Kuznetsova stoves: the principle of work and the most interesting models

Few items are as dependable and reassuring as a good, old-fashioned stove when it comes to keeping our homes warm and comfortable. What if I told you, though, that there is a kind of stove that not only heats your home but also functions as an artistic piece? And now for Kuznetsova stoves. In addition to providing heat, these technical marvels give any house a hint of rustic charm. We’ll delve into the intriguing world of Kuznetsova stoves in this post, examining their operation and showcasing some of the most fascinating models on the market.

Fundamentally, Kuznetsova stoves work on an easy-to-understand but clever principle: they use the heat produced by burning wood or other fuels to radiate heat into the surrounding area. But their distinct design and craftsmanship are what really makes them stand out. In contrast to conventional stoves, Kuznetsova stoves are frequently made by talented artisans by hand, producing pieces that are as useful as they are beautiful.

The range of models offered by Kuznetsova stoves is among their most alluring features. Every taste and aesthetic preference can be satisfied by a Kuznetsova stove, which ranges in style from sleek and contemporary to more traditional and rustic. While some models have elegant, minimalistic lines, others have detailed carvings and detailing. There is a Kuznetsova stove that is ideal for you, whether you want to add a touch of elegance to your living room or make your cabin in the woods feel like a comfortable haven.

However, the outstanding efficiency of Kuznetsova stoves is what really makes them unique. These stoves heat a room efficiently and rapidly while using less fuel than conventional stoves because of their creative design and premium materials. Because Kuznetsova stoves minimize environmental impact in addition to lowering energy costs, they are an eco-friendly option for homeowners who care about the environment.

In summary, Kuznetsova stoves are artistic creations that enhance any home with efficiency, beauty, and coziness. They are more than just heating appliances. You won’t look at home heating the same way after you’ve experienced the comfort and charm of a Kuznetsova stove, whether you’re drawn to their classic appeal or intrigued by their creative design.


A person tried to heat his house as soon as he could "tame" the fire in order to increase comfort and, ideally, save expenses. These began as straightforward bonfires in the caves, and later evolved into foci that "drowned" in black at homes or huts.

Even in ancient Rome, the homes and baths of the nobility were heated by flowering floors, which were actually beneath-the-floor chimneys that allowed smoke from the stoves to exit the building through a pipe. All of this was costly, time-consuming, and inefficient.

The first significant advancement happened in the fifteenth century when an unidentified master created a new furnace design. He redesigned and streamlined the antiquated Roman channel system, arranging the channels vertically to create a chimney—a warm wall. Because this occurred in the Netherlands, the term "Dutch" was coined for this type of stove.

It was far more cost-effective and provided better heating than the typical firebox "in black" or even fireplaces since the heated brick retained the heat generated by the firebox for an extended period of time.

This furnace version is ideal for our nation’s Siberian latitudes. Over time, new discoveries and technologies emerged, but most people in the Russian Empire used their home heating as an up-up, or "in black," which is why the majority of the wooden buildings in the villages and cities frequently burned down.

In addition, they employed Russian stoves for this purpose, which retained heat in the furnace and released it to heat the area around them. The Topka method got its name because the smoke from these furnaces entered through the door rather than the pipe, leaving the ceiling perpetually dark.

The firebox "in black" was abandoned by merchants and nobility at the start of the 18th century in favor of chimneys attached to conventional Russian stoves; however, in the villages of the Topka, the "in black" persisted until the early 1900s.

Several stoves emerged in Russia during this period, but none of them were complete stove schools; instead, they were merely copies of other people’s designs that were adjusted to suit various conditions. The nation’s rapid development and widespread construction projects following the Civil War necessitated the use of the most efficient, easily accessible items for medium-qualified people.

Podgorodnik and his student, as well as engineer Vladimir Efimovich Grum-Gzymailo, were among the scientists involved in the case. They created a novel theory of gases that goes from the furnace to the chimney without going through the dense channels.

Rather than traveling through the channels, they recommended utilizing a cap where hot gases always ascend, pushing cold gases downward and forcing them into the pipe. "System of free gases" was the name given to this strategy.

Igor Viktorovich Kuznetsov created a new type of stove in the middle of the 20th century, utilizing and improving upon the innovations of Podgorodnik and Grum-Gzymailo. This stove type became known as "Kuznetsov’s furnace" or "Kuznetsovka."

Principle of operation

The organization of the combustion process and the techniques used to extract heat from the smoke flow differ between "forging" and other heating and hob systems, even though both rely on the combustion of firewood or coal to produce heat.

One of the key benefits of these kinds of brick heating devices is that they can operate even with poor traction, meaning they don’t need a tall chimney.In the winter, they can burn raw firewood with two-time firegies inside without endangering the furnace or chimney.

Free movement of gases

The free movement of gases (SDG) principle was understood for centuries, but it was only applied in industry. Stokers shied away from it in favor of tried-and-true fixes. Even in the lack of traction, hot smoke rises and forms a sort of circulation as it cools.

Because the chimney’s input hole is located below, only the maximum amount of cooled gases fall there, where they are crushed on top by the weight of the cooling smoke.

As a result, the primary disadvantage of channel furnaces—the requirement for a tall chimney, which is very handy if you’re building a stove with a hob—is avoided for both "blacksmiths" and any caps.

One disadvantage of CDH is the uneven heating of the cap; after all, the upper part of the cap, where the hottest gases accumulate, heats up noticeably faster and stronger than the lower part. However, this disadvantage can also be used to one’s advantage, as seen in the Grum-Himaylo and Corgoline poles.

The heating will be much more uniform if the top portion of the cap is folded into a brick or half a brick, and the bottom part into a quarter or half a brick.

Gas bang

The effect of a gas blizzard is one of the biggest benefits of caps in front of the channel. When the furnace door is opened, cold air rushes into the combustion chamber, where it has no time to warm up and cools the chimney’s channels.

Furthermore, cold fractions in the caps enter the chimney hole below rather than rising to the top. The heated cap does not lose its temperature because the stove equipped with the SDG system is considerably less susceptible to the vyuzhka (damper) that is left open after burning fuel.

Dry seam

A long-standing characteristic of "blacksmiths" was a dry seam, or a 1-3 cm wide slice in a fuel through which low-temperature combustion product fractions should go straight to the chimney. He actually did the same job as a gas pack, but he also weakened the fuel and shortened the service life, which is why it is much less common today.

Furthermore, thorough research on the impact of the dry seam on the processes involved in fuel combustion was not conducted, so its usefulness has not been established. Nevertheless, many consider it to be an essential component of this "blacksmithing."

Submissions of secondary air and burning smoke gases

There are multiple stages to the burning of fuel in the furnace. Combustible gases are released from wood or other fuel during the initial stages of the pyrolysis process, which is influenced by high temperatures. Then, already combined with oxygen and air, these gases oxidize and release thermal energy.

Since pyrolysis is an oxygen-independent process that can happen even in the absence of oxygen, it’s critical to provide air to the combustion zone while also avoiding cooling the kernel itself.

Heating and supply of primary/secondary air

The Kuznetsov oven uses a double air supply method. Primary acts normally, either by opening the furnace door or through the grates. The less feed it receives, the better, since he cools the core as he passes through it. However, a severe restriction on the amount of air entering the furnace lowers the intensity of the pyrolysis gases’ oxidation, lowering the furnace’s efficiency.

Secondary air is supplied above the upper level of fuel, or above the nucleus, in order to improve fuel combustion efficiency rather than cool the core.

Thus, it increases the intensity of the pyrolysis gas oxidation process without lowering the temperature in the coal or wood pyrolysis zone.

Certain wipes cause the primary and secondary air to heat up and flow through the channels on the side or bottom of the firebox, reducing the amount of cooling of the furnace’s nucleus and maximizing its efficiency.

This makes the design more complex, but if you have the funds and the space to put such a system in place, don’t be afraid to boost efficiency because it will enable you to get the same amount of heat while using less coal or firewood.

Furning pyrolysis gases

The efficient burning of pyrolysis gases is another characteristic common to all domed/capsical furnaces, not just forging ones.

One of the primary issues with channel heating devices is that smoke gases—a mixture of air, pyrolysis gases, and their oxidation products—leave the hot nucleus and instantly find themselves in a narrow channel that is noticeably less hot as a result of being poorly burned out.

The Grum-gimailo smoke gases in the furnaces filled the entire cap, mixed with it, oxidized to a maximum, and then, after cooling, exited through the chimney hole. The funeral camera is served by the cap in Kuznetsov’s furnaces, which operate on the same principle.

In other words, the chimneys burn out and release more thermal energy after hitting the cap, which has a temperature significantly higher inside than the canal furnace’s chimney and enough room for efficient mixing.

Even in blacksmith heating and welding operations, where the furnace’s volume is insufficient for the complete oxidation of the pyrolysis gas, the gas burns in the first or only (depending on the structure) cap, whose size ensures excellent mixing of all constituents.

Because of this, the temperature of the gases in the cap is substantially higher than in the canal furnaces’ first channel, which improves efficiency and results in more uniform warming.

Advantages and disadvantages

These heating appliances have all the benefits of Grum-Himailo furnaces, which are as follows:

  • increased efficiency;
  • more complete combustion of fuel;
  • Lower heating.

The primary disadvantage was an increase in the stove’s qualification requirements. Igor Viktorovich lost simplicity in his pursuit of efficiency and aesthetic beauty.

Furthermore, Kuznetsov rejected this suggestion in favor of a more elegant appearance from Vladimir Efimovich Grum-Hzymailo, who wrote in his books that the stoves should be knocked out with roofing iron to prevent the leakage of combustion products and poisoning them.

Theoretically, blacksmiths can still function effectively with a low chimney, but a novice stove, unfamiliar with theory and unable to select the proper heating device configuration, may not always be able to accurately calculate the minimum permitted height and chimney cross-section.

If the furnace’s height or cross-section are insufficient, it may leak carbon monoxide, especially if its seams are thick. In especially bad situations, the smoke may enter the room owing to poor traction, making it impossible to put out a stove like that before the weather changes.

Furthermore, an inexperienced stovemaker may not always be able to accurately determine the power of the firebox for a furnace of a particular configuration, nor the dimensions and shape of the first cap, where the gas burning is supposed to occur. Any mistakes in these areas result in a reduction in efficiency, which takes away the primary benefit of Kuznetsov’s furnace.

Furthermore, dome stoves are more explosive due to the formation of carbon monoxide-filled localized areas inside the cap, in addition to the mixing of gases. Sharp fuel door openings can cause explosions, which are not allowed in channel furnaces, particularly when the heating device operates in low air (long burning).

The most interesting models

The Kuznetsov family invented and constructed numerous furnaces over the course of six decades, ranging in size and type from the typical Russian warmths (which were inspired by the Russian stove and were conceived by the Podgorodnik) to rather unusual street furnaces. Every heating device operates on the free gas principle, though they all have stunning looks and high efficiency.


Built on the foundation of traditional Russian furnaces, the podgorodnik provides the "Russian warmth" for the family of these furnaces.

Most versions come with two furnaces:

  • lower golst with a stove;
  • Upper Formation.

There are two furnaces connected to the grates by a chimney, allowing you to use the heating device in two different modes. When a нижняя топка горит, плита нагревается, а верхняя топка полняет функция первого колпака. при этом, ее дверца долЌна быть закрыта, а воздух поступает Їерез поддувало и колосники.

The firebox itself serves as the cap, and when the upper furnace burns, air enters through the open door (traditional proper burning) and the transition gallop from the blow, through the lower furnace.

There is a summer mode of operation, in which the smoke exits through the summer channel while the fire burns in the lower firebox, heating the plate.

The only areas with modifications are the upper or lower firebox. Additionally, some of the models are designed with extra features like a bread chamber or lounger. The general scheme of this series of models is the same, but they vary in size, configuration, and other aspects. The second cap, which comes in different shapes, is fashioned like a rude and is placed over a variety of furnaces.

You cannot open the upper door when the lower firebox is loaded because it serves as the cap and is smoke-filled. When the upper furnace fires, the lower blows serve the same purpose as the upper one. When the upper door is opened and the furnace is closed, you can use this heating device just like a traditional Russian stove.

Any firebox can be used with the bread chamber, but the temperature inside the chamber will rise if the fire burns at the top.

Because of a system of channels that pass below the level of ash or serve (depending on the type of furnace), all of the heating devices in the RTC family heat up to the floor, in contrast to traditional Russian furnaces that only warm up to the level of serves.


The BIC family includes saunas and bath stoves in a range of configurations. They have one or two furnaces, the second of which is frequently constructed in the shape of a fireplace, and they do not fear excessive humidity. A pocket filled with stones intended to produce steam is present in some of the models. These stoves are universal because they are typically installed with a hot water boiler and a lounger.


The blacksmiths’ fireplaces were constructed in accordance with all the specifications of domed furnaces; the only thing that set them apart from solid or golst devices was the type of firebox. The fireplaces that replaced the fire in the fireplaces were inefficient and could only warm the fire that was burning in them.

Other than that, these are fully functional stoves available in different configurations, such as those with a hot water boiler, lounger, hot water supply (DHW), or water heating system (CO).

There are discovered Kamins of Kuznetsov with an extra pipe or lounger, which enables them to efficiently heat multiple rooms. They frequently constructed a traditional gallop furnace, complete with coal-burning elements, in addition to the fireplace.


The Kick family of hot water boilers is designed for use with hydraulic devices and COs. Compared to other types of furnaces, their primary distinctions are:

  • weak surface heating;
  • placement of the radiator of the water circuit inside the first (often only) dome.

While water is adequately heated, these kinds of heating devices are not appropriate for directly heating the house or individual rooms. When used in pairs with a heat accumulator, they work best.

Their structural makeup consists of a gallop furnace and a single cap housing the heat exchanger register; this arrangement enables them to heat the room not just while the furnace is operating but also for three to ten hours afterward.

The insulated house can be heated for several days with just one fuel bookmark if the heat accumulator is connected, but more boiler power is required. The primary drawback of the entire KIK line is the fast fussing that resembles soot flakes.


The sole purpose of this family of heating furnaces is to heat one or more rooms as efficiently as possible; they are not meant for use in baking or cooking bread.

There are samples with a fifth or fireplace top, but the great majority of the family models have lower heating and a golst furnace. They can be fitted with a lounger, extra rough, or air heating calories at the customer’s request.


The Ovik Bake 5 heating and welding furnace family consists of numerous models with different sizes and configurations, but they are all universal in nature.

They can be outfitted with any kind of furniture, a lounger, an oven, and other extra gadgets, depending on the model and the needs of the buyer; however, the basic design consists of a two-rolled bake of Podgorodnikov with a gap and a kitchen slab.

Where to get drawings and guesses?

On the website, you can find ready-made model drawings and greeds. Furthermore, speculations and all things associated with these heating devices are talked about on the "stoves of the master" forum.

It is up to you to explore other websites, as Kuznetsov did not disclose the secrets behind his furnaces in the public domain. The sole issue is that all of his projects are created under strict guidelines; if yours differs even slightly, you’ll need to order a new stove or make other changes to the house.

In the world of heating and insulation for homes, Kuznetsova stoves stand out as fascinating solutions that combine traditional craftsmanship with modern efficiency. These stoves operate on a simple yet ingenious principle: they utilize wood or other biomass as fuel to generate heat, which is then distributed evenly throughout the space they"re installed in. What makes Kuznetsova stoves particularly intriguing are their various models, each offering unique features and designs tailored to different needs and preferences. Whether it"s a compact model ideal for smaller spaces or a larger, more elaborate one capable of heating an entire home, Kuznetsova stoves cater to a wide range of requirements. Their blend of functionality, aesthetics, and eco-friendliness makes them a compelling choice for anyone seeking reliable and stylish heating solutions for their house.

Requirements for the stove

In the event that an estimate is made and the heating device’s project is entirely compatible with the home, the person with medium qualifications, or someone who is knowledgeable about how to:

  • prepare a masonry solution, including high -temperature, for the furnace;
  • Cut the brick in size, as well as grind it;
  • correctly fasten doors and valves so that they do not destroy the masonry;
  • Futter the fuel;
  • build a foundation that holds the weight of the furnace;
  • put bricks correctly;
  • Create arched arches.

Igor Kuznetsov authored multiple books on theory and practical stoves that will aid the stove in enhancing his credentials and comprehending the internal workings of the heating apparatus.

This will enable him to create his own models and upload other designs in addition to "blacksmiths" more quickly.

Additionally, seminars on Kuznetsovka are conducted by the NP "Development of the Kuznetsov furnaces" system and other organizations that specialize in Kuznetsovka, and both professional stovers and those who wish to build such a heating device will find them useful.

Is it possible to design and calculate the house for yourself?

Calculating such an oven from scratch is very challenging, even though in theory everything is straightforward. Proficiency in various fields, including heat engineering, is required for accurate computation.

Although it is slightly simpler to modify a completed project to fit the needs of a specific home, it is still important to comprehend how certain adjustments will impact the furnace’s internal heat exchange and gas flow. For independent computation, it is therefore preferable to use simpler designs, such as the Podgorodnikov "Russian warmer."

Reviews and discussions on forums

Examine reviews and conversations on different forums carefully in order to assess the benefits and drawbacks of Kuznetsov’s furnaces in a more impartial manner.

Links to the most well-liked ones are provided below:

Useful video on the topic

Watching this video will help you become more acquainted with the Kuznetsov oven’s device:

Kuznetsova stoves: the principle of work The most interesting models
Kuznetsova stoves operate by burning wood or other solid fuels to generate heat. They typically have a combustion chamber where the fuel is burned, and a system of channels or pipes to distribute the heat. Some notable models include the Kuznetsova Classic, known for its traditional design and efficient heating capabilities, and the Kuznetsova Modern, which incorporates innovative features like automated temperature control and eco-friendly fuel options.

As our investigation into Kuznetsova stoves comes to an end, it is evident that these age-old Russian heating options provide a unique combination of sustainability, efficiency, and charm. Their clever yet uncomplicated design lessens reliance on traditional heating systems while utilizing the power of fire to bring warmth and comfort to homes.

The working principle of Kuznetsova stoves is one of their most intriguing features. Through a network of passageways, these stoves optimize heat transfer while reducing fuel consumption from burning wood or other fuels. Because of this, they are not only more economical to run but also more environmentally friendly than many other contemporary heating techniques because they emit fewer emissions.

Furthermore, there is a Kuznetsova stove to fit every style and home thanks to the wide range of models that are offered. There is something for everyone, whether you like the clean lines of a more modern model or the rustic charm of a traditional Russian design. Additionally, because of their adaptability to a variety of living spaces, from roomy family homes to cozy cabins, these stoves can be used in both small and large spaces.

Furthermore, it is impossible to exaggerate the cultural significance of Kuznetsova stoves. These stoves, which have their roots in centuries of custom, are more than just a means of providing heat; they serve as a link to the rich history and handicraft of Russia. By adding one to your house, you’re embracing a bit of history and passing down a time-honored custom to future generations in addition to providing warmth.

To sum up, Kuznetsova stoves provide an alluring fusion of practicality, eco-friendliness, and cultural importance. These stoves have a lot to offer, whether you’re drawn to them for their historical resonance, wide variety of designs, or effective heating capabilities. Thus, a Kuznetsova stove is the only option to consider if you’re looking for a heating solution that blends innovation and tradition.

Video on the topic

Kuznetsov oven in two versions

Kuznetsov stoves. Device and principle of operation.

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Michael Kuznetsov

I love to create beauty and comfort with my own hands. In my articles I share tips on warming the house and repairing with my own hands.

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