. Use the information in columns 5 and 6 for the direct branch and column 7 for the return. Keep in mind that the supply water temperature is determined by the first three columns, which do not account for transmission pipeline losses.

A proportionate reduction in the payment for the district heating services rendered is justified if the heat carrier’s actual temperature deviates from the standard one.

Installing heat meters is an additional option, but it is only functional in apartments where the building has a centralized heating system. Furthermore, these meters need to be inspected annually.

Heating norms for individual heating systems

Apartment with a stand-alone heating system

In this instance, it is important to comprehend the heating device’s heat output in relation to the area of the room in which it is installed in order to comprehend the heating norm concept. It’s important to distinguish between the terms "radiator" and "heating device" at the same time. For instance, using combined action air conditioners to ventilate and condition air while simultaneously heating it does not fit under the definition of a radiator or heater.

The following formula can be used to find the norm for heat supply systems where the heater P, W’s known thermal power:

Here, S is the room’s area in meters squared that this computation is done for; 41 is the empirical coefficient of minimum heat capacity for rooms with permanent occupants; h is the room’s height in meters.

The calculated value and the heater’s actual heat output should be correlated. This parameter, which varies per section depending on the type of heating system, is:

  1. For cast-iron radiators – 90-160 W (large data correspond to the maximum temperature of the coolant in 90 ° C, with smaller values the heating norm should be proportionally recalculated).
  2. For steel radiators – 60-170 W (when the temperature of the heat carrier decreases, the heat output of steel radiators drops more sharply than that of cast iron radiators).
  3. For aluminum and bimetallic radiators 160-200 W.

We may determine the number of sections needed to guarantee the necessary norms by dividing the value of P by the normative index of heat efficiency of a particular type of radiator. The only thing left to do is buy them. Thus, the design characteristics of heating devices are primarily responsible for ensuring compliance with the thermal regime for a particular house.

The connection method of heating devices must be considered in order to improve the precision of the norm calculation. Radiators’ typical heat output is therefore decreased by 10% at the bottom connection and by 25–30% when connected to a single-pipe system.

It should be noted that the permissible pressure of the coolant pumped through this device plays a major role in determining the thermal capacity of any kind of heater. The heating system should have a minimum pressure of 2-4 atm and a maximum pressure of 6-8 atm. The heating will be incredibly inefficient in the first scenario and might not be able to support the pipelines in the second. As a result, the type of heating equipment and the actual coolant pressure in the heating system are taken into account when calculating the heating norms for a single home or for the autonomous heating of an apartment.

Dependence of the coolant temperature on the outside air temperature

The water temperature in the heating system is determined by the outside air temperature and is kept there in accordance with a specific temperature schedule that is determined by experts for various heat sources in a manner that takes local weather conditions into account.

These timetables are made to ensure that, in the winter, a temperature between 20 and 22 degrees Celsius is maintained in the living areas.

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The temperature of the coolant in the heating system: norms

The temperature graph and the outside air temperature are directly correlated, as was previously mentioned. As a result, heat loss increases with decreasing air temperature.

What temperature value should be used in the calculation is the question that emerges. The regulations contain this figure, which has already been calculated.

The average temperature of the year’s five coldest days serves as its foundation. The eight coldest winters over a 50-year span are chosen.

Why is the average daily temperature determined in this manner?

First of all, it makes it possible for you to be ready for the occasional dip in temperature during the winter.

Additionally, you can create heating systems at a significant cost savings by considering this indicator. The amount that can be saved will be substantial if we take it into account when calculating the volume of mass construction.

It goes without saying that the heating medium’s temperature will affect the heated room’s temperature.

When the heating season arrives, what temperature should the apartment be at?

Read this article to learn the standard battery temperature in the apartment.

The interior temperature is also influenced by a number of other factors, including:

  • The lower the temperature outside, the lower it is indoors;
  • The temperature is also affected by wind speed. The stronger the wind loads, the more heat loss through window frames and entrance doors increases;
  • How tightly sealed the joints in the walls of the house. For example, insulating the facade walls of the house or metal plastic windows are the factors that will affect the temperature inside the room.

The building codes of today are different. Thermal insulation projects, such as insulating a home’s facade, basement, foundation, roof, and roofing, drive up the cost of construction projects.

Although insulating your home comes at a significant cost, you will save money on heating in the long run. The cost of purchasing fuel is decreased as a result of these actions.

How applicable is this in the modern day? This is undoubtedly the reason why building companies raise the price of homes they construct, knowing that insulation will more than pay for itself in the long run.

All of the aforementioned points are undoubtedly significant. However, the temperature of the radiator batteries is the primary factor influencing the temperature in the rooms. Central heating systems typically have temperatures between 70 and 90 degrees Celsius.

Everyone is aware that the intended temperature regime within the room cannot be achieved solely based on this criterion, since each room has a distinct purpose and the temperature in each should vary.

  • If the room is corner, the temperature regime should not fall below + 20 0 C, and in other rooms is the norm temperature is not lower than +18 0 C, in the shower room is not lower than +25 0 C. If the outdoor temperature drops to -30 0 C or below, all the above values will increase to +22 0 C and 20 0 C respectively;
  • In rooms intended for children – from +18 0 C to +23 0 C. But even here, the temperature depends on what the room is intended for. In swimming pools – not lower than +30 0 C, and on verandas for walking – not lower than +12 0 C;
  • In children"s schools – not lower than 21 0 C, and in the bedrooms of boarding schools – not lower than 16 0 C;
  • In cultural institutions the temperature ranges from 16 0 C to 21 0 C. For libraries – up to 18 0 C.

Depending on the purpose of the space, all premises are allowed to use the approved temperature regimes. This is but a tiny portion of an extensive list.

The intensity of a person’s movement within a room affects the average temperature regime. The temperature in the room should be higher the less movement there is from the occupant.

Heat distribution starts with this. As proof, note that maintaining a high temperature in sports facilities during busy times is inappropriate; as a result, the temperature index there does not rise above +18 0 C.

Factors influencing the batteries’ temperature include:

  • Temperature outside the room;
  • Type of heating system. For a one-pipe system, the norm is +105 0 C and for a two-pipe system +95 0 C. The temperature difference in the supply and return system should not be higher than 105-70 0 C and 95-70 0 C respectively;
  • Directional flow of the heat transfer medium to the radiators. If the mortar is laid from above, then the difference is 2 0 C, and if it is laid from below, then it is 3 0 C;
  • Type of heater. Radiators and convectors have different heat output, which means that the temperature regime is also different. Radiators have a higher heat output than convectors.

However, everyone understands that the heat output—whether from a convector or radiator—depends on the ambient temperature.

Radiators should be kept between 40 and 45 0 C at the supply and 35 and 38 0 C at the return if the street temperature is 0 0 C. Regarding convectors, the supply temperature is 41–49 0 C, and the return temperature is 36–40 0 C.

These values for convectors will be 68-79 0 C/55-57 0 C, and for radiators, they will be 67-77 0 C and 53-55 0 C, respectively, at a frost of -20 0 C. Furthermore, the data for convectors and radiators is standard at 40 degrees frost: 95–105 for hot water supply and 70–0 C for processing.

Category Norms of Heat Supply
Season Winter
Temperature Average outside temperature below 8°C
Indoor Temperature Minimum 20°C in living rooms, 18°C in other rooms

It’s critical to comprehend apartment building heat supply norms in order to maintain efficiency and comfort in your house. These regulations set minimum requirements for heating supply with the dual goals of encouraging energy conservation and preserving a comfortable temperature.

Both building managers and residents can help minimize the impact on the environment and reduce energy consumption by following these regulations. In order to meet these standards, proper insulation, effective heating systems, and routine maintenance are necessary.

Adherence to heat supply guidelines not only improves living circumstances but also lowers residents’ utility bills. Making sure your apartment building satisfies these requirements can result in lower energy costs and happier tenants overall.

Moreover, keeping a sufficient supply of heat in apartment buildings is important for everyone’s health and safety in addition to comfort and financial savings. Residents’ health may suffer as a result of problems like mold and moisture brought on by inadequate heating.

In conclusion, maintaining a safe, effective, and comfortable living environment requires understanding and observing the rules surrounding the heat supply in apartment buildings. Both tenants and building managers can help create a healthier, more sustainable future by placing a high priority on regular maintenance, energy-efficient heating systems, and adequate insulation.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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