Long-burning coal-fired boiler with their own hands

Choosing the appropriate heating solution is essential for keeping your house toasty and comfortable throughout the winter. The long-burning coal-fired boiler is a tried-and-true option, despite the abundance of others. These boilers are still a popular option for homeowners trying to stay warm without going over budget because they have been used for generations to provide dependable and efficient heat to homes.

Long-burning coal-fired boilers have the advantage of being inexpensive options for individuals who enjoy do-it-yourself projects and are handy with tools. Another great thing about these boilers is that they are easy to construct. Building your own boiler not only saves installation costs but also gives you a better understanding of how your heating system functions, enabling you to troubleshoot future problems.

Although building a long-burning coal-fired boiler may seem like a difficult undertaking, it can be a worthwhile project that pays off in the long run if you have the correct advice and supplies. There are many resources available to assist you at every stage, from locating the required parts to assembling the boiler itself.

The efficiency of long-burning coal-fired boilers is one of their main advantages. These boilers are made to burn coal slowly and evenly, in contrast to conventional boilers, which need to be refueled frequently. This feature enables the boilers to provide steady heat for long periods of time without requiring continuous maintenance. This guarantees that your house remains warm and cozy all year round in addition to saving you time and trouble.

Materials Needed Steps
Steel barrel, stovepipe, firebricks, grate, door hinges, handles, bolts, nuts, and stove cement. 1. Cut the barrel to create a firebox and a chimney. 2. Install the door hinges and handles. 3. Place firebricks inside for insulation. 4. Fix the grate at the bottom. 5. Assemble the stovepipe for the chimney. 6. Seal all joints with stove cement. 7. Connect the chimney to the stove. 8. Test the boiler with a small fire.

How to make a long-burning boiler on your own?

Solid fuel is thought to be the least expensive combustible material available today for use in homes. Pellets, briquettes, wood, coal, and peat all fall under this category. Conventional stoves heat homes in an inexpensive and straightforward manner. Nonetheless, fuel loading must be done continuously. Heating an entire house with this method of operation is challenging. A water circuit-equipped long-burning boiler is a great way to solve the issue.

Supervisory structure approval is not needed for installation or operation. As a result, creating and installing the heating unit by hand is not difficult. It just needs the boiler’s drawings, comprehensive manufacturing instructions, and a small amount of money.

These are a better variety of solid fuel stoves. Strong boilers can efficiently heat commercial, auxiliary, and industrial spaces in addition to residential buildings. The gradual burning of solid fuel with significant heat dissipation is the foundation of the boiler’s water circuit technology. The boiler has a restricted ignition area and functions as a volumetric furnace. Pellets or firewood are laid every 12 to 18 hours. Robust burning is transformed into slow smoldering by controlling the air flow from above.

An exhaust chimney is used to release waste gases. It heats the water used in the heating system after passing through a heat exchanger. As a result, the system runs nearly constantly and fuel is loaded infrequently.

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Varieties of boilers

Wood-fired boilers are a great substitute for gas-powered appliances. They have several benefits, which define them:

1. High efficiency: 90% of the fuel is burned slowly, which results in this efficiency.

2. Extended activity: The large furnace’s strong blower fan allows it to run continuously for up to seven days.

3. Environmental friendliness: When organic fuel is burned, a tiny quantity of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.

4. Cost-effective: The best boiler loading mode can be adjusted thanks to integrated electronics.

There are three types of delayed combustion heating units available on the market today.

Use wood, coal, or wood briquettes for operation. The small firebox shortens the time needed for one fuel deposit to burn. Refueling is required four to six times a day to guarantee continuous operation. One of the main benefits of traditional boilers is their affordability.

Design featuring a large loading aperture and a hopper. Bulk dry materials are utilized. The combustion process is optimized by automatic control. A strong boiler can operate for six to twenty-four hours, depending on the load. There is no more than 75% efficiency.

Their operation relies on the combustion of wood gases released during the gradual smoldering process. High heat transfer efficiency and quick heating of the heat transfer medium are guaranteed by the design. With a CDC of 85%, the furnace runs on a single load until all of the fuel is burned.

Diagram showing a wood stove’s water circuit

Vasily Pustovoychenko’s drawings depict boilers as easily constructed, reasonably priced, and doable DIY projects. Use a steel barrel, a fully welded pipe, or an old gas cylinder as a base. The metal walls ought to be at least 3–4 mm thick. This guarantees the equipment’s continuous long-term operation and lessens metal burnout. The base’s height ranges from 800 to 1000 mm. The volume of a single fuel loading determines the value of this parameter.

The three components of the wood-fired heating boiler scheme are as follows:

  • loading hopper – a container for storing fuel, the height of which changes as it burns;
  • furnace chamber – the area where the slow smoldering of wood and the generation of gases takes place;
  • full combustion zone – a closed tray, where wood gases are burned, ash accumulates and smoke is removed.

An air distributor sets a limit on the furnace chamber. It is a circular piece of metal, 4-6 mm thick, with a hole in the middle. It is traversed by a telescopic (or one-piece) pipe that provides oxygen to the combustion zone. Because the distributor disk is rotating, its diameter is marginally less than that of the boiler body. Air from the atmosphere enters the discharge pipe through the upper flap.

A chimney that is fixed in the upper portion of the chimney is used to release exhaust gases. There is a door at the base of the wall that is used to remove the ash. Since solid fuel burns almost entirely in long-burning boilers, waste is rarely removed. The design also incorporates locations for the supply and return water connections. Additionally, ascertain where the draught regulator and thermometer should be fixed.

Plumbers: The faucet nozzle can reduce your water bill by up to 50% LESS.

There are two methods for heating the coolant in the water circuit:

1. Create a remote storage tank so that the pipe can pass through it. In addition to moving down the chimney, the exhaust gases also heat the water.

2. Go through the combustion chamber with the heat exchanger pipe. It’s in the storage tank; connect the coil to it.

The second method has a higher efficiency. The technology used for execution, though, appears to be far more intricate.

Manual for making your own

Should you lack the funds to purchase a pre-made heater, you may attempt to construct one on your own. You must first examine the drawings, become familiar with the directions, and estimate the potential expenses.

The following tools and supplies are required to make a boiler:

  • Metal thick-walled pipe with a diameter of 300-400 mm.
  • Sheet steel 4 mm thick.
  • Two metal pipes: Æ 60 mm for the air supply and Æ100 for the combustion products outlet.
  • 20 mm thick reinforcement bars.
  • Blower fan.
  • Automatic circuit.
  • Welding machine, bolgar.

The drawings specify that the body, chimney, air distributor, door, and cover for the upper part must be made separately.

1. Use a bolgar to cut the pipe so that its length is approximately one meter. Align the edges correctly. Weld a steel plate round bottom cut to one side of the blank. The reinforcement legs can be attached right away at this point.

2. Construct an air distribution system:

  • Cut a circle out of sheet steel, the diameter of which is 20 mm less than the inner diameter of the body.
  • Drill a hole of 20 mm in the center.
  • Weld the impeller on one side. The blades must be made of sheet metal up to 50 mm wide. This is the lower part of the distributor.
  • In the center of the upper side weld a pipe for blowing Æ60 mm. Its length should be the same as the boiler itself.
  • On top of the pipe to fix the flap, which regulates the air supply.

3. A square aperture that can be easily cleaned out of ash is carved out of the lower portion of the casing using a bolgar. Subsequently, the door with the latch is attached and the hinges are welded on.

4. Near the edge, a round hole is cut in the upper portion of the casing. It has to have a threaded socket welded to it so that the chimney pipe Æ100-150 can be fitted onto it. A section that is 500 mm or longer needs to be placed exactly horizontally. The pipe then travels through the heat exchanger, which is constructed like a storage tank.

5. Sheet metal is required for the cover with the central hole. That will be traversed by the distributor pipe. A seal composed of asbestos cord should be placed along the cutoff’s diameter to guarantee that the cover fits the combustion chamber snugly and keeps smoke out.

Guidelines for Installation

You can install the equipment yourself because it runs on wood instead of gas.

1. Every long-burning boiler that is handmade has a substantial mass. Adding wood to the construction makes it substantially heavier. The chimney must therefore have a solid and level foundation. It is advised in the installation handbook to mix crushed stone or rubble with reinforced concrete before pouring it. As an alternative, you could create a brick base.

2. The casing’s exterior walls in the combustion chamber region heat up significantly. Surrounding the firebox with a water jacket does not prevent surfaces from overheating. Most long-burning homemade boilers are made with a single casing. As a result, 50 cm should be the minimum distance to the closest wall.

3. It is required to construct a protective surface out of galvanized sheets with an asbestos lining if the room is finished with flammable materials. Another option is to install brickwork.

4. Leave a gap of 25–30 cm in width between the floor and the rock wool-filled, asbestos-sewn galvanized chimney. While ensuring fire safety, all of these measures significantly raise the long-burning boiler’s overall cost.

Written by Sergey Isaev

Making a long burning boiler with your own hands

In addition to providing independent home heating, solid fuel boilers also allow for energy resource conservation. Is building a solid fuel boiler by hand really that profitable? Or is it preferable to purchase a pre-built item from a reputable supplier? Together, let’s figure it out!

1 Ready-made solutions – which boiler to buy?

To be honest, purchasing a ready-made long-term combustion boiler is probably more expensive than building one yourself. Consider the time invested in making the unit by hand in addition to the cost of the materials. Furthermore, not everyone can complete a task perfectly on their first try, so mistakes will inevitably come to light during operation and need to be fixed, adding to the already high expense.

It’s also important to acknowledge that the majority of the technologies employed by boiler manufacturers are unavailable to the general public, and there is no viable alternative. For instance, the powder coating of boilers, which greatly prolongs their service life, cannot be replicated in a home without expensive equipment. The quality of the welding and the accuracy of the parts differ greatly between the homemade and store-bought versions. Because of these factors, the majority of people choose to purchase ready-made options, and there are many available right now.

Today, the Lithuanian-made long-burning boilers Stropuva (Stropuva) or Candles (Candles) have proved to be excellent – these units are able to work on a single load of firewood up to 40 hours, and when loaded with coal – all 5 days. Wood-fired models are labeled with the letter S, while coal-fired models are labeled with the letter U. The efficiency of such boilers – up to 90%. In the design of these units, combustion goes from top to bottom – the fuel burns on the principle of a candle. Due to the fact that the flame is from above, wood and coal burn out much better, so the boiler will have to be cleaned much less often.

2 Alternative options – gas generation and pellets

Pyrolysis units can also be attributed to long-burning boilers. and pellet boilers. Pyrolysis (gas generator) boilers are loaded with wood once every 8-12 hours. At first there is a start ignition of fuel, so that the temperature inside the boiler reached the 800 ° C mark. At this temperature, gas generation becomes possible – with the help of gate valves, the desired mode is set, namely, limiting the access of oxygen to burning wood. As a result, wood gas is released, which is burned in a special chamber, and then the charcoal is burned. The amount of ash and soot produced is minimal. The efficiency of gas-generator boilers is about 85 %.

The primary benefit of pyrolysis units is their low fuel consumption. This is how the high cost of such devices pays off; you will save two or three times as much money this heating season. But there’s another issue you’ll have to deal with all the time—this kind of wood boiler only functions well with extremely dry fuel or clean coal.

The key is to always have the proper quantity of fuel on hand for pellet boilers with automatic fuel supplies, which can operate endlessly. With the exception of an automated fuel supply, these units’ construction is essentially identical to that of traditional solid fuel boilers. Pellets are poured into a container found on household boilers; one load lasts for several days. Generally, servicing the unit requires about 20 minutes per week; this includes the occasional ash removal and fuel addition to the hopper.

3 General overview of boilers of available design

The peculiarity of the design of boilers with upper combustion is the air supply to the place of combustion with the help of a telescopic tube. Making such a wood-fired unit with your own hands is not a simple task even for experienced craftsmen. For this reason, in most cases, homemade solid fuel boilers of long combustion have a traditional bottom combustion, and the duration of the unit is achieved by increasing the volume of fuel and connecting automatic regulators, which can be purchased separately and installed on any boiler. Fuel is loaded into such an aggregate through the upper hatch, and for ignition the lower hatch is intended, through which the products of combustion are also cleaned out.

Air is supplied to the fuel chamber through the under-blower and grates. The air supply and combustion force are regulated with the aid of the under-blower chamber door. The units are constructed from pipes with a minimum 300 mm diameter or from sheet steel that is 3–5 mm thick, depending on the design. Steel works well for regular steel, but it’s best to use two layers of material or purchase heat-resistant steel. The walls themselves, registers, or a combination of the two can act as the heat exchanger.

When building one of these by hand, the primary goal is to maximize the area of contact between the fuel and the heat exchanger’s surface, as this boosts efficiency.

Because the water circuit is in direct contact with the flame, the design’s simplicity is guaranteed. It is also possible to construct a water-heating unit, but keep in mind that a significant amount of heat will still escape through the chimney. Two pipes of differing diameters and some sheet steel are needed for its arrangement. A smaller pipe will function as a chimney and heating element, while the larger pipe will hold water.

Mine type wood boilers are more labor-intensive to operate by hand, but they are very efficient. These units are made up of two chambers: the heat exchanger is located in the second chamber, which is on the side, and the first chamber is used as a fuel loading compartment. The flame and hot gases are drawn into the chamber with the register when the fuel is ignited in a nearby chamber, heating the coolant inside the pipes. The smoke nearly entirely loses heat to the register due to its lengthy journey from the site of combustion to the exit to the atmosphere.

4 Difficult but feasible – fuel burning from top to bottom

Even on the example of an ordinary match, you can see for yourself the efficiency of combustion from top to bottom. A match in a vertical position with the flame at the bottom generates heat, which is enough to heat the thermometer to 60 ° C. If the match is turned upside down, due to the long burning the thermometer can be heated up to 120 °С. On the scale of a heating boiler, this principle ensures uniform and long burning of fuel, but in this case a water jacket is necessarily needed, which will cover the entire surface of the furnace chamber. Registers in such a design are not mandatory, but their presence will add 5-10% to the total efficiency of the boiler.

To make such a wood boiler with your own hands. you will need a powerful bolgarka for cutting metal and another one for grinding work. However, it is better to cut the metal when buying it at a metal depot, because when cutting with a bolgar there is a high probability of overheating the material in the place of cutting, because of which it will become too brittle. You also need a good welding machine. Choose sheet metal with a thickness of at least 4 mm, preferably heat-resistant. Need and several pipes, one with a diameter of 300 mm and a meter and a half or two meters long with a wall thickness of 3-4 mm and pipes with a diameter of 60 mm and 100 mm – the first for the air distributor, the second for the chimney.

How to make a wood boiler with your own hands – step-by-step scheme

Step 1: Body

A 300 mm diameter pipe’s bottom is cut out of sheet metal, and it is welded to the pipe’s end. This is where the boiler’s bottom will be. Convenient legs can be invented, but they are not necessary if the boiler is going to stand on a concrete base.

How to make a long-burning boiler on wood and coal with your own hands

Private home owners who choose to install a solid fuel heating boiler are mainly focused on three factors: the boiler’s thermal capacity, cost, and duration of combustion with a single load. These factors are correlated: the heat generator will cost more the more power it produces and the longer it will run. You can make a long-burning boiler yourself for half the price, or you can hire reputable craftsmen who have the necessary skills to complete the job. You can also study the process of making a homemade heater here, as well as pick up the design and drawings.

We’ll go over the specifics of constructing your own long-burning coal boiler in this article so you can heat your house effectively. Understanding the workings of these boilers and following the detailed instructions will help you build a dependable coal-burning heating system that will keep your home warm for long stretches of time without requiring frequent refueling. We’ll go over the required supplies, safety measures, and assembly method to give you the confidence to start this do-it-yourself project. This guide will provide you with the necessary knowledge to get started, regardless of your motivation for building—saving money on heating bills or just the satisfaction of creating something useful yourself.

How to increase the duration of combustion of solid fuel

Many homeowners would like to install a solid fuel boiler so they won’t need to run wood every four to six hours. Profiting from this, producers and distributors of heating apparatus label all heat generators, including pellet models that can operate on their own for up to seven days, with the prefix "duration of combustion."

Classic boiler varieties featuring larger fuel chambers

Using the smoldering mode with a restricted air supply usually justifies the length of the combustion process. However, here’s why burning coal and wood in this manner is inefficient:

  1. Wood and coal boilers reach their efficiency of 70-75% during maximum combustion. In smoldering mode, the efficiency of the unit is reduced to 40-50% (as in the case of a conventional bourzhuika).
  2. Smoldering wood emits little heat energy. Who needs a "long-lasting" heat generator, which does not heat the house fully?
  3. Freshly cut wood of certain species (e.g. poplar, willow) and low-calorie fuel cannot be burned normally in smoldering mode.

Wood burns in a factory boiler’s larger fuel box from top to bottom.

All other things being equal, the only thing that affects the length of the process in solid fuel long-burning boilers is their larger fuel chamber. The idea is straightforward: the longer the wood burns and releases heat in the furnace, the more wood there is.

There are various types of household boilers that can operate for up to 24 hours on coal and 8 to 12 hours on wood.

  • classic, with forced air supply;
  • operating on the principle of upper combustion (like Baltic "Stropuva").

If you have the right tools and practice welding, you can create these TT-boiler designs at home. Drawings of mine boilers using solid fuel and sawdust can even be found online, but these heaters are quite large and challenging to make, so they need their own discussion.

Classic continuous combustion boiler

This section features a homemade coal and wood heating unit that our skilled technician Vitaly Dashko designed and built. The master has put together several dozen heat generators with varying capacities, continuously refining the design. Boilers’ dependability and effectiveness have already been put to the test over time on a variety of objects. The following are the technical attributes of the unit’s model that is being presented:

  • power – 22-24 kW;
  • duration of combustion (on average) on wood – 10-12 hours, minimum – 8 hours;
  • the same, on coal – up to 1 day;
  • EFFICIENCY – 75-77%;
  • maximum working pressure in the heating system – 3 bar, nominal – 1 bar.5 Bar;
  • the amount of water in the boiler tank – 50 l;
  • The weight of the product is 150 kg;
  • size of the loading opening (width x height) 360 x 250 mm;
  • total volume of the furnace – 112 liters, useful (for fuel loading) – 83 liters;
  • the depth of the firebox – 46 cm, the optimal length of the log – 40 cm.

As a point of reference. Master produces a range of long-burning boilers with capacities ranging from 16, 24, 36, and 130 kW. When ordering from the master, the cost of a finished product for 24 kW is approximately 450 u. е. You can speak with Vitaly directly about any inquiries or clarifications regarding the solid fuel boiler device and its manufacturer; his contact details are provided on the "Our experts" page.

The drawing illustrates the mechanism and general measurements of the wood-fired, long-burning boiler that they will be making by hand:

The heat generator runs on coal and wood fuel with equal success. Because it is not desirable to fill the chamber to the brim, the fuel compartment’s useful capacity is determined up to the lower edge of the stoking aperture. The boiler operates in the following order:

  1. After the solid fuel is put in and ignited, the doors are hermetically sealed.
  2. On the electronic control unit is set the desired temperature of the coolant, it is recommended not below 50 ° C. The unit is then switched on by pressing the appropriate button, the fan starts up.
  3. At heating up to the set temperature the fan is switched off, the access of air to the fuel compartment is stopped. TT-boiler is in standby mode, the wood smolders very weakly and gives practically no heat.
  4. After the temperature in the boiler tank drops, the controller gives a command to start the fan and the combustion process in the furnace is resumed.

At its discretion, the controller modifies the fan’s capacity to maximize combustion efficiency. This homemade boiler is either in intensive mode, burning coal and wood, or it is in standby mode, with no smoldering combustion.

The drawings of the boiler in section display the internal device of the unit.

The heating installation uses the traditional solid fuel combustion method, which transfers heat directly to the water jacket walls and the boiler tank’s bottom, or the vault. A heat-tube heat exchanger that removes heat from flue gases is submerged in this tank. Through the grate, heated air from the channel is fed into the furnace from below. Combustion duration is guaranteed because of:

  1. A large volume of the fuel compartment.
  2. Full closure of air access to the furnace in standby mode. After turning off the fan triggers a gravity flap that closes the air duct and thus prevents the chimney draught to blow the coals.

The following drawing displays the heat exchanger and the rear section:

Tools and materials for manufacturing

Low-carbon steel grades St 3, 10, and 20 are typically used on the blanks for the assembly of solid fuel boilers that burn for a long time. St 20 is the best choice because heat generators made of it can endure for up to 15 years. Because higher carbon steel (St 35, 45) has a tendency to solidify at high temperatures, it is not recommended for use in heat generator welding.

Heat-resistant steel alloyed with molybdenum and chromium (e.g., 12XM, 12X1MF) can be used for the combustion chamber if you have the necessary welding experience and can afford to purchase more expensive metal. This article explains how to determine the grade of steel with a sufficient approximation.

This is a table that lists the blanks that you will need to assemble a solid fuel boiler by hand:

Advice: Somewhere in the workshop, guillotine shears are the best tool for cutting blanks. By doing this, you can cut and deburr materials by hand much more quickly.

You will also require the following supplies:

  • equal-sided angle 50 x 4 mm for making grates;
  • DN50 pipe – for the heat exchanger and heating system connection pipes;
  • pipe DN150 – on the chimney spigot;
  • 60 x 40 mm profile pipe for the air channel;
  • steel strip 20 x 3 mm;
  • basalt insulation with density of 100 kg/m³ and thickness of 2 cm;
  • smooth sheet metal 0.3-0.5 mm with polymer painting;
  • ready-made handles for the doors;
  • cord, asbestos cardboard.

ANO-21 or MR-3S welding electrodes are used, so it’s important to note that the welding machine, a Bulgarian, and the drill are among the instruments. The remainder are a typical assortment of tools and measuring devices found in every home.

Polish-made control unit and fan

The control unit, fan, and temperature sensor that make up the automation set used in the TT-boiler are all made in Poland (don’t confuse it with the Chinese one; they have similar appearances). The control unit (KG Elektronik SP-05) and the fan (DP-02) are marked.

Assembly of the heating unit

The first step in the production of a long-burning boiler is to weld on tack welds to assemble the fuel box’s 4 mm thick metal body. As seen in the picture, everything begins at the bottom of the unit, to which the side walls, vault cover, and door openings are tacked:

The bottom plate is made on both sides in accordance with the drawing and functions as the ash pan door’s bottom frame. Angle-made shelves that are fixed on welding inside the chamber will support the grate. Every joint on the assembled fuel box is carefully welded, and its tightness is verified.

Installing the 3 mm metal water jacket is the second stage. Its side walls are 2 cm thick, so sections of steel strip should be welded to the fuel box’s body and released by 20 mm. They have the steel cladding sheets nailed to them.

Take note! The ash chamber is not cleaned by the water jacket, which begins at the grate level.

The middle of the so-called clips is staggered. This is a steel circle that was butt-welded to the furnace after passing through the holes in the boiler tank wall. As seen in the picture, the second end of the clip is welded around the hole.

The location of the water jacket’s bottom is depicted in the picture on the right.

A brief description of how to add more clips to the water jacket edges of a homemade solid fuel boiler. A 20 mm strip must be inserted from the end between the walls to a depth of 50 to 100 mm, and both sides must be welded.

Installing flame pipes in the boiler drum’s upper section is the third stage. Pipes are inserted into holes that are cut in the front and back walls in accordance with the drawing for this purpose. Both their ends and every joint in the water jacket are securely welded.

The heat exchanger’s heat pipes are vented out.

Manufacturing of doors and grate is the fourth step. To create a door seal, a strip is welded to the inside of the doors in two rows, with asbestos cord placed in between. Angle #5 is used to create spike grates, and the outer corner is welded downward. As a result, they function as diffusers for the air that the fan supplies to the ash pan.

Install the chimney spigot and air duct made of 60 x 40 mm pipe with a flange for fixing the fan in the fifth step of the boiler tank cut fittings for connecting the supply and return piping. In the center of the back wall, directly beneath the water jacket, is where the air duct enters the ash chamber.

Step six involves welding the door hinges and inserting pieces that are 2 cm wide to secure the long-burning boiler’s decorative lining.

Step seven. last. Insulation made of basalt is fixed with a cord and covers the boiler tank from the sides as well as the top. The doors still need to be installed after that, and the painted metal sheets need to be fastened to the embedded components using self-tapping screws.

Dense basalt fiber calmly tolerates high temperatures while providing excellent body insulation. You should not use glass wool.

The control unit is mounted on the boiler from above, and a fan is fastened to the duct’s mating flange at the end. On the back wall side of the unit, the temperature sensor needs to be placed beneath the basalt insulation. Furthermore, if desired, the following practical additions can be made to the design of a homemade long-burning boiler:

  • Build the DHW water heating circuit into the boiler drum;
  • provide a dip sleeve for installing a thermometer – in case of power failure, when the controller display goes out;
  • the same – for the installation of the safety group;
  • install an electric heating element that heats up the heating medium after the wood burns out.

A brief explanation on how to get hot water in a solid fuel boiler to circulate and heat it for domestic use. Ten meters of copper tubing with a diameter of 8 to 12 mm must be used, and it must be bent into a spiral shape. The latter is wound around the flame tubes inside the boiler tank, and its ends are led outside at the rear of the apparatus. We receive a boiler with two long burning circuits.

Note: Experience with using these heat generators has demonstrated that homeowners who wish to heat their homes at night must install an electric heater. In other situations, the length of the combustion process suffices to avoid having to rush to the boiler room in the middle of the night to add firewood.

It is preferable to immediately remove the film from the painted metal and coat the doors with enamel that can withstand heat.

Any time during the process, the legs can be fastened to the unit by choosing the right rolled metal sections. Details and insider tips for putting together the TT-boiler can be found in the author’s master video, who invented the heating unit:

Boiler with top burning fuel

These heat generators are known by two names in the former Soviet Union:

  1. Baltic units by Stropuva and their derivatives from other manufacturers.
  2. Wood stoves of the "Bubafonya" type.

Although the origin of the Bubafonya stove is unknown, it has become very popular as a heater for dachas, garages, and other structures where the product’s aesthetics are not as important. Nothing can be said about the upper combustion boilers, despite the fact that many of them mistakenly believe that they are the only type of solid fuel heat generators that can operate continuously. Actually, their one and only advantage remains the same: a massive fuel box.

These boilers work on the basis of burning fuel that is compressed by a weight and burned from top to bottom. Additionally, a telescopic pipe attached to the load provides air from above to the combustion zone. The figure depicts the unit’s operating scheme:

Original boiler schematic, retrieved from http://stropuva.ru/

As owners’ comments on forums attest, there have been numerous flaws in the way Stropuva boilers have been operated.

  1. You can not throw in the firebox of logs, until the previous tab is not burned. Physically it is possible, but then the principle of top combustion will be violated, the flame will cover all layers of fuel.
  2. When working on fresh sawdust and other small debris, fuel residue "hangs" on the walls.
  3. The efficiency of the TT-boiler is not too high, because it does not have a heat exchanger. Because of the air heating chamber and the large fuel box, there is no space for the heat exchanger.

The heat generator no longer has any serious flaws, and you can choose to fix certain issues with the homemade version. For instance, arrange an ash chamber by placing the grates and bottom. The drawback of top-loading can also be eliminated by adding a second door between the ash and stoking doorways. As he discusses in his video, Vladimir Sukhorukov, another one of our experts, has this idea to modernize the upper combustion boiler.

Preparation of materials

Although the round casing presents certain manufacturing challenges, a square one would also result in the fuel "hanging" in the corners. It is preferable to remove this component from the Bubafonya stove because there is an issue with the telescopic tube assembly when there is a load. An illustration of a long-burning boiler that is about the same size as the traditional model is as follows:

Prior to building a boiler, we choose the materials based on the drawing:

  • DN 400 pipe with 5 mm wall – on the fuel box;
  • same, DN 50 – for the air supply and water connections;
  • same, DN 100 – for the chimney;
  • blank of 10 mm thick sheet of round shape with a diameter of 38 cm;
  • 40 x 4 mm strip – for air distributors;
  • 16-20 mm diameter periodic profile reinforcement – on the grates;
  • Basalt wool with a thickness of 3 cm and density of 100 kg/m³;
  • thin sheet metal with polymer coating.

The selection of the water jacket material is contingent upon the method of assembly, as a do-it-yourself craftsman is unlikely to keep rollers on hand that can form 3 mm of metal into the shape of a cylinder. The following are the variations (as displayed on the scheme below):

  1. Scheme 1. Take a thin-walled pipe of a larger diameter, although it is not easy to find such a pipe, and the usual one will weigh the boiler down heavily.
  2. Scheme 2. Bend two sheets of metal in 2 places at an angle of 60° and then weld the two halves together. You will need a press – sheet bender.
  3. Scheme 2. To weld a jacket of 6 sheets – segments on clips.
  4. Scheme 3. Weld a rectangular box, which will increase the volume of the boiler tank.

Additionally, 3 mm sheet metal is required for the air damper, the bottom with the lid, and the framing of the doors.

Manufacturing of the heat generator

The first step in the process is to cut out the pipe wall’s openings and blanks in accordance with the drawing’s dimensions. The parts that are cut out are assembled to form the doors, to which canopies and handles are added. The grate pictured is made of fittings that are welded together.

The upper combustion boiler’s assembly algorithm generally looks like this:

  1. In the round billet for the load, cut a hole, insert a pipe into it and welded.
  2. Weld 6 curved strips to the lower part of the weight, which will serve as air distributors.
  3. Attach the bottom to the furnace, install the grates inside it.
  4. Cut a hole in the center of the cover for the air pipe and attach it to the fuel box. Before that it is necessary to put the pipe with the load in place.
  5. Weld the flue pipe.
  6. Assemble the water jacket according to the chosen scheme, hermetically weld all the joints.
  7. Connect the pipe connections for the coolant.
  8. Insulate and cover the boiler, install the doors.
  9. Put a damper on the top of the air pipe.

It takes six strips to distribute air evenly.

Because a fan cannot be attached to the moving pipe, installing automatics and a supercharger on an upper combustion boiler is challenging. A flexible hose must be made, and the temperature sensor must have a submersible sleeve. Since the combustion zone of these heaters is continuously displaced, it cannot be placed beneath insulation.

Naturally, testing the boiler outside is preferable.

Purchasing a long-burning coal-fired boiler for your house is a big choice, but there are a lot of advantages. Long-term cost savings are another benefit, in addition to continuously providing heat during the winter. These boilers can keep your house warm for long periods of time without requiring frequent refueling because they burn coal efficiently.

If you have the know-how, building your own long-burning coal-fired boiler can be a satisfying project. Those who enjoy do-it-yourself projects can get satisfaction from building a heating system that meets their unique requirements. To guarantee safety and legal compliance, it is imperative to approach this task cautiously and meticulously.

When building a coal-fired boiler, safety must come first in all circumstances. The risk of carbon monoxide poisoning, fire hazards, and other hazards must be avoided by putting in place the necessary ventilation, insulation, and fireproofing measures. Furthermore, it is crucial to follow building codes and regulations in order to prevent legal issues and guarantee the boiler’s longevity.

To optimize the effectiveness of your heating system, you should also invest in insulation for your house. Maintaining adequate insulation in your home helps it retain heat, which lowers energy use and utility costs. Homes can create a more comfortable and energy-efficient living space by upgrading windows and doors, sealing gaps in the wall, and adding insulation to the walls.

In conclusion, installing a long-burning coal-fired boiler can have major benefits for cost savings and heating efficiency, but it also requires careful planning and execution. Through the combination of this heating solution and appropriate insulation, homeowners can establish a long-lasting, sustainable, and comfortable living space.

Video on the topic

Long-burning coal-fired boiler. Homemade boiler for greenhouse. First start-up.

⌛✔️ Karaganda solid fuel long burning boiler Gornyak. Restart.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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