How the heating radiator works

All across the world, heating radiators are a common sight in homes as they quietly keep us warm during the winter. However, have you ever given any thought to how these seemingly straightforward gadgets operate? This article will examine the inner workings of heating radiators in more detail, illuminating the fundamental ideas that underpin their functionality and providing insight into the magic that keeps our homes toasty.

A heating radiator is essentially a very simple piece of machinery. It functions according to the principle of convection, which is the movement of fluids like water or air transferring heat. When using a radiator, thermal energy is transferred to the room’s surrounding air through a network of pipes carrying hot water or steam.

The first step in the process is heating the water to the appropriate temperature using a heating system, such as a boiler or furnace. After that, the hot water is moved around the house via a system of pipes. Upon reaching the radiator, the hot water passes through a sequence of slender fins or channels that are engineered to optimize the surface area in communication with the surrounding air.

The hot water transfers its thermal energy to the radiator’s metal as it passes through the channels. The metal becomes heated as a result, warming the air around the radiator. Natural convection currents are produced when air heats up, becoming less dense and rising as a result. Then, cooler air from the space enters to replace it, starting a never-ending heating cycle.

But how does the heated air enter the room in the first place? This is where the radiator’s design is useful. The majority of radiators have a number of fins or vents that aid in directing the warm air flow into the space. Since these fins are frequently adjustable, you can tailor the airflow’s direction and intensity to your own preferences.

A variety of heating radiators

Everyone is familiar with cast-iron heating radiator models, which are the most traditional. Due to their heavy weight and difficulty of installation in automatically operating heating systems, these units are rarely used in modern times. These gadgets do, however, also have advantages of their own that set them apart from batteries and other materials.

First of all, a cast iron heating radiator’s design permits it to transfer significant pressure drops. Furthermore, and this is crucial, these batteries are able to withstand the formation of corrosion plaque and continuously transfer the negative effects of dangerous impurities in the coolant.

There is a slight difference in the panel of the panel-type heating radiator. To begin with, these gadgets weigh a lot less than cast-iron batteries. Furthermore, their walls are thinner, which lessens the signs of their inertia. The heating radiator made of steel that has a panel type works on the basis of higher heat transfer than other models. Furthermore, these gadgets have a considerably more contemporary appearance. Aluminum heating batteries are well-liked by many customers. These radiators can be made in a variety of designs, weigh very little, and have acceptable heat transfer.

There are occasionally heating devices like this where materials other than aluminum are used. Silicon is a complement to protect the structure of low-cost devices from significant temperature and pressure drops.

And since zinc and titanium are materials that are intended to guarantee improved resistance to different types of mechanical damage and protection against corrosion, they can be found in more costly devices.

Features of the design of the heating radiator

It is crucial to take into account the structural features and technical attributes of the heating batteries when installing a heat source in a living room. When selecting sectional radiators for your heating system, you can add as many sections as you need to increase the area they heat. However, you won’t be able to do this when installing a panel battery. The radiator’s sectional device also allows for quick replacement of the malfunctioning section without having to shut down the entire system, in addition to adjusting the amount of heat produced.

The principle of operation of the heating battery is also based on such an important factor as the center distance defined as the vertical length of the gap between the centers of the pipe of the withdrawal and supply. It is extremely important to remember this parameter if the battery or trumpet is replaced.
It is equally important to remember such a criteria such as the diameter of the installed pipes. In the event that this parameter is not large enough, there is a risk of clogging of heating devices. This is due to the fact that in the coolant there are often different harmful impurities like sand, rust, etc. Settling on the inner surface of the pipes, these substances can not only reduce the performance of the heating system, but also lead to its full breakdown.

As such, selecting a heating appliance should be done with extreme caution. If needed, you can always look through different heating device pictures, which are typically provided by the companies that sell these kinds of products.

In understanding how a heating radiator works, it"s like this: think of it as a warm hug for your home. The radiator is like a superhero, taking hot water from your heating system and spreading cozy warmth throughout the room. Here"s the trick: the hot water flows into the radiator through pipes, and as it does, it heats up the metal fins inside. These fins then act like a giant heating element, transferring heat into the air around them. That"s why when you"re near a radiator, you feel that toasty embrace. And as the air warms up, it rises, circulating around the room, keeping everything nice and snug. So, next time you"re snuggled up on a cold day, remember, it"s all thanks to your trusty heating radiator doing its magic.

The principle of operation and the device of the heating radiator

The process of heating radiators is not complicated at all. Via the plumbing system, the water is heated to the proper temperature before entering the heating devices, which heat the air inside the home.

The heating device will be referred to as a convector if the heat transfer mechanism is convection, or accelerated. And such a mechanism will be called a radiator if the heat transmission is based on the radiation principle, which means heating the space as a result of the surface heated to a certain temperature.

Panel-sample convectors are a type of combined heating battery that are frequently produced by manufacturers. Even though heating devices have temperature indicators, convection will account for the remaining 40% of heat production in these units, with energy radiation producing about 60% of the total heat. This makes it possible to heat objects in the room to a high standard and maximizes the convection of heated air. The design of a warm floor is a little similar to this device.

Options for installation of radiators

As you are aware, every communication device in the home needs a project plan in addition to the intended installation method for that specific device. Depending on the kind of pipe system, there are various ways to connect heating radiators.

One of the popular connection options is unilateral battery installation. This means that all the pipes of the heating system are mounted exclusively on the one hand. This method of installation was special in multi -apartment buildings.
Another type of connection is cross, or diagonal. The essence of such a device is that the installation of the supply pipe is carried out on one side of the radiator at its upper part, and the drive pipe from below the device from the back. The most suitable such method of installation will be for those batteries that are equipped with a large number of sections and have an impressive length. In this design, the coolant will be able to spread over the entire area of the room, maximizing the parameters of heat transfer.

A lower connection option is also available. Supply and withdrawal pipes are installed to the pipes situated below on the battery’s various sides. Although this connection method’s effectiveness is far less than that of the first two installation types, it is still a viable option in the event that the floor-mounted heat supply system is installed.

The heating radiator’s apparatus in the video is:

We disassemble the heating battery device – shape, types and materials for manufacturing

In addition to the fuel type used, modern heating systems vary in the kind of coolant used, how it is circulated, and how the heating components are designed. Convectors and radiators are typically built into central and autonomous water systems, which are the most commonly utilized in Russia. Their designs may differ, and the battery heating device plays a major role in determining the system’s overall efficiency.

What materials are used to make contemporary radiators, and what are the limitations of each model?

Several general questions

Radiator technical devices have a number of parameters. This includes the material they are made of, the design choice, and the functional technical features. Until recently, our nation’s water systems were organized using only cast-iron batteries, which are a homegrown invention. The rib cage was created. He also called the battery of an odd heating device.

There are many different types of radiators available on the heating unit market today, each with a unique set of technical specs, so a thorough evaluation of each choice is required. The technical gadget indicates whether a specific model can be operated, as well as the kind and caliber of coolant to be used, the maximum operating pressure, the choice of connection system, and installation features. It therefore makes sense to go into further detail about all of this.

Form of execution

A contemporary heating radiator is a dependable apparatus that can only exhibit its efficacy when its technical specifications match those of the heating system it is connected to. For instance, certain options are selected for heating a large area while others are smaller.

There exist multiple categories of structures:

  1. Sectional radiators.
  2. Tubular batteries.
  3. Panel models.
  4. Plane options.

Their technical parameters differ greatly from one another. The radiator’s volume affects heat transfer. The bigger it is, the more efficient it is, the system pressure ought to be higher, and the radiator itself ought to be harder. There are certain subtleties that help you choose wisely. They have to do with how heating appliances are made. Examine each choice independently.

Sectional radiators

A sectional radiator is one whose design is made up of individual ribs. These are the most widely used models that let you change the device’s power on its own, thereby changing the number of sections. It is simple to determine the heating battery’s operating parameters once you have the calculated sheet of power for a separate battery rib in hand.

There is a nipple system connecting each section, which has a simple design. A node that connects and has a thread on both sides is called a nibble. The section uses it to create the horizontal channels’ upper and lower manifolds. Their heat is provided by the coolant flowing over them. Garbage envelopes, heavy metal particles, and other large impurities that are always present in hot water running through pipework can be found in the lower canal.

Sectional radiator clog prevention is achieved by this design feature. The most common batteries made with this option are cast iron, aluminum, and bimetallic batteries.

Note: Sectional batteries are preferred, but it’s important to consider their major disadvantage. Where sections connect, there is a greater chance of leaks. If the heating system is installed without considering the characteristics of the materials used in the production of specific heating appliances, they will undoubtedly show up.

Tubular batteries

Technically speaking, the coolant in tubular batteries circulates through tubes rather than in sections like in sectional batteries. The upper and lower horizontal collectors are their central components. High-tech laser adhesions are used to connect them via vertical tubular elements.

This yields a complete hermetic design where tubes can be arranged in one or two rows. The pipes’ various cross sections—oval, rectangular, or round—allow you to design unique models and alter the products’ appearances to the greatest extent feasible to fit the interior design concept.

Several factors influence the thermal conductivity of a heating device of this kind.

  1. The size of the tubes.
  2. Their number.
  3. The diameter of the main elements.
  4. The material from which they are made.

The thickness of the tube walls has an impact on the radiators’ strength. The device can tolerate pressure in 22 atmospheres if it is 2 mm.

Note: The tube walls are 22 mm thick on only models made by domestic manufacturers. Since the indicator for foreign equivalents is 1.5 mm, using these radiators in systems with pressures higher than 15 atmospheres is not permitted.

Panel models

A contemporary panel radiator resembles a rectangle with ribs that has one, two, or three panels on it. They consist of two connected plates. This kind of device not only enhances heat transfer but also gives the device the required hardness.

The ribs form a canal. They are connected to one another and have a hot water circulation system. More coolant volume and higher radiator power are directly correlated with larger panels. Three different types of panel battery models are available for purchase; each has a unique marking: 11, 22, or 33.

The radiator may have one panel, two panels, or three panels, according to the numbers 11 through 33. Their fastening doesn’t present many challenges. Panel lengths range from 40 cm at the minimum to 2 m at the maximum. There is a range of 30 to 90 cm in height.

Plane options

The pipe serves as the foundation for the plate battery’s design. The same plates are fixed at the same distance at that location. The plates are heated by hot water that circulates through the central pipe, which also heats the air. Convertible methods are used to heat effectively.

There are two ways that plate radiators can be implemented. Steel plates and pipes are combined into one. Another has a copper central tube. The second choice lets you transfer heat more quickly.

Classification by manufacturing

Three materials are most frequently used in the production of sectional radiators: cast iron, aluminum, and bimetall.

Classic cast iron

Cast iron batteries are made up of distinct sections joined together with tight-fitting gaskets. There are vertical inner ribs. They contain a coolant that circulates and whose temperature shouldn’t be higher than +150 degrees. 12 bar is the working pressure. One section has 150 watts of power. There are currently three types of cast-iron batteries available: single-, two-, and three-channel.

The aluminum radiator has a slightly different construction. The casting and extrusion methods are employed in the production process. In the first instance, the battery completely spills under high pressure, sealing the design. In the second scenario, sections are poured separately and joined together with the help of glue, gaskets, and nipples. Casting-derived products possess the rupture of the rupture.

The aluminum radiator’s working pressure ranges from 6 to 10 atmospheres, and the coolant’s highest allowable temperature is +130 degrees.

Sectional and whole bimetallic radiators are also possible. They are constructed from copper, aluminum, and steel. These models differ somewhat from the aluminum radiator, according to the device. The ribs are made of aluminum, but the core is made of steel or copper. Such a useful remedy assisted in eliminating the drawbacks of the cast-iron and aluminum models.

Since the coolant only comes into contact with steel, the product’s technical indicators are as follows:

  • The maximum permissible temperature of the coolant is +110 degrees.
  • Working pressure 40 bar.

Steel core’s design is challenging. A vertical column with a thread on both sides joins two horizontal tubes. The vertical column is firmly fastened to the horizontal cores from above and below using thread. The section of aluminum is attached to it. A device like this has a lot of benefits. The most crucial ones are the ease of installation, rust resistance, and power adjustment capability.

Steel batteries are formed via welding, bending, and stamping. Although steel is a strong metal, oxidation is something it fears. Steel batteries are therefore only worthwhile when you can guarantee that water will always be present inside the closed system.

Generalization on the topic

As you can see, there are many variations in battery devices. The radiator’s technical features are often determined by the design and material used in its construction. Thus, when installing heating in a private home or apartment complex with multiple stories, it is crucial to pay close attention to all the details mentioned above.

The principle of operation and the device of radiators

  • The principle and structure of the oil radiator
  • The principle and structure of a cast -iron radiator
  • The principle and structure of the bimetallic radiator

There are currently several different types of heating devices. However, the most widely used radiators are bimetallic, oil, and cast-iron (aluminum) sectionals. They are the ones who would rather make up the bulk of homeowners. However, you should unquestionably familiarize yourself with the workings of each common type of radiator’s device before making a purchase of any heating equipment. As a result, it will be feasible to learn more about them and determine which batteries are best for you.

Diagram of the structure of a heating radiator.

The principle and structure of the oil radiator

Let’s begin by reviewing oil radiators, which saw their height in popularity a number of years ago. This is due to a variety of factors, including aesthetic appearance, high security and dependability, and noiselessness.

The open type heating elements do not have an oil radiator at all. In this way, there was less chance of a fire occurring while these heating devices were in use. This device contains tenas. They are submerged entirely in oil. As a result, their work is done sparingly, allowing you to significantly increase their service life. It’s crucial to remember that oil batteries come in fairly large sizes. However, as a result, they generate a strong stream of heated air that is evenly dispersed throughout the space.

The recommended spacing between radiators is 3-5 cm from the wall and 10–12 cm from the floor. The distance between the windowsill and the radiator should be 10 cm.

An integrated device is an oil radiator. In it, heat is transferred by radiation with the main surface of the battery and convection of the room’s existing air. Convection is accomplished by the coolant.

The oil heater is available as a metal capacity that is tightly sealed. There is mineral oil inside this apparatus. The radiator’s lower section is where the heating elements are situated within the radiator. Coolant is sprayed over them from top to bottom. He transfers the clock’s heat after it has heated up, which then heats the casing. In this instance, the batteries’ surface temperature is only a little over 100 °C. Because of this, when oil heaters are in use, the air in the room is essentially never dried out, and any dust that collects on their surface is never burned.

These batteries continue to operate on the same principle as when they were first developed. In this situation, changes are frequently made to their device. As a result, oil radiators with thermostats are now available in many stores. It is a regulator that allows you to change the room’s temperature.

Radiators are made of stainless steel, aluminum, cast iron, or steel.

Furthermore, because these electrical devices operate, the thermostat guards against overheating and voltage drops on the batteries.

Moreover, an integrated timer is frequently provided by oil heating devices. He is in charge of programming the heater to turn on and off automatically. He has made it possible for you to design a personalized heating schedule for your house, which will help you save electricity while keeping your home at a consistent temperature.

A fan is another component that an oil radiator needs to operate more effectively. To date, not all models of these heating devices have them. However, it is quite helpful. After all, it aids in accelerating the room’s heating process. However, you should be aware that while these oil radiators are operating, it is necessary to replace the fans multiple times because eventually, the bearings in them will fail.

Go back to the contents table.

The principle and structure of a cast -iron radiator

Let us now examine the basic working principle of both aluminum and cast-iron batteries. Their design is identical; their only differences are in weight and lifespan. Therefore, even though cast-iron sectional heating devices are more durable, they can also last for more than 50 years. Aluminum batteries, on the other hand, are much less expensive but weigh an order of magnitude less and are lighter. They thus frequently purchase them.

A radiator made of cast iron or aluminum operates on the very basic principle of heat exchange. The device heats up as a result of the circulation of steam or hot water in the batteries, which raises the room’s temperature.

It’s crucial to remember that a radiator made of cast iron or aluminum lacks any internal components, including thermostats, fans, and heaters. Water and steam are the only available spaces.

As a result, they rarely need to have them repaired.

Radiators made of cast iron and aluminum have a lot of thermal power and don’t have a high coolant quality requirement. The batteries stay hot for a considerable amount of time even after the heating process is finished because of their large capacities.

Go back to the contents table.

Component Function
Radiator Heats up when hot water flows through, transferring heat to the air in the room.
Thermostat Controls when the radiator turns on and off to maintain desired room temperature.

The mystery surrounding one of the most vital parts of residential heating systems can be revealed by learning how a heating radiator operates. Fundamentally, a radiator works by transferring heat from steam or hot water into the surrounding air. This procedure guarantees that in cold weather, your living area remains cozy and warm.

The radiator’s metal coils or fins heat up when steam or hot water passes through its pipes. The air surrounding the radiator warms as a result of the thermal energy released by these heated surfaces. Warmth is naturally dispersed throughout the space as a result of the rising temperature of the air. The main method by which radiators heat interior spaces is convection.

Radiation is a further crucial heat-transfer mechanism that radiators rely on. Radiation emits heat in the form of infrared energy, whereas convection warms the air directly around the radiator. As it moves in straight lines, this radiant heat warms any surfaces it comes into contact with. This two-pronged system guarantees reliable and effective heating even in areas with restricted airflow or obstructions.

Although contemporary heating radiators are made of different materials and designs, they all function according to the same basic ideas. The objective of any radiator, whether it’s a sleek, modern panel radiator or a classic cast iron radiator, is the same: to heat your house efficiently and dependably. Homeowners can maximize comfort and energy efficiency by choosing their heating systems wisely by being aware of how radiators operate.

To sum up, the common heating radiator is essential to maintaining a warm and comfortable home. Convection and radiation principles, along with its straightforward but efficient design, guarantee effective heat distribution throughout interior spaces. Understanding how radiators operate on the inside can help homeowners maintain and maximize their heating systems, saving money on energy and providing comfort for years to come.

What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
Share to friends
Anna Vasilieva
Rate author
Add a comment