Heating with natural circulation

There’s a lot to think about when it comes to keeping our homes warm and inviting. All of our decisions, from the kind of heating system we use to the insulation level of our homes, affect our comfort and energy efficiency. Heating combined with natural circulation is one technique that is becoming more and more popular due to its ease of use and efficiency.

Hot air rises and cold air sinks in natural circulation heating, in contrast to traditional forced-air systems that use ductwork and fans to distribute heat. It’s an idea that dates back thousands of years, used by prehistoric societies, and is still relevant today. Warm air rises naturally through this method, and cold air falls, providing a soft, uniform warmth throughout the house.

Well-planned layouts that promote airflow are essential to natural circulation heating. Usually, this entails arranging heating appliances, like wood stoves or radiators, so that they can efficiently heat the air around them. For best results, it’s also crucial to make sure that there are no airflow obstructions, such as furniture in front of heaters or blocked vents.

The energy efficiency of natural circulation heating is an additional benefit. Compared to forced-air systems, it uses less energy since it doesn’t rely on mechanical systems to distribute heat. This can benefit homeowners as well as the environment by lowering utility costs and leaving a smaller environmental impact.

  1. What are the heating systems with natural circulation, how to make them and what to take into account
  2. The principle of operation of the EC system
  3. Types of heating systems with natural circulation
  4. Heating radiators Ets
  5. Pipes for systems with natural circulation
  6. Boiler for gravitational systems
  7. Coolant for systems with natural circulation
  8. Conclusion
  9. Independent development and installation of a heating system of a private house with natural circulation
  10. The principle of heating with natural circulation
  11. Heating schemes with natural circulation
  12. One -pipe system
  13. Two -pipe system
  14. Calculation of heating power with natural circulation
  15. Rules for compiling a heating scheme with natural circulation
  16. Heating slope with natural circulation
  17. The gravity system of heating with natural circulation – calculations, slopes, types
  18. The principle of operation of the system with natural circulation
  19. Types of heating systems with gravitational circulation
  20. Closed system with gravity circulation
  21. Open system with gravity circulation
  22. One -pipe system with self -cycling
  23. Two -pipe system with self -cycling
  24. Video on the topic
  25. Pumping in heating with natural circulation. Ejection (injecting) bypass.
  26. The principle of operation of the heating system with natural circulation of the coolant
  27. Heating scheme with natural circulation.
  28. Heating with natural circulation 2 part. About the insert insert
  29. Heating with natural circulation made of polypropylene with your own hands. HE CAN?
  30. Calculation of heating with natural circulation
  31. Heating system with natural circulation.

What are the heating systems with natural circulation, how to make them and what to take into account

The natural circulation heating system has the advantage of operating independently of electricity availability, which is crucial in certain places. Another issue is that, in certain situations, it is simply not possible to achieve comfortable conditions with such a scheme. As a result, heating is frequently accomplished by gravity (one of the names), with the pump operating normally the remainder of the time. However, there are instances where a heating system without a pump is the only choice, such as in summer cottages that are not electrified.

Because the system with natural circulation (EC) operates on the principle of gravity, it is sometimes referred to as gravitational. Gravity is another name for it. One construction principle is indicated by all of these terms: no pump is needed.

The principle of operation of the EC system

In gravity systems, the movement of the coolant is caused by temperature differences in the coolant, which results in varying densities. For example, hot water exiting the boiler has a significantly lower density and weight than cold water. As a result, hot water is moved upward. Thus, the boiler should be positioned beneath the radiators, which is the primary feature of such systems. The coolant then slides down the pipe at a slight incline. Smaller diameter pipes leave the main highway to go to radiators or registers.

The most basic iteration of the natural circulation system

This system is easier to implement in systems with the upper distribution of water – this is when the pipe rises from the boiler under the ceiling and from there it is already lowered to the radiators. In systems with lower distribution, the gravitational system can be implemented only with an accelerated circuit – an artificial height difference is created: the pipe rises from the boiler almost under the fabric, there, there, an expansion tank is installed at the top point. After it, the pipe drops to a level of higher than the radiators, but not under the ceiling, but at the window level. From there there is already wiring into radiators. When installing the accelerated circuit, only a low ceiling can prevent you – it is desirable that the pipe extends higher than 1.5 meters (and also a tank) from the top of the boiler.

A single pipe system that circulates naturally. Wiring horizontally

Types of heating systems with natural circulation

It is possible to use two-pipe systems or the same pipe for the EC heating in spiritual and multiple houses.

Natural circulation is employed in a two-story house with a two-pipe heating system. The circuit is in a vertical position.

The idea remains the same in this instance: the coolant is distributed in accordance with the heating elements only after the pipe has risen to its greatest height from the boiler. The only distinction is that cooled water in a two-pipe system is assembled to a different highway and begins at the boiler return input. The boiler feeds this entryway through a single pipe that releases the last radiator.

System that allows a one-story home’s natural circulation. One-pipe design, upper wiring

Each of the aforementioned one-pipe turning schemes has vertical risers. The fact that each riser can have a heating device attached from each floor makes them more convenient, but they also cost more in terms of materials. In theory, installing water heating with natural circulation and horizontal wiring is more cost-effective in a two-story building with a large floor area. This is how it might appear (see the diagram below).

A single pipe system that circulates naturally. wiring horizontally with an accelerated manifold

The "Leningradka" heating plan with natural circulation was put into practice by this project. An accelerated collector is installed, followed by two circuits that diverge along the second floor—a horizontal sequential connection of radiators—for more active circulation on the floor. A second circuit descends to the first floor and splits into two branches there as well. Furthermore, risers are lowered from the latter in the radiator circuit in each of the branches of the second floor, in addition to the first floor.

Heating radiators Ets

For gravitational systems, the main thing is the minimum resistance to the water flow. Therefore, the wider the lumen of the radiator will be, the better the coolant will flow through it. Cast iron radiators are almost ideal from this point of view – they have the smallest hydraulic resistance. Aluminum and bimetallic. But you need to watch that their inner diameter is at least 3/4 ". You can use steel tubular batteries, steel panel or any others with a small cross section and high hydraulic resistance are definitely not recommended – water will not flow through them or it will not be very weak, which, for example, with a single -pipe system can lead to a lack of circulation in general.

Natural circulation systems (To increase the scale, click on the image.)

There are nuances in the way radiators are connected. In a single-pipe system, the installation technique is very important because the best heating element performance can only be achieved by utilizing various types of connections.

Schemes for connecting radiators

The figure located below shows the connection diagrams of radiators. The first is an unregulated sequential connection. With this method, all the shortcomings of “Leningradka” will appear: different heat transfer of radiators without the possibility of compensation (regulation). The situation is a little better if you put an ordinary jumper from the pipe. With such a scheme, the possibility of regulation is also absent, but when the radiator is fanned, the system operates, since the coolant passes through the bypass (jumper). Having installed two ball valves in addition behind the jumper (there is no figure in the figure), we get the opportunity to remove/turn off the radiator without stopping the system when the stream is blocked.

Characteristics of radiator connections in single-pipe systems

The last two installation techniques have devices that let you change the radiator’s temperature and modify the coolant flow via the radiator and bypass. The circuit can already be compensated with this inclusion (heat transfer is set on each heating device).

The type of connection—lateral, diagonal, or lower—is equally significant. You can enable or enhance the system’s compensation by using these connections.

Pipes for systems with natural circulation

The smoothness of the walls, or rather the material from which the pipes are made, is just as important in choosing the diameter of the pipes as the system size and number of radiators. It is crucial to consider this parameter for gravitational systems. The worst of all situations occurs in regular metal pipes, where the rough inner surface becomes even more uneven after use as a result of accumulated deposits on the walls and corrosion processes. since these pipes require the biggest diameter.

This is how steel pipes might appear in a few years.

From this point of view, metal -plastic and reinforced polypropylene. But in metal -plastic ones, fittings are used that significantly make lumen, which for gravity systems can become critical. Therefore, reinforced polypropylene look more preferable. But they have restrictions on the temperature of the coolant: the operating temperature 70 ° C, the peak – 95 o. The products made of special PPS plastic work temperature 95 ° C, peak – up to 110 ° C. So, depending on the boiler and the system as a whole, these pipes can be used, on the condition that these are high -quality branded products, not fake. Read more about polypropylene pipes here.

Heating systems can also be installed using polypropylene and metallocoplastic materials.

But no polypropylene can withstand such thermal loads if a solid fuel boiler is to be installed. In this instance, use steel for threaded joints or galvanize and stainless steel (do not use stainless steel welding during installation, as the seams move quickly). Although copper is also appropriate (see this article about copper pipes), you must handle it carefully because it has unique properties. For example, it won’t work properly with all coolants, and it’s best to avoid using copper with aluminum radiators in a single system because they will quickly corrode.

One characteristic of naturally circulating systems is that they cannot be calculated because turbulent flows form that are not calculable. They create them using averaged, experimentally bred norms and rules, as well as experience. The following guidelines primarily apply:

  • Raise the acceleration point as high as possible;
  • Do not make a nourishment of feed pipes;
  • put a sufficient number of radiator sections.

Then another is employed: a smaller diameter pipe is used from the location of the first branching and each subsequent lead. A 2-inch pipe, for instance, originates from the boiler, followed by a ¾, a ½, and t.D. branch. From a smaller diameter to a larger one, the discharge is collected.

The installation of gravitational systems has a number of additional features. Initially, pipes should ideally have a slope of between one and five percent, depending on the pipeline’s length. The main requirement is that there be no sections with a negative slope (inclined in the opposite direction), which would obstruct the flow of water due to the formation of air plugs. In theory, horizontal wiring is also feasible with a sufficient difference in height and temperature.

System summary: one pipe, two wings, and vertical wiring (circuit)

The second feature is that an expansion tank and/or air venture must be installed at the system’s highest point. The expansion tank can be membrane (closed) or open (the system will also be open). It is not required to divert air at the highest point—in the tank and into the atmosphere—when installing the open. Installing an automatic air vent is also necessary when installing a membrane tank. The "Maevsky" crane on each radiator won’t interfere with horizontal wiring, making it simpler to clear the branch’s air traffic jams altogether.

Boiler for gravitational systems

Boilers should operate without the use of electricity because these circuits are primarily required for devices that provide heat without the need for electricity. Any non-automated unit may be used, with the exception of pellet and electrical.

Most often, solid fuel boilers work in systems with natural circulation. They are good for all, but in many models it burns out fuel quickly. And if there is severe frosts outside the window, and the house is not insulated sufficiently, then in order to keep an acceptable temperature at night, you have to get up and throw fuel. Especially this situation is often found where they are drowned with firewood. Exit – buy a boiler of long burning (energy -dependent, of course). For example, in Lithuanian solid fuel boilers Stropuva, under certain conditions, firewood burn up to 30 hours, and coal (anthracite) to several days. The Candle boilers are a little worse than the characteristics: the minimum burning time is 7 hours, coal – 34 hours. There are boilers without automation and pumps and the German campaign of Buderus, Czech Viadrus and Polish-Ukrainian Wikchlach, as well as Russian manufacturers: “energy”, “light”.

Energy-dependent boiler with a long Stropuva burn

Russian boilers that rely on gas energy are produced in Rostov-on-Don; one such boiler is Konord. They are suitable for use in naturally circulating systems. The power-dependent universal Don boilers, which can operate without electricity, are made at the same facility. Floor gas boilers from Bertta, an Italian company, are used in naturally circulating systems, such as the Novella Autonom model and a few other products from Asian and European manufacturers.

The second method that will help increase the time between the furnaces is to increase the inertia of the system. For this, heat accumulators are installed (TA). They work well precisely with solid fuel boilers, which do not have the opportunity to adjust the intensity of combustion: the excess heat is assigned to the heat accumulator in which the energy accumulates and is consumed as the coolant cools in the main system. Connecting such a device has its own features: it must be placed on the supply pipeline below. Moreover, for effective selection of heat and normal work – as close as possible to the boiler. However, for gravitational systems, this solution is far from the best. They slowly go to normal circulation mode, but they are self -regulatory: the colder the room, the more the coolant cools down, passing along the radiators. The larger the difference in temperatures, the greater the density difference and the coolant moves faster. And the installed one makes heating more inertial, and the time and fuel for acceleration is required much more. True, and heat is given longer. In general, you decide.

In order to maintain system temperature stability, a thermal battery is installed.

Pertaining to the same issues with natural circulation and stove heating. In this instance, the furnace’s array serves as the heat accumulator and accelerates the system with a significant amount of fuel. However, it usually allows for its exclusion when it comes to use, and this is not realistic in the case of the stove.

Coolant for systems with natural circulation

Water is an ideal coolant for these kinds of systems. It is possible to use antifreeze, but when planning, you need to account for this and increase the radiator area; you can either choose larger radiators or more sections. The problem with these compounds is that they transfer heat less effectively, which makes them worse and frequently causes the coolant and boiler to overheat.

There are specific antifreezes used for heating systems.

As precipitation and deposits start to form in large quantities, the temperature of a non-freezing fluid rises above the working phenomenon. After using antifreeze for two months without stopping and experiencing frequent overheating, the boiler heat exchanger became severely clogged, and the system nearly overgrew. Therefore, ensure that the non-freezing liquid you intend to use can provide heat without overheating.

It is important to remember that only specific compositions can be used in heating systems. Cars or general-purpose use are completely inappropriate, particularly for open-plane schemes that interact with the environment. When selecting materials for antifreeze applications, consider how well they work with non-freezing liquids. Not every pipe and boiler get along well with them. If there is no record of the possibility of using non-freezing liquids, you should inquire with the seller or, better yet, directly with the manufacturer.


The system with natural circulation is not the best heating method, but sometimes the only possible – in those areas where there is no power supply. In the same regions where there is electricity, in case of interruptions, the scheme can be created as a gravity, but at the same time to build a pump for regular operation. The truth is and this solution is not the best: the volume of the system increases, it becomes more inertial and requires a large cost of heating the coolant. If interruptions are an exception to the rules, you can protect yourself by installing a backup power supply (uninterrupted power supply and /or generator). If interruptions often happen – then your output is a system with natural circulation.

Independent development and installation of a heating system of a private house with natural circulation

The easiest and most expensive way to heat a house is to plan and install heating with natural circulation. But, in order to carry out such a project in practice, you must be familiar with all the subtleties and component selection guidelines. Thus, it is important to accurately calculate and plan the installation of a private home’s heating system with natural circulation.

The principle of heating with natural circulation

Any water heating system needs to have the coolant moving through the pipes in order for it to function. Hot water that has been heated in the boiler should reach the batteries and radiators to distribute heat throughout the house. There is no exception with the natural circulation water heating system.

System of natural circulation for heating

The difference in density between the heated and normal states is what causes the coolant to move. There is a rise in water temperature and a subsequent drop in density when the running boiler enters the heat exchanger. The cold coolant displaces the heated because its specific mass is higher. This leads to the formation of mass movement.

Prior to conducting manual water heating with natural circulation, it is advisable that you thoroughly acquaint yourself with the operational details and technical characteristics.

  • High degree of reliability. The absence of moving elements (impeller of the circulation pump) and pressure equal to atmospheric ensure the long -term operation of the natural heating system of a private house;
  • The inertia of the system. Natural circulation in a closed heating system is ensured by a small pressure difference. Therefore, the speed of receiving hot water to the radiators will be minimal;
  • Mandatory compliance with the slope of the highways. For normal operation, the slope of the heating system with natural circulation must correspond to the calculated data. The pipes are mounted with a slope from the boiler, and for the reverse line – to the boiler. This ensures the optimal operation of the system.

It should be mentioned that for circuits with pipeline lengths of no more than 30 m.P., installing a heating system with natural circulation is advised. If not, the large amount of cooled coolant will cause it to slow down considerably.

A gas, solid fuel, or electric boiler may be installed as part of a two-story building with natural circulation’s traditional heating scheme. It is crucial that their design include a mechanism to prevent overheating in the event that the coolant moves in the opposite direction or air plugs appear.

Heating schemes with natural circulation

Priority one should be given to selecting the proper layout for the pipelines, radiators, and boiler. Since heating with natural circulation can only be achieved in accordance with a pre-drawn plan, this stage of the process requires the utmost care.

The apartment has natural ventilation and heating.

The first step involves doing a preliminary analysis of the room (or house), where the heating system is supposed to be installed. It considers the living space, the external walls’ level of thermal insulation, and the kind of boiler used to heat the water. There are numerous methods available today for creating natural circulation heating with your hands. The most well-liked ones are:

  • One -pipe. The best option for small houses and apartments;
  • Two -pipe. It is selected to ensure air heating in houses with middle and large area, two -story buildings.

However, one should keep in mind the two primary limitations: the minimum number of rotary nodes and the entire length of the highway, given the principle of the heating system’s operation with natural circulation. As a result, the collector or trigeminal wiring of pipes cannot be done using this scheme. The coolant’s speed will be adversely affected by excessive hydraulic losses.

It is important to keep in mind that only water can be used in heating systems with natural circulation when performing calculations. Because antifreeze is excessively dense, it cannot maintain the right pressure in pipelines.

One -pipe system

When determining the heating system with natural circulation for small country and country houses, the project’s overall cost is considered in addition to technical (operational) features. The end product ought to be a reasonably priced and dependable heat supply service system. As a result, a single-pipe heating system with natural circulation is typically installed in these homes.

A single-pipe heating setup

One highway is one of this system’s features. It has batteries and radiators connected to it in parallel to create a single shape. The simplicity of installation, low material consumption, and minimal number of components characterize a single-pipe heating system with natural circulation. But keep in mind that because heat is transferred to each radiator in the chain sequentially, the coolant in this system cools at a sufficient rate.

In order to maximize the thermal regime within a private home’s natural heating system, the following elements must be included:

  • Bypass in the strapping of each radiator. It will make it possible to limit the flow of coolant into the battery, without changing the parameters of the entire system. With its help, you can completely turn off the heating device for replacement or repair, without stopping the operation of heat supply;
  • Thermal controllers on batteries. They are mounted in a heating system with natural circulation paired with bypass. The automatic thermal element will change the cross section of the passage diameter of the radiator pipe, thereby adjusting the degree of heating of the device;
  • Maevsky crane. Mandatory component in radiator strapping. Since calculating the heating system with natural circulation is not always accurate – you should think over the system for removing air. It is for this that the crane of Mayevsky is intended.

A small occupied area is another benefit of a single-pipe heat supply system with natural circulation. There are two methods for installing a highway: open and closed. Ensuring the radiators are connected to it is the only thing that matters.

The boiler and radiators can be placed on the same level in a water heating system with natural circulation and a single pipeline; this is not permitted in other schemes.

Two -pipe system

The only way to provide medium-sized and larger homes with stable heating is to separate the hot and cold water flows. A two-pipe heating system with natural circulation will be the most advantageous choice in this situation.

The boiler installation needs to be placed below the level of the radiators in order for the system to function normally. In a closed heating system, this is required to generate the pressure of cooled water and promote natural circulation. You must build an accelerated riser for improved pressure right after the boiler. At its tallest point, an expansion tank is mounted. Radiators are connected to a spitting pipe that is installed from it beneath an incline.

A properly designed and installed two-pipe natural circulation heating system can function even with a minimum temperature differential between the heated and cooled coolant. In order to carry out the project, the following details need to be considered:

  • The location of the boiler water heating with natural circulation with your own hands. Most often it is in a basement or basement. It needs to ensure a normal temperature regime, ventilation and natural light;
  • Control pipe on the expansion tank. Even if you correctly calculate the heating system with natural circulation, there will still be the likelihood of a critical decrease in the volume of water. Using the control pipe, you can track this indicator;
  • Modeling and draining units. They are at the lowest point – on the reverse pipe. In order to correctly make heating with natural circulation, it is necessary to provide in advance methods of automatic (semi -automatic) replenishment of the system, as well as operational drainage of water.

New materials have made it possible for you to easily construct a two-pipe heating system with natural circulation using steel or polymer pipes. It all depends on the available funds as well as the availability of the right equipment and supplies.

In a natural circulation two-pipe heating system, bypass installation is not necessary. The installation of shut-off valves is merely necessary in case the device needs to be disconnected from the main highway.

Calculation of heating power with natural circulation

It is advised to use specialized programs to calculate the primary heat supply parameters. You can determine the heating system with natural circulation as precisely as possible with their assistance. However, there are simpler alternatives that are used if this isn’t feasible.

Program for heating

The simplest method is to use the ratio of 1 kW of thermal energy per 10 m² of area to determine the boiler’s needed power. In this instance, the coefficient—which is based on the local climate—must be multiplied by the result.

The table provides its values for the heat supply water system with natural circulation. These coefficients are suggestions; alternative values may be used, contingent on the particulars of the dwelling. However, this approach will ascertain the general specifications of the heating system. As such, its implementation is a necessary step in the heat supply design process.

However, the quantity and type of windows and door structures, as well as the building’s level of thermal insulation, are not taken into consideration. As a result, it is recommended to compute the heat supply system with natural circulation using a different methodology. Phases of computation:

  1. 1 m³ of a residential building will require 400 watts of heat. Multiplying power by the volume of the building, we get the initial value of thermal energy.
  2. To compensate thermal losses through the windows, the number of structures is multiplied by 100 watts. The same technique is used for external doors, but with compensation of 200 W for each.
  3. If the room has an external wall, then for normal operation the natural heat supply system of a private house, the result is multiplied by a correction factor of 1.2.
  4. For private houses, thermal losses through the roof and gender are taken into account using the coefficient of 1.5.

It should be remembered that even with this computation, accuracy will be limited. It is advised to consult experts for an accurate calculation of the primary system characteristics when planning the installation of a heat supply with natural circulation on your own for a large house.

Good thermal insulation of the outside walls, ceiling, and roof is required to reduce heat losses in the building. With natural circulation that you create yourself, this will lower the current water heating expenses.

Rules for compiling a heating scheme with natural circulation

You can begin configuration once you understand the fundamentals of how a heat supply system with natural circulation operates and have selected the best plan. Since the components’ technical specifications will determine how far heating operations can go, this step is just as crucial as the others.

Heating pipes

You must consider every feature that this system has to offer. The operation of the circulation pump compensates for hydraulic losses in forced circulation diagrams. Such a mechanism does not exist for closed heating systems with natural circulation. Consequently, consideration should be given to the following aspects of design and component selection in order to minimize losses:

  • Heating pipes. Their diameter should be from DU32 to DU40. Thus, friction of water on the inner surface is compensated. It is also recommended to choose polymer products with a smooth wall. Their actual external diameter is from 40 to 50 mm;
  • Medical wiring scheme. The rotary nodes must be avoided, which increase the hydraulic resistance in the system;
  • The height of the acceleration riser. In the heating scheme of a two -story building with natural circulation, it should be higher than the ceiling of the second floor. The expansion tank is located in the attic;
  • Characteristics of locking reinforcement. Its presence should not affect the parameters of the system.

An analogy with well-known communication vessels can be made to better understand the fundamentals of the heating scheme of a two-story building with natural circulation. Since the boiler is going to be below the radiators in this instance, the fluid flow will be directed toward it. This is the reason it needs to be installed as low down as feasible when designing a plan and installing a natural circulation heating system.

On the return pipe, a special valve is installed to stop variations in the water flow. This phenomenon may manifest during the system’s initial startup, when the coolant’s temperature differential is minimal.

Heating slope with natural circulation

The standard technological scheme and the installation of the heat supply system with natural circulation are nearly identical. Using the same supplies and equipment, accomplish this. The difference is in the absence of the heating system’s required natural circulation slope.

The heating pipes’ incline

The supply pipeline from the accelerated riser needs to be tilted in the direction of the heating radiators in order to guarantee system operation. The ratio of 1:10 determines how much the position of the supply line’s upper and lower points change. That is, a slope of 10 mm is required for every meter of pipes.

You should alter the slope’s direction and position for the reverse line. He should proceed from the radiators to the boiler in this part of the system. Consequently, a new requirement for gravitational effects on the coolant is established.

The natural circulation heating system’s maintainability is one of its benefits. The home’s owner has the ability to fix the leak on their own or replace the broken radiator. However, in order to do this, repair sets must be purchased beforehand.

The video provides a thorough explanation of the operation and configuration of a heating diagram featuring natural circulation.

The gravity system of heating with natural circulation – calculations, slopes, types

Errors committed during the installation of the heating system can affect the gravitational circulation system.

The principle of operation of the system with natural circulation

The following benefits make a private home’s natural circulation heating system popular:

  • Simple installation and maintenance.
  • Lack of need to install additional equipment.
  • Energy dependence – during work, additional costs for electricity are not required. When you turn off the electricity, the heating system continues to work.

Physical laws form the foundation of the gravity circulation method of water heating. The weight and density of the liquid decrease with temperature, and they return to their initial states when the liquid medium cools.

The heating system’s pressure is essentially nonexistent at the same time. In formulas related to thermotechnology, a ratio of one atm is recognized. for each ten meters. the water column’s pressure. A two-story building’s heating system calculation will reveal that the hydrostatic pressure is limited to 1 atm. 0.5–0.7 atm in one-story buildings.

An expansion tank is necessary for natural circulation because heated liquids have a higher volume. The boiler’s water circuit heats the water as it flows through it, increasing its volume. At the very top of the heating system, on the heat carrier, is where the expansion tank should be located. Buffer capacity’s job is to make up for the fluid volume increase.

Private homes can use the self-cycling heating system, which allows for the following connections:

  • Connecting to warm floors – requires installing a circulation pump, only on a water circuit laid in the floor. The rest of the system will continue to work with natural circulation. After turning off the electricity, the room will continue to heat up using installed radiators.
  • Work with an indirect water heating boiler – connection to the system with natural circulation is possible, without the need to connect pumping equipment. To do this, the boiler is installed at the top of the system, just below the closed or open -type air expansion tank. If this is not possible, then the pump is installed directly on the funded container, additionally installing the check valve to avoid recirculation of the coolant.

Gravity drives the coolant’s movement in systems with gravitational circulation. The heated liquid rises up the accelerated area due to natural expansion, and then it "flows" back to the boiler through the pipes that are connected to the radiators under the slope.

In the quest for energy-efficient and cost-effective heating solutions, "Heating with natural circulation" stands out as a promising approach for homeowners. Unlike traditional heating systems that rely on pumps to circulate hot water or air, natural circulation harnesses the inherent buoyancy of heated fluids to distribute warmth throughout the house. By leveraging this natural process, homeowners can enjoy a more sustainable and economical heating method. With careful design considerations and proper insulation, natural circulation systems can effectively distribute heat without the need for additional energy consumption, making them an attractive option for those looking to reduce their carbon footprint and utility bills. Embracing this approach not only promotes environmental sustainability but also offers long-term savings and enhanced comfort for households.

Types of heating systems with gravitational circulation

There are at least four widely used installation schemes for the water heating system with self-carbon monitoring, despite its simplicity. The features of the building itself and the desired performance are taken into consideration when selecting the wiring type.

Each situation must be evaluated individually to determine which scheme will work best. This includes calculating the diameter of the pipe, accounting for the heating unit’s characteristics, and performing a hydraulic calculation of the system.P. You might need to enlist the assistance of a professional when doing calculations.

Closed system with gravity circulation

Among alternative solutions, closed systems are the most widely used in EU member states. The plan is still relatively new in the Russian Federation. A water-type water heating system with non-bend circulation operates on the following principles:

  • When heated, the coolant expands, water is displaced from the heating circuit.
  • Under pressure, the liquid enters the closed membrane expansion tank. The design of the container represents a cavity divided into two parts membrane. One half of the tank is filled with gas (nitrogen is used in most models). The second part remains empty for filling the coolant.
  • When heating the fluid, pressure is created sufficient to pushed the membrane and squeeze the nitrogen. After cooling, the reverse process occurs, and gas squeezes water from the tank.

The remaining closed systems function similarly to other natural circulation heating schemes. One can identify reliance on the expansion tank’s volume as a drawback. It is not always a good idea to install a large container in rooms with a large heated area.

Open system with gravity circulation

The expansion tank’s design is the sole way that the open-type heating system varies from the earlier model. Older buildings were the typical settings for this design. One of the benefits of an open system is the ability to self-manufacture capacity using readily available materials. Tanks are typically placed on the living room’s roof or beneath the ceiling and have modest dimensions.

The primary drawback of open structures is air getting into the heating radiators and pipes, which increases corrosion and speeds up the breakdown of heating components. Additionally, the system of the system frequently appears as a "guest" in open-type schemes. As a result, Maevsky’s taps must have air tolair, and radiators are angledly installed.

One -pipe system with self -cycling

Due to its poor heat efficiency, single-pipe horizontal systems with natural circulation are seldom utilized. The fundamental design of the scheme is that the radiators are connected to the supply pipe in a sequential manner. Warm coolant passes through the lower drive and into the upper battery pipe. Heat then moves on to the next heating node and so forth to the final point. The return travels back to the boiler from the extreme battery.

This solution has a number of benefits:

  1. There is no pair pipeline under the ceiling and above the floor.
  2. Saving funds for the installation of the system.

The drawbacks of making such a choice are clear. Because the heating radiators are farther away from the boiler, there is a decrease in both heat transfer and heating intensity. Experience demonstrates that even with careful observation of all slopes and proper pipe diameter selection, a two-story building’s single-pipe heating system with natural circulation frequently needs to be recreated (by installing pumping equipment).

Two -pipe system with self -cycling

The following architectural characteristics of a two-pipe heating system with natural circulation in a private home:

  1. Feed and return pass through different pipes.
  2. The supply pipeline is connected to each radiator through the input allotment.
  3. The second eyeliner is connected to the return.

Consequently, a two-pipe radiator type system offers the subsequent benefits:

  1. Uniform heat distribution.
  2. Lack of need for adding radiator sections for better heating.
  3. Easier to adjust the system.
  4. The diameter of the water circuit, at least by a size less than in single -pipe schemes.
  5. Lack of strict rules for installing a two -pipe system. Small deviations are allowed relative to slopes.

The main benefit of the two-pipe heating system with lower and upper wiring is its simplicity and efficient design, which makes it possible to correct calculations or installation errors.

Advantages Disadvantages
Energy efficient Dependent on temperature differentials

One easy way to keep your home comfortable and cozy is to use natural circulation in conjunction with heating. This technique lowers energy consumption and maintenance costs by using the natural flow of heated air instead of complicated mechanical systems.

The environmental friendliness of natural circulation heating is one of its main advantages. In contrast to conventional forced-air systems, which use electricity or fossil fuels to run fans and blowers, natural circulation uses the laws of thermodynamics to provide warmth throughout the house without the need for extra energy.

Furthermore, even temperature distribution is encouraged by natural circulation heating, guaranteeing that every area of your house has enough warmth. This improves overall livability by removing cold spots and fostering a more constant and cozy interior climate.

In the long run, choosing natural circulation heating can also result in significant cost savings. Because there are fewer moving parts and the system is not dependent on outside energy sources, it requires less maintenance and requires fewer costly repairs and servicing.

To sum up, heating your home with natural circulation offers an economical, efficient, and sustainable way to keep warm during the winter. This method offers a dependable way to achieve thermal comfort with the least amount of financial and environmental impact by utilizing the natural qualities of heated air.

Video on the topic

Pumping in heating with natural circulation. Ejection (injecting) bypass.

The principle of operation of the heating system with natural circulation of the coolant

Heating scheme with natural circulation.

Heating with natural circulation 2 part. About the insert insert

Heating with natural circulation made of polypropylene with your own hands. HE CAN?

Calculation of heating with natural circulation

Heating system with natural circulation.

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Anna Vasilieva
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