Hydraulic calculation of the heating system Excel

For both comfort and energy savings, it is imperative that your home has effective heating and insulation. The hydraulic calculation of the heating system is one of the most important factors in reaching this efficiency. In order to achieve uniform heat distribution throughout the house, this process entails figuring out the best placement and dimensions for radiators, pipes, and other components.

Don’t be alarmed by the idea, even though it might seem daunting to people who aren’t familiar with the technical details of home heating. Both professionals and homeowners can find hydraulic calculations to be a manageable task with the correct resources and advice, such as the use of Excel spreadsheets.

Hydraulic calculations can be carried out easily on an Excel platform, which is a popular tool for data analysis and visualization. The user-friendly interface and adaptable features of this device make it the perfect option for handling the intricate details of heating system design.

You can enter multiple parameters, including room dimensions, insulation levels, heat loss factors, and desired temperature levels, by utilizing Excel’s capabilities. The required pipe diameters, flow rates, and radiator sizes are then computed by the spreadsheet in order to maintain the best possible heating efficiency.

Hydraulic calculation helps avoid problems like uneven heating, high energy use, and premature equipment wear in addition to guaranteeing that your heating system performs at its best. You can customize your heating system to fit the unique requirements of your house with precise calculations, which will ultimately result in increased comfort and lower costs.

We make a hydraulic calculation of the heating system using programs that are ready -made Excel forms and independently

A few requirements must be met for the heating system to function effectively: selecting the appropriate parts and performing the necessary computations. Its effectiveness and even heat distribution rely on the system’s parameters being calculated correctly. Examples and programs to help with the hydraulic calculations of the heating system are provided in this section.

Purpose of the hydraulic calculation of heating

An illustration of a heating plan using the computed data

Any heat supply system that is in use will eventually experience hydraulic resistance in the coolant’s movement. A hydraulic calculation of a two-pipe heating system is required to take this parameter into consideration. Its fundamental component is the appropriate selection of system elements while keeping in mind their functional characteristics.

Water heating systems’ hydraulic calculations are actually a complicated process that account for all the little details. In the initial phase, you should choose the thermal mode of operation, the ideal pipeline wiring layout, and the necessary heating power. These data are used to calculate the heating system’s hydraulics using Excel or another specialized program. The water heat supply parameters that should emerge from the calculations are as follows:

  • The optimal diameter of the pipeline. Based on this, you can find out their throughput, heat losses. Given the choice of manufacturing material, water resistance on the inner surface of the highway will be known;
  • Pressure loss and pressure in certain areas of the system. An example of a hydraulic calculation of the heating system will allow you to think in advance mechanisms for their compensation;
  • Water consumption ;
  • Required power of pumping equipment. Relevant for closed systems with forced circulation.

The heating system’s hydraulic resistance appears challenging at first. To make them yourself, though, you only need to delve a little into the fundamentals of the computations.

It’s also a good idea to figure out the heating system’s hydraulic resistance if the space is small and needs heat.

In understanding the importance of hydraulic calculation for your heating system, think of it as the blueprint for keeping your house warm efficiently. By using Excel, you can accurately size pipes and select the right components, ensuring that your heating system operates optimally while minimizing energy waste and cost. With this calculation, you"ll know exactly how much heat each room needs and how it flows through the system, allowing you to make informed decisions about insulation and temperature control. Excel simplifies the process by providing tools to input data and perform calculations swiftly, giving you peace of mind that your home stays cozy without breaking the bank. So, whether you"re building a new house or upgrading an existing system, mastering hydraulic calculation with Excel is the key to a comfortable and cost-effective home heating solution.

The calculation procedure for hydraulic heating parameters

Heating according to the house’s layout

A draft plan that shows the locations of each component should be created before beginning to calculate the heating system’s parameters. As a result, the overall length of the highways, the quantity of water, the number of radiators, and the properties of the heating devices are all calculated.

Without prior knowledge of such computations, how can one perform a hydraulic heating calculation? It should be kept in mind that selecting the appropriate pipe diameter is crucial for independent heat supply. The computations ought to begin at the moment this step is implemented.

The ideal way to design a heating scheme is to use the completed house plan. This will enable you to accurately calculate the material’s consumption and determine how much is needed for the system’s arrangement.

Determination of the optimal diameter of the pipes

Varieties of pipes used for heating

The cross section of the pipelines is the only calculation included in the heating system’s most basic hydraulic calculation. When creating small systems, they frequently omit it. In order to accomplish this, determine the pipe diameters based on the type of heat source using the following parameters:

  • Open scheme with gravitational circulation. Pipes with a diameter of 30 to 40 mm. Such a larger section is necessary to reduce losses during friction of water on the inner surface of the highways;
  • Closed system with forced circulation. The section of pipelines varies from 8 to 24 mm. The smaller it is, the greater the pressure will be in the system and, accordingly, the total volume of the coolant will decrease. But at the same time, hydraulic losses will increase.

In the event that a specialized program exists for the hydraulic calculation of the heating system, simply enter the boiler’s technical specifications and transfer the heating circuit. The ideal pipe diameter will be ascertained by the software set.

Selecting pipelines’ interior diameters

The acquired data is verifiable on its own. The following parameters must be calculated in order to manually perform a hydraulic calculation of a two-pipe heating system and determine the pipeline diameter:

  • V – Water speed. It should be in the range from 0.3- to 0.6 m/s. Determined by the performance of pumping equipment;
  • Q – Thermal flow. This is the ratio of the amount of heat passing over a certain period of time – 1 second;
  • G – water consumption. Measured in kg/hour. Depends on the diameter of the pipeline.

In the future, you will need to calculate the total volume of the heated room in square meters (m2) in order to perform hydraulic calculations for water heating systems. Assume that a single room has this value of 50 m³. Given the 24 kW heating boiler’s power, we determine the final heat stream as follows:

Water flow table in relation to pipe diameter

Next, using the information from the table created during the hydraulic calculation of the heating system in Excel, you must choose the ideal pipe diameter.

In this instance, 10 mm will be the ideal pipe internal diameter in a specific system section.

In the future, you can determine the indicative water consumption—which is confused by the pipe diameter—to complete the example of a hydraulic calculation for the heating system.

Manufacturers of polymer pipes specify the outside diameter. Therefore, two highways of the highway walls should be removed in order to correctly calculate the hydraulic resistance of the heating system.

Accounting for local resistance in the highway

An illustration of a heating hydraulic calculation

The calculation of the heating system’s hydraulic resistance in each main section is a step that is equally crucial. The entire heat supply scheme is conditionally divided into multiple zones for this reason. It is best to figure out how much each room in the house will cost.

The following numbers will be required as the initial data to be entered into a program for a hydraulic calculation of the heating system:

  • Pipe length on the site, m.P;
  • The diameter of the line. The calculation procedure is described above;
  • The required speed of the coolant. Also depends on the diameter of the pipe and power of the circulation pump;
  • Reference data characteristic of each type of manufacturing material is the friction coefficient (λ), loss of friction (ΔP);
  • Water density at a temperature of +80 ° C will be 971.8 kg/m³.

With this information, you can calculate the heating system’s hydraulics more simply. The table displays the outcome of these computations.

It is important to keep in mind while performing this work that the data pertaining to the system’s general parameters will be more accurate the smaller the heating section that is chosen. It is advised to perform multiple calculations for a specific pipeline interval, as it will be challenging to perform a hydraulic calculation of heat supply the first time. As few extra components as possible, such as shut-off valves and radiators, are preferred.

It is necessary to check the hydraulic calculation of a two-pipe heating system manually or using multiple different programs.

Review of programs for hydraulic calculations

An illustration of a heating calculation program

Actually, calculating the hydraulics of water heat supply systems is a difficult engineering task. Numerous software systems that make this procedure’s implementation easier were created in order to solve it.

Using pre-made formulas, you can attempt to perform a hydraulic calculation of the heating system in the Excel shell. However, concurrently, the following issues could arise:

  • Great error. In most cases, a single -pipe or two -pipe schemes are taken as an example of a hydraulic calculation of the heating system. Finding similar calculations for the collector is problematic;
  • For proper accounting of the hydraulic resistance of the pipeline, reference data is needed, which are absent in the form. They need to be sought and in addition.

Experts advise using programs to calculate given these factors. While some have disabled demo versions, the majority are paid for.

Oventrop Co

Program for hydraulic calculations

The easiest and clearest program for calculating the heat supply system’s hydraulics. The flexible setting and intuitive interface will enable you to quickly handle the subtleties of data input. Small issues could arise during the complex’s initial setup. All the system’s parameters, from the type of material used to make the pipes to the placement of the heating elements, must be introduced.

Distinguished by its adjustable settings and capacity to perform a simplified hydraulic heating calculation for both the new and updated heat supply systems. unique from analogs in that it has a handy graphical user interface.

Instal-Therm HCR

The software complex is intended to handle the heat supply system’s professional hydraulic resistance. There are numerous limitations with the free version. Scope: designing heating systems for sizable commercial and public buildings.

In actuality, a hydraulic calculation is not always carried out for the autonomous heat supply of private homes and apartments. Nevertheless, this may cause the heating system to function worse and cause the boiler, pipes, and radiators to fail quickly. That in order to further optimize the heating process, it is imperative to prevent this as soon as possible. Calculate the system’s parameters and compare them with reality.

An illustration of a heating system’s hydraulic calculation would be:

The hydraulic calculation of a one -pipe and two -pipe heating system with formulas, tables and examples

The efficient use of hydraulics in the calculation, installation, and operation of the system provides the economy of thermal comfort in the house. The heat source (boiler), thermal line (pipes), and heat transfer devices (radiators) are the three main parts of the heating system. No matter the season, the system’s starting parameters must always be maintained for efficient heat delivery.

Prior to initiating the hydraulic computations:

  • Collection and processing of information on the object for:
  • determining the amount of heat required;
  • selection of heating scheme.
  • thermal energy volumes;
  • loads;
  • Heat loss.

A hydraulic calculation is made in the event that water heating is determined to be the optimal choice.

One must be familiar with the theory and the laws of resistance in order to compute hydraulics using programs. Should the following formulas appear too complex for you to comprehend, you are able to select the parameters that we provide for each program.

The Excel application was used to perform the computations. At the conclusion of the instructions, you can view the final product.

What is a hydraulic calculation

This completes the third phase of the heating network creation process. It’s a computation system that lets you figure out:

  • diameter and throughput of pipes;
  • local pressure losses in the areas;
  • hydraulic linking requirements;
  • Settish pressure losses;
  • Optimal water consumption.

The pumps are chosen based on the data that was received.

When it comes to temporary housing without electricity, a heating system that allows the coolant to circulate naturally is appropriate (link to the review).

Ensuring that the costs calculated by the chain’s components coincide with actual (operational) expenses is the primary objective of the hydraulic calculation. A thermal balance should be created inside the home by the amount of coolant flowing into the radiators, taking into consideration both the outside temperature and the user-set temperature for each room based on its intended use (basement +5, bedroom +18, etc.D.).

Managing complex tasks while minimizing costs:

  1. capital – installation of pipes of optimal diameter and quality;
  2. operational:
  3. dependence of the energy consumption on the hydraulic resistance of the system;
  4. stability and reliability;
  5. noiselessness.

Simplifying the calculation process involves substituting the individual for the centralized heat supply mode.

There are four methods that can be used in autonomous mode for the heating system’s hydraulic calculation:

  1. according to specific losses (standard calculation of the diameter of the pipes);
  2. along the lengths led to one equivalent;
  3. according to the characteristics of conductivity and resistance;
  4. Comparison of dynamic pressures.

When there is a steady temperature differential in the network, the first two techniques are applied.

If the temperature difference in the network stops matching the riser/branch difference, the final two will assist in distributing hot water through the system rings.

Calculation of hydraulics of the heating system

We will require the axonometric scheme and the data from the thermal calculation of the premises.

Step 1: We count the diameter of the pipes

The economically sound thermal calculation results are used in the source data:

1a. For a two-pipe system, the ideal differential between the hot (TG) and chilled (TO) coolant is 20º.

1b. The coolant flow rate G, kg/hour, for a single pipe system.

2. The coolant should flow between ν 0.3 and 0.7 m/s.

The speed increases with the pipes’ internal diameter decreasing. The system starts to make noise when the water movement reaches a speed of 0.6 m/s.

3. The computed heat transfer rate (Q, WT).

Conveys the amount of heat (W, J) that is transferred in a second (measured in τ):

A formula to determine the heat flow’s speed

4. At tsr = 80 °C, the computed density of water is ρ = 971.8 kg/m3.

5. The sites’ parameters:

  • power consumption – 1 kW per 30 m³
  • Thermal power reserve – 20%
  • room volume: 18 * 2.7 = 48.6 m³
  • power consumption: 48.6 / 30 = 1.62 kW
  • Frost reserve: 1.62 * 20% = 0.324 kW
  • Final power: 1.62 + 0.324 = 1.944 kW

The table yields the closest value, Q.

We obtain an internal diameter interval of 8–10 mm. PLOT: 3–4. The site is 2.8 meters long.

Step 2: calculating local resistances

Comparing the hydraulic resistance indicators across the board in the heating system is necessary to ascertain the material of the pipes.

Factors of resistance:

Heating pipes

  • In the pipe itself:
  • roughness;
  • Place of narrowing/expansion of the diameter;
  • turn;
  • length.
  • tee;
  • ball crane;
  • Balancing devices.

The calculation site consists of a pipe with a constant diameter and water consumption that matches the room balance design.

To calculate the losses Data are analyzed with regulatory valve resistance in mind:

  1. The length of the pipe in the calculation section/L, m;
  2. the diameter of the pipe of the calculated section/D, mm;
  3. accepted coolant speed/u, m/s;
  4. data of the regulatory reinforcement from the manufacturer;
  5. reference data:
  6. friction coefficient/λ;
  7. friction losses/∆RL, PA;
  8. The estimated fluid density/ρ = 971.8 kg/m3;
  9. Technical characteristics of the product:
  10. equivalent roughness of the pipe/ke mm;
  11. Pipe wall thickness/dn × δ, mm.

Manufacturers provide the value of the specific pressure loss R, pa/m for all pipe varieties for materials with similar KE values.

For each friction/r, p/m, the outer d pipe, wall thickness/dn × δ, mm, and water supply speed/w, m/s (or water consumption/g, kg/h) are sufficient to independently calculate the specific losses.

In order to look for hydro-resistance/ΔP in a particular network segment, enter the information into the Darsi-Weisbach formula: for pipes made of steel and polymers (such as fiberglass, polypropylene, polyethylene, and t.D.). The Altshul formula yields the most accurate value for the friction coefficient, or λ: Re, or the Reynolds number, can be found using an online calculator or the simplified formula Re = V*D/ν:

You’ll need a shut-off and regulatory reinforcement to balance pressure drops.

  • design load (massive flow rate of the coolant – water or low measurement fluid for heating systems);
  • data of pipes manufacturers according to specific dynamic resistance/A, PA/(kg/h) ²;
  • Technical characteristics of the reinforcement.
  • The number of local resistances on the site.

Align the network’s hydraulic losses as the task.

The installation characteristics (mount, pressure difference, and throughput) of each valve are set in a hydraulic calculation. The coefficients of flow in each riser and, eventually, into each device, are established based on the resistance’s characteristics.

Features of the rotary shutter from the factory

Select the resistance characteristics S, p/(kg/h) ² calculation method.

Losses in pressure/∆P, PA square of the water flow in the section/G, kg/h, and directly proportional to it: S is the pressure loss per 1 kg/h of coolant in the physical sense: Where:

  • hole – the above coefficient for local resistance of the site;
  • A – dynamic specific pressure, pa/(kg/h) ².

According to the manufacturer, the dynamic pressure that arises in a pipe with a specified diameter at a coolant mass flow of 1 kg/h is regarded as particular.

Οival: the term for the site’s local resistance coefficients.

The coefficient mentioned above: He provides an overview of all local resistances, noting their size, which, when accounting for hydraulic friction losses, corresponds to the local resistance coefficient.

Step 4: Determination of losses

The total of the elements’ losses in the main circulation ring represents hydraulic resistance:

  • primary circuit/δpic;
  • local systems/δpm;
  • heat generator/ΔPTG;
  • heat exchanger/δpt.

The quantity of values provides the system’s hydraulic resistance, or ΔPso:

Review of programs

Both amateur and professional hydraulics calculation programs are used for calculation convenience.

Excel is the most widely used.

The online accounts for Combimix 1.0, Excel Online, and the online hydraulic calculator are all available to you. The project’s requirements are taken into consideration when choosing a stationary program.

Lack of understanding of the fundamentals of hydraulics is the biggest obstacle when using such programs. Some of them lack formula decoding capabilities, fail to take into account pipeline branching characteristics, and calculate resistance in intricate circuits.

  • Herz C.O. 3.5 – calculates according to the method of specific linear pressure losses.
  • Danfossco and Overtopco – are able to consider systems with natural circulation.
  • “Stream” – allows you to apply the calculation method with a variable (sliding) temperature difference by risers.

You ought to specify the temperature parameters for the data input, both in Kelvin and Celsius.

How to work in Excel

Since the results of the hydraulic calculation are always reduced to tabular form, using Excel tables is very convenient. Determining the order of steps and preparing the precise formulas are sufficient.

Entering the source data

The size is introduced and the cell is chosen. It simply considers all other information.

  • The value of D15 is recalculated in liters, it is easier to perceive the value of the consumption;
  • Cell D16 – Add formatting according to the condition: “If V does not fall into the range 0.25 … 1.5 m/s, then the background of the cell is red/white font”.

Static pressure is added to pipelines where the heights of the input and exit to the results differ by 10 m (1 kg/cm2).

Design of results

The color scheme chosen by the author has a purpose:

  • Light turquoise cells contain the initial data-they can be changed.
  • Pale green cell-introduced constants or data that is not prone to changes.
  • Yellow cells – auxiliary preliminary calculations.
  • Light yellow cells-calculation results.
  • Fonts:
  • blue – initial data;
  • black – intermediate/unhappy results;
  • Red – the main and final results of the hydraulic calculation.

Findings in the table Exel

An example from Alexander Vorobyov

An illustration of a basic hydraulic calculation for the pipeline’s horizontal section using the Excel application.

  • pipe length100 meters;
  • Ø108 mm;
  • wall thickness 4 mm.

Table of local resistance calculation results

Complicating the Excel program’s step-by-step calculations, you should learn the theory and cut costs on design work to some extent. Your heating system’s cost and heat transfer efficiency will be optimized with the help of a skilled approach.

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For any homeowner, ensuring the effectiveness and efficiency of a heating system is crucial. Through the utilization of technology, homeowners can optimize their heating systems to attain desired comfort levels while reducing energy consumption and expenses. One example of this is by applying Excel for hydraulic calculations.

Excel’s versatility is one of the main benefits of using it for hydraulic calculations. Excel offers a user-friendly interface that enables homeowners to enter different heating system parameters, including heat loss factors, pipe diameters, and flow rates. Homeowners can customize the computations to meet their unique needs and specifications thanks to this flexibility.

Furthermore, Excel provides strong mathematical tools and functions that simplify hydraulic calculation processes. Homeowners can quickly and precisely determine the pipe sizes, flow velocities, and pressure drops in their heating system by using Excel’s formulas and functions. This minimizes the possibility of calculation errors while also saving time.

Furthermore, Excel makes it possible to create comprehensive reports that are fully editable and based on hydraulic calculations. These reports highlight areas for optimization and improvement and offer priceless insights into the heating system’s performance. Through the analysis of these reports, homeowners can make well-informed decisions about improving the functionality and efficiency of their heating system through upgrades or modifications.

In conclusion, homeowners can take charge of their comfort and energy use by using Excel to calculate hydraulics in heating systems. Homeowners can maximize the performance, economy, and efficiency of their heating systems by utilizing Excel’s capabilities. Homeowners may minimize their impact on the environment and utility costs while providing a cozy and comfortable environment for their families with the appropriate resources and expertise.

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