Long-burning boiler with their own hands drawings dimensions

Having an effective heating system is essential for keeping our homes warm and comfortable during the winter. A long-burning boiler is one option that many homeowners take into consideration. These boilers are made to last longer and deliver consistent heat, which saves money and increases comfort. But what if you were able to construct one? This post will discuss building your own long-burning boiler at home, and it will include instructions and drawings to help you along the way.

Constructing your own long-burning boiler can be an enjoyable project that will enable you to customize the design to meet your unique requirements while also saving money. Knowing the fundamentals of these boilers and how to build them is essential, regardless of whether you’re trying to heat a larger house or a tiny cabin. With meticulous design and accurate measurement, you can build a fuel-efficient heating system that evenly distributes warmth throughout your room.

Building your own long-burning boiler has several benefits, one of which is that you can tailor it to your needs and the materials and resources that are available. DIY enthusiasts have the freedom to modify the design to fit their tastes and budget, from picking the ideal boiler size and shape to choosing the right materials for insulation and heat retention. Your DIY boiler will function more efficiently and last longer if all the parts are assembled correctly, which can be achieved by paying close attention to the precise measurements and drawings.

Understanding the fundamentals of long-burning boiler operation is crucial before beginning construction. These boilers use a slow-burning fire to heat water, which is then distributed throughout the room to warm radiators and underfloor heating systems. These boilers are a viable option for homeowners looking for energy-efficient heating solutions because they maximize combustion and heat transfer, allowing them to run for extended periods of time without requiring frequent refueling.

Building a long-burning boiler can be a rewarding project, regardless of your level of experience doing do-it-yourself tasks or if this is your first big project. With this article’s comprehensive drawings and dimensions, you’ll have all the information you need to confidently set out on this journey. Every step you take toward creating a warm and inviting home—from comprehending the principles of boiler design to carefully assembling the parts—brings you one step closer to realizing that you created it yourself.

Boiler Type DIY Drawings & Dimensions
Wood Pellet Boiler Get plans online, ensure proper ventilation and safety measures.
Rocket Stove Boiler Sketch your design, consider insulation for efficiency.

Types of pyrolysis boilers

Selecting the type of unit to be assembled is the first step in building a long-burning boiler yourself. This will rely on the master’s training, as well as the use of specialized tools and materials. Finding a drawing of a long-burning solid-fuel boiler is not difficult, and you can use this scheme as a starting point:

Diagram of the most basic pyrolysis boiler

This boiler’s most basic operating scheme makes use of the pyrolysis effect and is dependable. Which heating boiler designs—pyrolysis and combustion—remain in use today, and what distinguishes them from one another? The primary distinction is in the way solid fuel combustion will be oriented:

  1. Apparatus with bottom combustion – fuel must be ignited from below. This is the traditional scheme of operation of most pyrolysis appliances. Such units are divided into two subspecies:
  2. With a standard combustion scheme, in which coal, peat or sawdust ignite and burn in a single combustion chamber, which works both as a feed (stoking) chamber and a fuel-box. Exhaust gases and smoke are discharged through the chimney in the upper compartment of the fuel compartment;
  3. Boiler of shaft construction – the shaft for laying the fuel performs only its functions. The fuel ignites from below, the fire and hot combustion products of the fuel move through the heat exchanger, arranged in a neighboring chamber;
  4. Appliances with top combustion work the other way around – the combustible material is ignited from the top, and a long combustion process is going on, directed from top to bottom under the action of forced supercharging.

Fundamental design of the pyrolysis boiler

The units are separated into three categories based on the type of fuel combustion:

  1. Boilers with standard type of combustion;
  2. Units with gas-generator or pyrolysis combustion – fuel is burned at high temperatures in the chamber and at lack of oxygen. This releases wood gas, called pyrolysis gas, which is also burned as it leaves the boiler.

Additionally, heat exchanger schemes and designs can vary among solid fuel boilers. The heat exchanger itself comes in two forms: a continuous metal jacket that encloses the fuel box from all sides, or a coil that encircles the fuel chamber and pipes.

Overall boiler dimensions

Solid fuel boiler – how to make it yourself

The solid fuel gas generators are the most efficient (efficient to ≥90%), simple to manufacture, and dependable to operate. When there is not enough oxygen in the fuelbox, a heating device of this kind operates on the basis of "slow" combustion of fuel. A significant amount of flammable gases are created in the chamber as a result of the oxygen deficiency, and these gases are burned in the chamber beyond. Notable are the low cost and accessibility of combustible materials, such as coal, sawdust or shavings, oil mill waste (sunflower husks), firewood, peat or straw in briquettes (pellets), and household waste.

The cost of an industrial pyrolysis boiler is high (at least 600–700 dollars), but many people appreciate its features. As a result, building an upper combustion boiler at home is a popular solution for financial problems in families.

Appliances for industrial pyrolysis

Craftspeople aren’t deterred by assembly challenges; they still need to be proficient with electric welding and able to read blueprints and schemes. Since it is more expensive and difficult to construct heating equipment with a lower chamber, the boiler self-assembly scheme with pyrolysis combustion, where the chamber is mounted in the upper part of the body, is advised.

Design and manufacture of a boiler with top combustion

  1. To make the boiler drum it is necessary to prepare two metal molds with different dimensions, which are connected by welding to each other. It is easiest to find cylindrical housings, for example, from gas, oxygen or other cylinders. The larger cylinder will serve as the outer casing, the smaller cylinder will serve as the furnace chamber of the boiler;
  2. The distance between the cylinders will work as a jacket – the coolant will flow through it;
  3. The smaller cylinder is divided by a steel partition into two compartments – one part works as a fuel box and air distributor, in the other compartment the gas released during the pyrolysis reaction is afterburning;
  4. The distributor is made in the form of a telescopic structure, from one end of which a plane with lobes, evenly distributing the combustible excreta, is attached by welding;
  5. Air enters the combustion zone from the back end to keep the fuel burning continuously;
  6. As the combustion proceeds, the volume of the deposit decreases and the distributor moves lower, redistributing the air supply;
  7. To control combustion, special devices powered by electricity are installed;

DIY boiler constructed from a propane cylinder

It will take a skilled man’s efforts, basic tools, affordable materials, and clear schemes to manufacture pyrolysis boilers:

  1. It is necessary to develop your own drawing or make a solid fuel long-burning boiler with their own hands drawings for which can be found in the public domain. In extreme cases, you can work with a general or circuit diagram, which will indicate the main dimensions of the structure;
  2. DC apparatus for welding metal, electrodes 3 and 4 mm;
  3. Bolgarka and disks on metal (grinding and cutting off);
  4. Metal cylinder (steel pipe or cylinder) L = 1,3 m, Ø = 0,5 m, H = 3 mm (L – length of the cylinder, Ø – diameter of the cylinder, H – thickness of the cylinder stack);
  5. Metal cylinder (steel pipe or cylinder) L = 1.5 m, Ø = 0.45 m, H = 3 mm (L – length of the cylinder, Ø – diameter of the cylinder, H – thickness of the cylinder stack). If there are no cylinders or suitable pipes, you can make enclosures from steel sheets of 1250 x 2500 x 2.5 mm, roll them in the factory and weld round enclosures from them;
  6. Steel pipe Ø 60 mm, the length of the product is 1.2 m;
  7. Two narrow iron cylinders Ø 0.5 m, 25 mm wide. Such elements can be formed from sheet iron and welded;
  8. Steel sheet for the door of the stoking and ash chambers;
  9. Canopies, handles for opening the doors, air gate valves;
  10. Scraps of metal angle for hull legs and for making blades;
  11. Asbestos cord or asbestos cloth for thermal insulation of the firebox and ash door;

Pipes for water and smoke exhaust

How to make a boiler drum from pipes

  • Steel pipes 0,5 and 0,45 m are inserted into each other and connected with a metal ring made of a plate width of 25 mm;
  • A blank Ø 0,45 m is cut out of sheet iron, one end of the pipes is welded to get a cylinder with a 25 mm wide thermal contour;
  • In the end of the cylinder, a rectangular hole of 150-100 mm is cut out for the ash chamber door. The hatch is then welded on, the door itself is hinged and equipped with an air damper;
  • A rectangle is cut out above the hull for fuel deposit. The dimensions of the firebox door are calculated based on the dimensions of the fuel. The hatch is welded on and the door, which is also equipped with a latch, is attached to the hinges. It is recommended to weld the doors with double walls and asbestos gaskets to reduce heat losses;

The ash pan door’s hole

  • At the top of the body is welded a section of pipe for the release of combustion products of fuel;
  • According to the dimensions of the jacket, sections of pipes Ø 1 inch or ¾ inch are welded on the top and bottom, through which the heating of the house will be connected. The pipes are threaded;

Empty for the body

It is still necessary to test every joint using water at a pressure of at least 2 kg/cm 2.

How to make an air distributor

An overview of the air distributor

  1. From sheet iron it is necessary to cut out a blank two to three centimeters smaller than, Øinside boiler body. In the center of this blank a hole Ø 60 mm (the same as the diameter of the distributor pipe) should be cut out by welding;
  2. After the boiler distributor has been made, it must be fixed. For this purpose a steel circle Ø 500 mm is cut out and a hole Ø 60 mm is cut in the center. The distributor is installed in the unit, the upper part of the distributor should be threaded through this hole, after which the boiler cover can be tightly welded on. To raise and lower the distributor, a steel cable is attached to the hinge;
  3. At the bottom of the circle are welded sections of angle or channel, which will act as blades. They can be bent, as in the photo, but can be left straight;
  4. At the opposite end, an iron loop for lifting the distributor is attached by welding, a flap is installed, which is designed to regulate the air jet in the combustion zone of the fuel.

Air distributor for DIY boilers used in pyrolysis

Although there are many different designs of long-burning pyrolysis boilers in the public domain, making one by hand is considerably more difficult. These designs may also have a lower chamber. These units are structurally designed to operate via forced supercharging or a smoke pump.

This design involves forcing air into the chamber—which is intended to burn fuel afterburning—through force. Because of the high pressure produced by this kind of supercharging, almost total combustion occurs. The fan may be installed with a metal sleeve attached to the chamber, or it can be mounted on the side of the fuel box door.

Benefits of lower fuel combustion boilers:

  1. The fan of the supercharger can be absolutely any;
  2. It is possible to combine the furnace chamber with the combustion chamber, since the implementation of the supercharger provides the necessary volume of air, and it can be regulated by the power of the fan.

Boiler’s volumetric model for pyrolysis

However, there are drawbacks to this benefit as well:

  1. Due to the high speed of the air jet not all the air is directed to the center of combustion, and the fuel will not burn completely;
  2. Also due to high air velocity a small percentage of pyrolysis gases is not burned, getting into the chimney in its original form, so the efficiency of more than 80-90% is impossible to obtain with this organization of the combustion process.
  3. In case of too strong supercharging the boiler can simply explode, therefore it is necessary to carefully calculate the speed of supercharging and the value of the created pressure.

Long-burning boiler that they made themselves revised on February 22, 2017 by kranch0

Continue reading about the subject.

The principle of operation of a long-burning boiler, made with their own hands using drawings.

A country home with a solid fuel boiler is a great alternative to a furnace because it requires less time and effort to install and provides water heating. The models with a long burning mode are the most widely used. Craftsmen have experience making these kinds of boilers by hand using ready-made drawings.

Principle of operation

Prior to becoming an expert with a solid fuel boiler on your own, it’s a good idea to comprehend how industrial production boilers operate. and why are they operating more efficiently now? For boilers, the efficiency reported in the passport paperwork frequently surpasses 90%. This is the result of a protracted, nearly total fuel combustion.

In models using traditional solid fuels. When using wood, coal, or pellets, the fuel is heated and burned to ash in a common combustion chamber. In this instance, the smoke is released straight into the chimney, which then leads to the pipe. These models don’t have enough time to warm up properly because the flame’s area of contact with the boiler walls is small. Consequently, a large portion of the heat is released into the atmosphere along with the smoke.

There are phases involved in burning wood in a long-burning boiler. They are first brought up to roughly 300 degrees Celsius in temperature. The process of heating causes the wood’s fibers to separate, smoke to be released, the logs themselves to become charred, and the vapors to become saturated with moisture.

When there is enough oxygen in the furnace, combustible gases—a mixture of carbon, sulfur, and hydrogen compounds—burn brightly while releasing heat. Pyrolysis is the term for both this process and the boilers used in it.

The gas generator is the section of pyrolysis units where wood decomposition occurs. There is restricted oxygen access to the firewood in order to prevent flue gases in the gas generator from igniting. The gases are burned via forced supercharging or draught as they enter the afterburning chamber, a different area of the furnace. Water from a heat exchanger surrounding the chamber enters the heating system after it is rapidly heated.

The honor of industrial pyrolysis boilers operating on wood:

  • fuel economy – they can work on one load from 6 hours to 5 days;
  • high efficiency, 90-95%;
  • environmental friendliness – the smoke contains few gases and soot harmful to the atmosphere;
  • safety – the smoke at the outlet has a temperature of 120-160 degrees Celsius;
  • high level of process automation.

The following are drawbacks of buying long-burning boilers:

  • tendency to the appearance of condensate on the walls of the heat exchanger and chimney ;
  • high requirements to fuel moisture content – no more than 16%;
  • high price, sometimes 1.5-2 times higher than the cost of conventional solid fuel boilers.

Long-burning boilers’ unique designs and internal physical processes are what give them their exceptional efficiency. They can be produced without the need for sophisticated technologies or costly materials. The majority of boilers are constructed using welding and consist of sheet steel. As a result, someone with the necessary skills to operate a welding machine could construct a boiler with their hands.

Choice of design

You should think about the long-burning boiler’s typical designs and operation principle before you begin creating drawings by hand. and decide which is the easiest and most economical.

Pyrolysis boilers can be classified into two categories based on the kind of apparatus they use:

  • with upper combustion – shaft;
  • with bottom combustion.

What do these qualities signify? Everything is very straightforward: the gas generation zone’s location is indicated by the type of combustion.

Fuel is loaded into shaft type boilers via a door in the upper firebox section. With the aid of forced supercharging, the smoke produced by the burning process travels through the entire thickness of the wood to the lower part of the furnace, where it is enriched with air and burns up. The burning process begins on the surface of the entire volume of fuel. In this instance, the firewood burns more steadily and with additional heat.

In the lower combustion boilers The afterburning chamber is at the top, and the firebox is at the bottom. Draughts cause the air to move, so no forced air blowing is necessary. One benefit of these boilers is that they are not dependent on the electrical grid. Cons: longer operating time due to decreased efficiency and load volume.

The working principle of a homemade pyrolysis boiler is demonstrated in this video.

The most basic type of boiler is cylindrical in shape. They have a heat exchanger encircling the furnace, and heat is removed from the furnace chamber all the way around. You can construct a boiler like this by hand using two different-diameter metal pipes or sheet iron.

In our guide on heating and insulating your house, we delve into the practical aspects of constructing a long-burning boiler from scratch. With easy-to-follow drawings and precise dimensions, we empower homeowners to take control of their heating needs. Our thesis revolves around the idea that building a long-burning boiler yourself is not only feasible but also cost-effective and environmentally friendly. By providing clear instructions and illustrations, we aim to simplify the process, making it accessible to DIY enthusiasts of all skill levels. With a focus on sustainability and efficiency, our article aims to equip readers with the knowledge and confidence to tackle this project with success, ultimately enhancing the comfort and energy efficiency of their homes.

How to make on your own?

The boiler is constructed by hand using the ready drawing that is depicted in the figure. Although the drawing’s dimensions may be slightly altered, it’s still important to pay attention to the proportions.

    The principle of operation of this heating unit is as follows:

The boiler room ceiling height should be at least 2.8 meters so that you can raise the fuel distributor to the maximum load level!

  • Fuel smolders, releasing flue gases, which burn out in the upper part of the furnace. Such a boiler can be heated with wood, sawdust, pellets, as well as wood waste – chips, wood shavings, construction waste. For each type of fuel you need to select a different mode of air supply.

Unlike factory models, the boiler’s design is not airtight, so it needs to be installed in a boiler room with adequate ventilation because burning wood releases harmful carbon monoxide among other fumes.

Although the device’s efficiency is not as high as that of its industrial equivalents, this drawback is not as significant given the cost of production.

Materials and tools needed

Since welding is used to assemble boilers, having a welding machine and the know-how to operate it is a must. To weld with your hands, you’ll also need two to three packs of electrodes with the right diameter.

A Bulgarian drill with cutting wheels is required to cut the material, and grinding wheels are also required to clean the seams.

A tape measure, an angle, a marker, and a circle marker for marking circles are additional measuring and marking tools you will need.

To press the final product, a compressor will be required.

    Materials and purchased items:

Fabrication of the casing and heat exchanger

The body of the boiler is assembled first.

    . as the most critical node subjected to significant thermal loads. The remaining parts are adjusted in such a way as to create the most airtight construction and avoid smoke leaks and heat loss.

  • In the lower part of the inner tube make a rectangular-shaped hole for the ash pan door. The door itself can be made of sheet metal or a ready-made cast-iron door can be installed. Thermal insulation of the door is not necessary – there will not be high temperatures at the bottom of the furnace, so the door can be made single. It must necessarily be equipped with a latch, tightly closing the door, otherwise there will be air inflow, which will disturb the oxygen balance in the boiler.

  • The door of the furnace chamber is placed in the upper part of the body. Here the temperature regime will be more severe, so the door is better to make with your own hands from sheet metal, and make it double, as in the photo, with a lining of two layers of asbestos. This, firstly, will create better insulation and help to avoid burns, and secondly, it will increase its rigidity, and the door will not move during heating. The door is similarly equipped with a tight gate valve.

  • On the side or behind the upper part of the body weld a smoke spigot from a profile pipe with a hole for connection to the chimney. At the same time pay special attention to the quality of seams on the outside and inside of the jacket – because of the wrong mode here can form condensate, and in combination with flue gases, it contributes to corrosion. Welded seams, which have sinks and not removed scale, are most susceptible to corrosion.

  • In the upper and lower parts of the water jacket, weld spigots for the supply and outlet of the coolant. They are made from scraps of inch pipe of the required length, with a thread on the outer end. It is more convenient to locate the pipes on the side of the boiler, away from the flue pipe, so that the smoke exhaust and heating system was convenient to maintain.
  • The boiler body is equipped with legs made of scraps of angle or channel – so it will be more convenient to adjust it during installation.
  • A removable cover with a diameter of 46 cm and a hole in the center of 6.5 cm is made – it will be installed in tension on the body.
  • All parts and seams are cleaned with a bolgar and covered with heat-resistant paint based on siliconorganics, designed for painting furnace elements and automotive gas removal systems – it tolerates heating to a temperature of at least 800 degrees Celsius.

Air distributor

The air distributor holds equal significance. For him Using thick metal—at least 5 mm—is preferable. First of all, because it is in the zone of active combustion, a thinner layer could eventually deform and burn out. Secondly, the fuel mass will be better compressed by the air distributor if it is thicker.

  1. A circle with a diameter of 38 cm with a hole in the center Ø 6 cm is cut out of the metal. A Ø 6 cm pipe with a length of 120 cm is hermetically welded to the hole. This pipe will be used to supply air to the combustion zone.
  2. In the lower part of the distributor, weld the impeller – diverging air ducts made of 25 mm angle or channels. Their number can be different, the more channels, the more evenly the fuel will burn.
  3. In the upper part of the pipe it is necessary to install a gate valve or gate valve to regulate the air flow, as well as to provide a loop for attaching a chain, by which the distributor will be raised to the upper position.

The boiler must have forced supercharging installed in order for it to operate on coal. In this instance, the distributor pipe is telescopic, and a blower fan is located in its upper section.

A long-burning boiler should be leveled and set on a level surface; a significant misalignment could impede coolant circulation.

The air distributor is inserted into the furnace, and a cover is placed on top. The cover is secured to the body either by welding or by using asbestos cord to create tension while sealing.

Attach the chimney to the smoke spigot. Attach the heating system’s pipes to the water jacket’s spigots.

The boiler can begin heating after the system has been filled. The trial furnace operates on an incomplete batch of fuel and must first be adjusted to operate in all modes before being fully loaded.

Even though it has a simple appearance, this type of boiler can effectively solve the heating problem by heating a workshop, garage, or village or country house.

How to make a long-burning boiler on wood and coal with your own hands

Private home owners who choose to install a solid fuel heating boiler are mainly focused on three factors: the boiler’s thermal capacity, cost, and duration of combustion with a single load. These factors are correlated: the heat generator will cost more the more power it uses and the longer it runs. There is a way to cut the expenses in half: either build a long-burning boiler yourself or hire reputable master craftsmen to handle the job. You can also study the process of making a homemade heater here, as well as pick up the design and drawings.

How to increase the duration of combustion of solid fuel

Many homeowners’ dream is to install a solid fuel boiler so they won’t need to run wood every four to six hours. Profiting from this, producers and distributors of heating apparatus label all heat generators, including pellet models that can operate on their own for up to seven days, with the prefix "duration of combustion."

Classic boiler varieties featuring larger fuel chambers

Using the smoldering mode with a restricted air supply usually justifies the length of the combustion process. However, this method of burning coal and wood is ineffective, and here’s why:

  1. Wood and coal boilers reach their efficiency of 70-75% during maximum combustion. When smoldering, the efficiency of the unit decreases to 40-50% (like a conventional bourzhuika).
  2. Smoldering firewood releases little heat energy. Who needs a "long-lasting" heat generator that does not fully heat the house??
  3. Freshly cut wood of certain species (e.g. poplar, willow) and low-calorie fuel cannot be burned normally in the smoldering mode.

Wood burns in a factory boiler with an expanded fuel box from top to bottom.

All other things being equal, the only thing that affects the length of the process in solid fuel long-burning boilers is their larger fuel chamber. The idea is straightforward: the longer the wood burns and releases heat in the furnace, the more wood there is.

There are various types of household boilers that can operate for up to 24 hours on coal and 8–12 hours on wood with a single tab.

  • Classic, with forced air supply;
  • operating on the principle of overhead combustion (like Baltic "Stropuva").

These TT-boiler designs are fairly doable at home with the right equipment and welding experience. Drawings of mine boilers using solid fuel and sawdust can even be found online, but these heaters are quite large and challenging to make, so they need their own discussion.

Classic continuous combustion boiler

This section features a coal-and-wood heating unit that was created by our skilled technician Vitaliy Dashko. The master has put together several dozen of these heat generators in various capacities while continuously refining the design. Boilers’ dependability and effectiveness have already been put to the test over time on a variety of objects. The following are the technical attributes of the unit’s model that is being presented:

  • power – 22-24 kW;
  • duration of burning (on average) with wood 10-12 hours, minimum – 8 hours;
  • the same, on coal – up to 1 day;
  • EFFICIENCY – 75-77%;
  • maximum working pressure in the heating system – 3 bar, nominal – 1 bar.5 Bar;
  • amount of water in the boiler tank – 50 l;
  • weight of the product – 150 kg;
  • the size of loading aperture (width x height) 360 x 250 mm;
  • total volume of the furnace – 112 liters, useful (for fuel loading) – 83 liters;
  • furnace depth – 46 cm, optimal log length – 40 cm.

As a point of reference. Master produces long-burning boilers with a range of capacities, including 16, 24, 36, and 130 kW units. When ordered from the master, a finished product for 24 kW costs roughly 450 u. е. You can speak with Vitaly directly about any queries you may have about the solid fuel boiler device and its manufacturer; his contact details are provided on the "Our Experts" page.

The drawing illustrates the apparatus and general measurements of the wood-fired long-burning boiler that you can assemble yourself:

The heat generator runs on coal as well as wood with success. Because it is not ideal to fill the chamber to the brim, the fuel compartment’s useful capacity is determined up to the lower edge of the loading opening. The boiler operates in the following sequence:

  1. After laying and ignition of solid fuel the doors are tightly closed.
  2. On the electronic control unit the desired temperature of the heating medium is set, it is recommended not lower than 50 °С. The unit is then put into operation by pressing the appropriate button, and the fan is started.
  3. When heating up to the set temperature, the fan is switched off and the air access to the fuel compartment is stopped. TT-boiler is in standby mode, wood smolders very weakly and gives practically no heat.
  4. After the temperature in the boiler tank drops, the controller gives a command to start the fan and the combustion process in the furnace is resumed.

To get the best possible combustion efficiency, the controller arbitrarily modifies the fan’s capacity. This DIY boiler doesn’t have smoldering combustion; instead, it either burns coal and wood intensely or in a standby mode.

The drawings of the boiler in section display the internal device of the unit.

The boiler tank’s bottom, known as the vault, and the walls of the water jacket receive direct heat transfer from the heating unit using the traditional solid fuel combustion method. A heat-tube heat exchanger that removes heat from flue gases is submerged in this tank. Through the grate, heated air from the duct is fed into the furnace from below. What guarantees the length of combustion is:

  1. Large volume of the firebox.
  2. Complete blocking of air access to the furnace in standby mode. After the fan is switched off, a gravity flap is activated, which closes the air duct and thus prevents the chimney draught from fanning the coals.

The following drawing illustrates the layout of the heat exchanger and the back portion:

Tools and materials for manufacturing

Low-carbon steel grades St3, 10, and 20 are typically used on the blanks for the assembly of a solid fuel boiler with a long combustion period. Heat generators made of St 20 are the best option and can last up to 15 years. Because steel with higher carbon content (St 35, 45) can roll at high temperatures, it is not a good choice for welding with heat generators.

A heat-resistant steel alloyed with molybdenum and chromium (e.g., 12XM, 12X1MF) could be used for the combustion chamber if you have enough welding experience and the money to purchase more expensive metal. This article explains how to determine the steel grade yourself with a sufficient approximation.

This is a table that lists the blanks that you will need to assemble a solid fuel boiler by hand:

Advice: Somewhere in the workshop, using guillotine shears to cut the workpieces is the best option. In this manner, manual cutting and deburring can be greatly reduced in time.

Furthermore, the following supplies will be needed:

  • equal-sided angle 50 x 4 mm for making grates;
  • pipe DN50 – for the heat exchanger and heating system connection spigots;
  • DN150 pipe for the chimney flue;
  • 60 x 40 mm profile pipe for the air channel;
  • steel strip 20 x 3 mm;
  • basalt insulation with density of 100 kg/m³ and thickness of 2 cm;
  • smooth sheet metal 0.3-0.5 mm with polymer coloring;
  • ready-made handles on the doors;
  • cord, asbestos cardboard.

Among the equipment, a welding machine, a drill, and a bolgar are noteworthy. ANO-21 or MR-3S welding electrodes are utilized. The remainder are a typical assortment of tools and measuring devices found in every home.

Polish-made control unit and fan

The control unit, fan, and temperature sensor that make up the automation kit used in the TT boiler are made in Poland (don’t confuse it with the Chinese one; they have similar appearances). The control unit (KG Elektronik SP-05) and the fan (DP-02) are marked.

Assembly of the heating unit

The fuel-box body of the long-burning boiler is assembled using tack welds to join 4 mm thick metal in the first stage of manufacturing. As seen in the picture, everything begins at the bottom of the unit, to which the side walls, vault cover, and door openings are tacked:

The bottom sheet is made on both sides in accordance with the drawing and functions as the ash pan door’s bottom frame. Inside the chamber, the grate will be supported by shelves made of angles that are fixed on welding. Every joint on the assembled fuel box is carefully welded, and its tightness is verified.

Installing the 3 mm metal water jacket is the second stage. Since its side walls are only 2 cm thick, sections of steel strip must be welded to the fuel box’s body, allowing 20 mm of space between them. They are welded to the steel cladding sheets.

Take note! The ash chamber is not cleaned by the water jacket, which begins at the grate level.

The so-called clips are arranged in a staggered pattern in the center. This is a steel circle that was butt-welded to the furnace after passing through the holes in the boiler tank wall. As seen in the picture, the second end of the clip is welded around the hole.

The location of the water jacket’s bottom is depicted in the picture on the right.

A brief description of how to add more clips to the water jacket edges of a homemade solid fuel boiler. A 20 mm strip must be inserted from the end between the walls to a depth of 50 to 100 mm, and both sides must be welded.

Installing the flame tubes in the boiler tank’s upper section is the third stage. Pipes are inserted into holes that are cut in the front and back walls in accordance with the drawing for this purpose. Both their ends and every joint in the water jacket are securely welded.

The heat exchanger’s heat pipes are fanning out.

Manufacturing of doors and grates is the fourth stage. Asbestos cord is inserted between a strip that is welded to the doors from the inside in two rows to seal the latch. Angle #5 is used to make the grates, and they are welded with the outer corner facing down. Thus, they act as diffusers for the air that enters the ash pan through the fan.

The fifth stage involves cutting openings in the boiler tank walls to connect the supply and return pipes. Flue pipe and an air duct made of 60 x 40 mm pipe with a flange to mount the fan are also installed. In the center of the back wall, directly beneath the water jacket, is where the air duct enters the ash chamber.

Step six involves welding the door hinges and inserting pieces that are 2 cm wide to secure the long-burning boiler’s decorative lining.

Step seven. last. Basalt insulation covers the boiler tank from the sides and top; the top is fastened with a cord. Next, install the doors by fastening the painted metal sheets to the embedded components using self-tapping screws.

The casing is well-insulated and can safely withstand high temperatures thanks to the dense basalt fiber. You should not use glass wool.

Finally, the control unit is mounted on the boiler from above and the fan is fastened to the duct’s mating flange. On the back wall side of the unit, the temperature sensor needs to be placed beneath the basalt insulation. Furthermore, if desired, the following practical additions can be made to the design of a homemade long-burning boiler:

  • build the DHW water heating circuit into the boiler tank;
  • provide a submersible sleeve for installing a thermometer – in case of power failure, when the controller display goes out;
  • same for the installation of the safety group;
  • install an electric heating element to warm up the heating medium after the wood burns out.

A brief explanation of how to circulate hot water in a solid fuel boiler so that it can be heated for domestic use. Ten meters of copper tube with a diameter of eight to twelve millimeters must be used, and the tube must be bent into a spiral shape. The latter is led outside from the unit’s back side after being wound around the flame tubes inside the boiler tank. acquiring a long-burning, two-circuit boiler.

Note: Experience with using these heat generators has demonstrated that homeowners who want to heat their home on a nightly basis must install an electric heater. In other situations, the length of the combustion process is sufficient to avoid having to rush to the boiler room in the middle of the night to add firewood.

It is preferable to immediately remove the film from the painted metal and coat the doors with enamel that can withstand heat.

Legs can be added to the unit at any point by choosing the right rolled metal sections. Details and insider tips for putting together the TT-boiler can be found in the author’s master video, who invented the heating unit:

Boiler with upper fuel combustion

These heat generators are known in the post-Soviet world as two types:

  1. The Baltic Stropuva units and their derivatives from other manufacturers.
  2. Wood stoves of the "Bubafonya" type.

Although the origin of the Bubafonya stove is unknown, it has become very popular as a heater for dachas, garages, and other structures where the product’s aesthetics are not as important. Nothing can be said about upper combustion boilers, despite the fact that many people mistakenly believe that they are the only type of solid fuel heat generator that can operate continuously. Actually, their one and only advantage remains the same: a sizable fuel box.

These boilers work on the basis of the burning of fuel that is compressed from top to bottom by a weight. Additionally, a telescopic tube attached to the load provides air from above to the combustion zone. The figure depicts the unit’s operating scheme:

Boiler diagram originally found at http://stropuva.ru

The owners’ reviews on forums attest to the numerous flaws that have emerged in the way Stropuva boilers operate:

  1. You can"t put logs into the firebox until the previous one is burned out. Physically it is possible, but then the principle of top combustion will be violated, the flame will cover all layers of fuel.
  2. When working on fresh sawdust and other small debris, fuel residue "hangs" on the walls.
  3. The efficiency of the TT-boiler is not too high, because it lacks a heat exchanger. Because of the air heating chamber and a large fuel box, there is no space for the heat exchanger.

The heat generator no longer has any serious flaws, and you can choose to fix certain issues with the homemade version. For instance, arrange an ash chamber by adding a bottom and grates. Eliminate the drawback associated with extra loading by placing an additional door between the loading and ash aperture. Vladimir Sukhorukov, one of our experts, has this idea for updating the upper combustion boiler. In his video, he discusses it as follows:

Preparation of materials

Although the round body presents certain manufacturing challenges, it cannot be made square because the fuel will "hang up" in the corners. It would be best to remove this component from the Bubafonya stove because there is an issue with the assembly of the telescopic tube when it is loaded. An illustration of a long-burning boiler that is about the same size as the traditional model is as follows:

Prior to building the boiler, we choose the materials based on the drawing:

  • DN 400 pipe with a wall of 5 mm – on the fuel tank;
  • same, DN 50 – for air supply and water connections;
  • the same, DN 100 – for the chimney;
  • 10 mm thick sheet metal blank with a circular shape and a diameter of 38 cm;
  • 40 x 4 mm strip – for air distributors;
  • 16-20 mm diameter rebar of periodic profile – for grates;
  • basalt wool with a thickness of 3 cm and density of 100 kg/m³;
  • thin sheet metal with polymer coating.

The method of installation will determine which material is best for the water jacket because a do-it-yourself craftsman is not likely to have rollers on hand that can form 3 mm thick metal into a cylinder shape. The variations look like this (see the scheme below):

  1. Scheme 1. Take a thin-walled pipe of a larger diameter, although it is not easy to find such a pipe, and the usual one will weigh the boiler heavily.
  2. Scheme 2. Bend two sheets of metal in 2 places at an angle of 60°, and then weld the two halves together. You will need a press-sheet bender.
  3. Scheme 2. To weld a jacket from 6 sheets – segments on clips.
  4. Scheme 3. Weld a rectangular box, which increases the volume of the boiler tank.

Additionally, 3 mm sheet metal is required for the air damper, the bottom with the lid, and the framing of the doors.

Manufacturing of the heat generator

The first step in the process is to cut out the pipe wall’s openings and blanks in accordance with the drawing’s dimensions. Canopies and purchased handles are attached to the parts that have been cut out to create the doors. Rebar is used to weld the grate that is seen in the picture:

The upper combustion boiler’s assembly algorithm generally looks like this:

  1. In the round billet for the load, cut a hole, insert a pipe into it and weld it.
  2. To the bottom of the load weld 6 curved strips, which will serve as air distributors.
  3. Attach the bottom to the furnace, install the grates inside.
  4. Having cut a hole in the center of the cover for the air pipe, attach it to the fuel box. Before doing this, it is necessary to put the pipe with a weight in place.
  5. Weld the chimney spigot.
  6. Assemble the water jacket according to the selected scheme, hermetically weld all joints.
  7. Make connections for the coolant connections.
  8. Perform insulation and lining of the boiler, install the doors.
  9. Put a damper on the top of the air pipe.

There are enough lanes for the distribution of air.

Because the fan cannot be connected to the moving pipe, installing automatics and supercharging on an upper combustion boiler is challenging. A flexible hose must be made, and the temperature sensor must include an immersion sleeve. The combustion zone of this kind of heater is continuously displaced, so it cannot be placed beneath insulation.

Of course, testing the boiler outside is preferable.

For individuals seeking to improve the efficiency of their home heating system, building a long-burning boiler from the ground up can be a satisfying project. You can build a boiler that meets your unique requirements if you closely adhere to the dimensions and drawings that are supplied. Regardless of your goals—lower energy expenses, lessen environmental effect, or just enjoy a warmer home—this do-it-yourself project provides a workable answer.

Saving a lot of money is one of the main advantages of building your own long-burning boiler. While buying a pre-made boiler can be costly, you may save money by gathering the materials needed and building the boiler yourself. You can also maximize energy use and gradually increase savings by altering the design to suit the needs of your house.

Additionally, building a long-burning boiler offers a chance for practical instruction and skill improvement. This project involves many different engineering and construction tasks, from deciphering drawings to assembling components. Building a boiler provides useful experience and knowledge, regardless of your level of experience with do-it-yourself tasks or level of familiarity with home renovations.

Moreover, building a long-burning boiler gives homeowners the ability to manage their heating systems and lessen their dependency on fossil fuels. Utilizing sustainable fuels like biomass or wood pellets can help you reduce your carbon footprint and support environmental conservation initiatives. This environmentally friendly strategy fits in with the growing focus on renewable energy sources and sustainability.

In conclusion, there are a lot of benefits to building a long-burning boiler yourself, such as financial savings, the acquisition of new skills, and environmental advantages. It is possible to design a boiler that will satisfy your heating requirements and have a minimal impact on the environment and energy consumption by using the given drawings and dimensions. By taking control of your energy use, this do-it-yourself project not only increases the efficiency of your home heating system but also gives you a sense of empowerment and success.

Video on the topic

Drawing of the shaft boiler, for yourself.

Kholmova boiler. Detailed overview of the boiler with modifications.

DRAWING of solid fuel boiler! Boiler with your own hands!

Drawing of solid fuel boiler

Boiler with their own hands Dimensions Answers to questions

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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