Heating system with natural circulation

An effective heating system is essential for keeping our homes warm during the winter. A common approach is to use a natural circulation heating system, which uses the laws of physics to distribute heat throughout the house by using warm air rising and cool air sinking. Natural circulation systems are simpler and frequently more affordable than forced-air systems, which rely on fans and ductwork to function. Instead, they use the air’s natural flow.

The fundamental idea of a natural circulation heating system is convection. When heated by an appliance like a wood stove or furnace, the air inside a room becomes less dense and rises. Warm air rises and cool air descends continuously as a result of surrounding cooler air moving in to replace the rising warm air. Heat is efficiently distributed throughout the room by this natural movement, which doesn’t require any mechanical support.

Having a well-planned layout that promotes air flow is essential to a natural circulation heating system. This could involve arranging rooms to best allow for unhindered airflow and carefully placing heat sources to guarantee even warmth distribution. Furthermore, because they can affect the direction and speed of air movement, elements like insulation and ceiling height can affect how well the system works.

The simplicity and dependability of natural circulation heating systems is another benefit. They have fewer moving parts that need to be maintained because they don’t depend on sophisticated machinery or electricity to operate. This may result in reduced long-term expenses and less disruptions to the comfort of the home during the winter.

It is noteworthy that natural circulation heating systems might not be appropriate for every type of home or climate. The natural flow of air may not be enough to sufficiently heat an area if it is especially large or poorly insulated. In these situations, additional heating techniques or different systems might be required to guarantee even warmth throughout the house.

  1. The principle of heating with natural circulation
  2. The principle of operation of the ZSO
  3. A closed heating system is a single -pipe circuit
  4. Wiring schemes
  5. Two -pipe CO
  6. One -pipe with
  7. Radiation CO
  8. Types of open heat supply schemes
  9. Natural circulation in heating
  10. Forced system with pump
  11. Selecting the heating circuit of a country house
  12. Advantages and disadvantages of an open heating system
  13. How to choose a closed heating boiler
  14. Differences of the open and closed heating system
  15. Advantages of the open heating system
  16. Disadvantages of the open heating system
  17. Advantages of a closed heating system
  18. Disadvantages of a closed heating system
  19. The principle of operation of a closed type system
  20. Two -pipe heating system with natural coolant circulation
  21. The scheme of the two -pipe system
  22. Criteria for choosing a heating system
  23. Open heating system
  24. Closed heating system
  25. Pipe wiring options in the system
  26. Specificity of one -pipe and two -pipe schemes
  27. Upper and lower heat generator supply
  28. Vertical and horizontal risers
  29. Open system of advantage and disadvantages
  30. The right choice of a boiler for a closed system
  31. What is the fuel in the closed system for
  32. Manual or automatic
  33. Automatic temperature control
  34. How to fill the system with a coolant
  35. System"s equipment and principle of operation
  36. Useful links for beginners
  37. Determination of the open heating system
  38. Video on the topic
  39. The gravitational heating system is nothing more than heating with natural circulation
  40. Natural heating circulation
  41. Self -stroke heating system.The usual mistake.Advice.
  42. Natural / forced circulation of the heating system
  43. Heating system with natural circulation without a pump and electricity

The principle of heating with natural circulation

Any water heating system needs to have the coolant moving through the pipes in order for it to function. Hot water that has been heated in the boiler should reach the batteries and radiators to distribute heat throughout the house. There is no exception with the natural circulation water heating system.

System of natural circulation for heating

The difference in density between the heated and normal states is what causes the coolant to move. There is a rise in water temperature and a subsequent drop in density when the running boiler enters the heat exchanger. The cold coolant displaces the heated because its specific mass is higher. This leads to the formation of mass movement.

Prior to conducting manual water heating with natural circulation, it is advisable that you thoroughly acquaint yourself with the operational details and technical characteristics.

  • High degree of reliability. The absence of moving elements (impeller of the circulation pump) and pressure equal to atmospheric ensure the long -term operation of the natural heating system of a private house;
  • The inertia of the system. Natural circulation in a closed heating system is ensured by a small pressure difference. Therefore, the speed of receiving hot water to the radiators will be minimal;
  • Mandatory compliance with the slope of the highways. For normal operation, the slope of the heating system with natural circulation must correspond to the calculated data. The pipes are mounted with a slope from the boiler, and for the reverse line – to the boiler. This ensures the optimal operation of the system.

It should be mentioned that for circuits with pipeline lengths of no more than 30 m.P., installing a heating system with natural circulation is advised. If not, the large amount of cooled coolant will cause it to slow down considerably.

Installing a gas, solid fuel, or electric boiler is one possible component of a two-story building with natural circulation’s conventional heating system.

It is crucial that their design include a mechanism to prevent overheating in the event that the coolant moves in the opposite direction or air plugs appear.

The principle of operation of the ZSO

In other words, a closed heating system consists of a system of pipes and heating elements where the coolant is forced to move from the circulation pump and is totally sealed off from the outside environment. Any ZSO must have the following components in order to function:

  • heating unit – gas, solid fuel or electric boiler;
  • a security group, consisting of a manometer, safety and air valve;
  • Heating devices – radiators or contours of warm floors;
  • connecting pipelines;
  • a pump pumping water or non -freezing liquid through pipes and batteries;
  • mesh -cleaning filter (mud);
  • closed expansion tank equipped with a membrane (rubber "pear");
  • Curtain cranes, balancing valves.

Normal closed thermal circuit

Note: The composition of the ZSO may also include contemporary devices for controlling coolant flow and temperature, such as thermostats, three-way and reverse valves, radiator thermal drives, and the like, depending on the scheme.

The following is the algorithm that controls the closed-type system with forced circulation:

  1. After assembly and crimping, the pipeline network is filled with water until the pressure gauge shows the minimum pressure of 1 bar.
  2. Automatic air vent of the security group during the pouring process releases air from the system. He also deals with the removal of gases accumulating in pipes during operation.
  3. The next step is the inclusion of the pump, the launch of the boiler and heated the coolant.
  4. As a result of heating, the pressure inside the ZSO increases to 1.5-2 bar.
  5. An increase in hot water is compensated by a membrane expansion tank.
  6. If the pressure rises above the critical point (usually 3 bar), the safety valve will dump excess fluid.
  7. Once every 1-2 years, the system must undergo a procedure for emptying and washing.

The ZSO of an apartment building operates on the exact same principle: network pumps housed in an industrial boiler room move coolant through pipes and radiators. Additionally, there are expansion tanks and a temperature-controlling mixing or elevator node.

The video explains how the closed heating system works.

In the realm of home heating and insulation, the concept of a heating system with natural circulation stands out as a simple yet effective solution. This system operates without the need for pumps or additional mechanical components, relying instead on the natural buoyancy of hot air and water. By utilizing this natural flow, homes can enjoy efficient heating without the energy consumption associated with traditional forced-air systems. With proper design and insulation, natural circulation heating systems can provide consistent warmth throughout the house while minimizing energy costs and environmental impact. This approach offers homeowners a sustainable and cost-effective way to keep their homes comfortably warm during the colder months, making it a compelling option in the realm of home heating and insulation strategies.

A closed heating system is a single -pipe circuit

It is possible to assemble a closed heating system by hand, choosing between a one- or two-pipe installation scheme.

The closed one-pipe heating system is thought to be ideal for tiny cottages.

Every heating appliance, including radiators, is connected in turn. Using a strong pump during system installation will help the coolant reach the system’s destination more quickly.

Numerous crucial tasks are carried out by the expansion tank in the system. You can read on to learn more about what it’s for and how to choose it properly.

The risers for the coolant’s reverse supply cannot be installed in this system. The heat supply in some rooms cannot be controlled while the house is in use; if the temperature in one room drops, the temperature in the entire house will also drop.

It is recommended to utilize a vertical one-pipe system in multi-story buildings, with the connection made from the highest point. Connecting more than ten heating devices with a riser is not advised. Batteries typically warm up less on the first floor than the last.

Wiring schemes

There are various schemes available for water heating a one-story house with natural circulation.

Two -pipe CO

Work starts with the creation of a one-story house heating plan with natural circulation, regardless of the scheme that is chosen.

Two pipelines are to be laid around the outside of the structure according to the aforementioned plan. used when a sizable area needs to be heated. The lower one is used to refill the boiler with chilled coolant, and the upper one is used to supply hot water in Colorado. There are mounted radiators in between. The boiler is installed below the final, if at all possible. Pipes are installed with a minimum 5-degree water current slope.

Pinky installation calls for the use of a pipe with a diameter of at least 32 mm, particularly in locations where multiple radiators must be signed simultaneously. The ideal material is polymer or metal-plastic pipe. A 20 mm diameter pipe should be used to apply eyeliner directly to each radiator.

Proper selection of pipe diameters eliminates the need for balancing when dealing with such CO. Nevertheless, the throttle ought to be fitted on the eyeliners that connect to the radiators.

Due to the fact that it is the most costly option in terms of materials and labor, heating a one-story home with natural circulation using a two-pipe scheme is rarely utilized.

One -pipe with

Leningradka is the most basic system that enables you to guarantee the heating of a one-story private home built in accordance with this plan. Installation parameters (piston diameters and inclination angle) are the same as with the prior choice.

The particularity is that, in the example shown, the radiators are sliced into the primary heating ring (which runs parallel to the main pipe).

Every radiator is positioned on top of the crane’s expansion tank for air lingering, without fail. Thermogols or chokes are positioned on the radiators closest to the boiler and the radiators furthest away from it, which helps to balance the temperature in each.

Radiation CO

The following is the plan that determines how heating a one-story home with natural circulation is done when the specified option is selected.

Special collectors, or rowers, are installed on each discharge of the pipes that supply hot water and return cold water to the boiler. On each discharge, a throttle is installed. Every radiator has two pipes, one for the feed and one for the return, each operating one at a time.

When considering the options for customization, this version is the most practical. However, the installation is fairly intricate and involves a large number of pipes, which must be cleaned in the floors or false walls to maintain the premises’ acceptable design. This naturally raises the cost of labor and materials. Checking the pre-drawn blueprint of the one-story house with natural circulation is an easy way to confirm this.

Types of open heat supply schemes

There are two ways in which the coolant moves in the open circuit of the heating system. A natural or gravitational circulation is the first option; an artificial or forced pump motivation is the second. The number of stories, the size of the building, and the purported thermal regime all influence the scheme selection.

Natural circulation in heating

The gravitational system lacks a mechanism to guarantee the coolant’s flow. The only method used to complete the process is expanding hot water. An accelerated riser with a minimum height of 3.5 meters is provided for the scheme’s operation.

You run the risk of the coolant coming from the boiler not developing enough speed if you don’t install a vertical transit riser.

For buildings up to 60 kV/m2, a natural circulation heat supply system is the best option. A highway with a maximum length of 30 meters is thought to be the maximum contour that can produce heat. The building’s height and the number of storeys inside are crucial factors that determine whether or not an accelerated riser can be installed. The low-temperature application mode is not appropriate for the natural circulation scheme. Inadequate coolant expansion will result in improper system pressure.

The potential outcomes of a gravity plan:

  1. Connection to warm floors. On the water circuit leading to the floor, the circulation pump is mounted. The rest of the system operates in normal mode. When the electricity is turned off, the house will continue to heat up.
  2. Working with a boiler. The heating device is mounted at the top of the system – slightly below the expansion tank.

You can install the pump to guarantee that the boiler runs continuously. At that point, the scheme for producing and supplying heat automatically falls into the category of forced options. A check valve that stops the coolant from circulating is also installed.

Forced system with pump

The pump is designed to speed up the coolant and shorten the time it takes to heat the space. The water flow velocity rises to 0.3–0.7 m/s. The highway’s branches warm up uniformly as the heat transfer intensity increases.

Pumping schemes come in both closed and open designs. The expansion tank is situated at the system’s highest point in open contours. Because the pump is there, you can extend and raise the pipeline from the heating boiler to the batteries (+)

Significant facets of the forced system’s structure include:

  1. Scheme with an integrated energy -dependent pump. So that the heating of the room does not stop when the electricity is turned off, the pumping equipment is placed on the bypas.
  2. The pump is installed before entering the boiler on the return pipe. Distance to the boiler – 1.5 m.
  3. When installing the pump, the direction of water movement is taken into account.

On the return are mounted an obved knee with a circulation pump and two cutting-off taps. The network’s taps close when there is current flowing through them, allowing the pump to move the coolant. The system will be rebuilt to allow for natural circulation if the valves are opened in the event that there is no voltage.

The check valve needs to be installed on the supply pipeline. The element is positioned right after the boiler to stop coolant from circulating while the pump is running.

Selecting the heating circuit of a country house

Our expert states that a closed type has the following rating:

  1. Two -pipe dead end.
  2. Collector.
  3. Two -pipe passing.
  4. One -pipe.

Thus, the advice: for a house up to 200 m² in area, you won’t be wrong if you select the first option—a dead end scheme—as it is appropriate in any event. There are two areas where radiation wiring falls short of it: the cost and the ability to install it in rooms with finished finishes.

A heating network with a single pupil is ideal for a small home with up to 70 m² of space on each floor. The Tichelman loop is suitable for long branches that don’t pass through doors, like the upper floors of a building. Watch the video to learn how to select the best system for homes with different layouts and levels:

We’ll offer a few suggestions regarding pipe selection and installation diameters:

  1. If the area of the dwelling does not exceed 200 m², it is optional to conduct calculations – use the expert advice on the video or take the cross section of pipelines according to the schemes given above.
  2. When you need to "hang" more than six radiators on the branch of dead ending, increase the diameter of the pipe by 1 type – instead of DN15 (20 x 2 mm), take DN20 (25 x 2.5 mm) and lay to the fifth battery. Next, lead the highways with a smaller cross -section indicated initially (DN15).
  3. In the building under construction, it is better to make radiation wiring and choose radiators with a lower connection. Be sure to heat underground highways and protect with a plastic corrugation at the places of intersection of the walls.
  4. If you do not know how to solder polypropylene correctly, then it is better not to contact PPR pipe. Mount heating from stitched polyethylene or metal -plastic on compression or pressing fittings.
  5. Do not lay the joints of pipelines in the walls or screed, so as not to have problems with leaks in the future.

As a point of reference. Latin characters European standards define DN as the internal diameter of the pipe’s conditional passage.

Advantages and disadvantages of an open heating system

After taking a look at the open heating system’s working principle and its constituent parts, we proceed to the list of benefits and drawbacks. After getting to know them, you can ultimately decide whether or not it makes sense to install and connect a boiler, batteries, and an expansion tank in accordance with a similar plan. Let’s begin by going over each benefit of an open heating system, which is listed in the list below.

  1. Simplicity – the open heating system uses a minimum of equipment. Therefore, the reliability of the entire scheme will generally be higher – there is practically nothing to break. But it should be understood that such an open heating system will be only if high -quality equipment mounted without errors and miscalculations is used.
  2. Low cost of arrangement and subsequent maintenance – Buying equipment, laying networks and their further operation will not require a large amount of money from you.
  3. Autonomy – for the operation of the open heating system, only the presence of fuel for the boiler and water in the pipes is necessary. Such a scheme will continue to function even when the electricity is turned off, it does not need a reserve generator or batteries. The open heating system has many advantages
  4. The ease of installation – One of the main advantages of the open heating system is that successfully and without shortcomings to mount all the equipment and lay the supply and reverse highways yourself, without involving third -party specialists. It is enough to have a basic set of tools and skills in working with them and metal -plastic pipes.
  5. Noiselessness – With an open heating system, the sound of a working pump will not interfere with you.
  6. Quick start and fast stop – an open heating system is able to change its condition by a relatively small period of time.
  7. Low price of components – Repair and replacement of individual elements of the open heating system will not be a big problem for you.

An expansion tank is connected to the back line of an open heating system.

Although such a scheme is inexpensive and straightforward, it does have certain disadvantages that any owner of a private home or cottage should be aware of.

  1. The inability to use another coolant instead of water – to use antifreeze in an open heating system is unsafe – its evaporation from the expansion tank can fall into residential premises.
  2. Smaller efficiency Compared to other, more complex and perfect, heating systems.
  3. Slow warming up the system – Yes, the open heating system with forced circulation is turned on quickly, but at the same time, to achieve the desired temperature, it will take a considerable time.
  4. Reducing the amount of coolant – water constantly evaporates from the open expansion tank. Therefore, with a similar scheme of housing heating, it becomes necessary to regularly control the fluid level in the system and, if necessary, replenish it. Open expansion tank for heating
  5. The need for thermal insulation of the expansion tank – In the cold season, there is a risk that the water in a container located in the attic will freeze. Therefore, it is necessary to take additional measures to protect the expansion tank with heat -insulating materials.
  6. Burningness – a list of equipment necessary for arranging an open heating system, a small. But at the same time it is quite bulky and large, that many owners of private houses are considered as a drawback.
  7. The need to use a large section pipes, laid under the slope – some homeowners believe that a similar method of laying the heating systems does not affect the appearance of the premises where they are located.
  8. Restriction by area – It is impractical to equip an open heating system in buildings where the total area of the premises is more than 150 m2.

Open heating systems are becoming a popular choice for small suburban buildings, such as summer homes and single-story private sector homes, due to their ease of use and limited space requirements.

How to choose a closed heating boiler

Any kind of fuel can be used in a private home’s closed heat supply system. It can be solid fuel, diesel, electricity, or gas—the most efficient and lucrative option.

It is important that you monitor the boiler’s power. 1 kW is the estimated value for an insulated room with a ceiling as high as three meters per ten "squares" of a private home.

The amount mentioned above is extremely approximative. Everything is dependent on a number of variables, including the building’s construction material, the caliber of the insulation, and whether or not the attic is heated. The quantity of windows and the quality of their installation have an impact on heating efficiency. As a result, an expert thermal calculation—which can be performed by an engineer—is needed.

Boiler types for heating include single-, double-, and combination circuits. Based on empirical evidence, suburban homes typically have smaller living spaces and, consequently, less demand for hot water. In light of this, a double-circuit boiler—whose installation is straightforward—will be the best option. It can heat up to +30C and process 10 liters of water in 30 minutes. A boiler with a storage boiler is more comfortable because it doesn’t need to be filled as often because it "has" already finished several dozen liters of hot water.

Differences of the open and closed heating system

The following characteristics set open and closed heating systems apart:

  1. At the place of placement of the expansion tank.In the open heating system, the tank is located in the highest place of the system, and in a closed system, the expansion tank can be installed anywhere, even next to the boiler.
  2. The closed heating system is isolated from atmospheric flows, which prevents air from entering. This Increases the service life. By creating additional pressure in the upper nodes of the system, the possibility of the formation of air traffic jams in radiators located on top.
  3. The open heating system uses pipes With a large diameter, which creates inconvenience, also the installation of pipes is carried out at an inclination to ensure circulation. It is not always possible to hide thick -walled pipes. To provide everyone Hydraulics rules It is necessary to take into account the slopes of the distribution of flows, the lift height, turns, closer, connection to radiators.
  4. In a closed heating system, pipes of smaller diameter are used, which Cracheses the structure.
  5. It is also important in a closed heating system Set the pump correctly, which will avoid noise.

Advantages of the open heating system

  • Simple system maintenance;
  • the absence of the pump provides silent work;
  • uniform heating of the heated room;
  • quick start and stopping system;
  • independence from power supply, if there is no electricity in the house, then the system will be operational;
  • high reliability;
  • No special skills are required to install the system, first of all the boiler is installed, the power of the boiler will depend on the heated area.

Disadvantages of the open heating system

  • the possibility of reducing the life of the system when air enters, since heat transfer is reduced, as a result of which corrosion appears, water circulation is disturbed, air plugs are formed;
  • The air contained in the open heating system can cause a cavitation in which the elements of the system located in the cavitation zone are destroyed, such as reinforcement, the surface of the pipes;
  • The possibility of freezing coolant in the expansion tank;
  • slow heating systems after inclusion;
  • It is necessary Constant level control coolant in the expansion tank to exclude evaporation;
  • the impossibility of using antifreeze as a coolant;
  • a bulky bulky;
  • low -action coefficient.

Advantages of a closed heating system

  • Simple installation;
  • There is no need to constantly monitor the level of the coolant;
  • opportunity the use of antifreeze, Not afraid of defrosting the heating system;
  • by increasing or decreasing the number of coolant supplied to the system, you can adjust the temperature in room;
  • Due to the lack of water evaporation, the need to feed it from external sources decreases;
  • independent pressure regulation;
  • The system is economical and technological, has a longer service life;
  • the ability to connect additional heating sources to a closed heating system.

Disadvantages of a closed heating system

  • The most important drawback is the dependence of the system on the availability permanent power supply;
  • When the pump is operating, electricity is required;
  • For emergency power supply, it is recommended to purchase a small generator;
  • In case of violation of the tightness of joints, air is possible to enter the system;
  • the sizes of expansion membrane tanks in closed rooms of a large area;
  • The tank is filled with a liquid of 60-30%, the smallest percentage of filling falls on large tanks, at large objects, tanks with a calculation volume of several thousand liters are used.
  • There is a problem with the placement of such tanks, special settings are used to maintain a certain pressure.

The easiest and most dependable system is chosen by the person installing the heating system on their own.

Open heating systems are ideal for heating small spaces because of their high dependability and ease of use. Both modest one-story country homes and larger country homes may be included.

Closed heating systems are more sophisticated and contemporary. It is utilized in cottages and multi-story buildings.

The principle of operation of a closed type system

A membrane expansion tank that is filled with water during heating is used to compensate for temperature extensions in the closed system.

In order to keep the circuit pressure constant during cooling, water from the tank is pumped back into the system.

The system as a whole receives the pressure that is produced during installation in the closed heating circuit. Because the coolant is forced to circulate, this system depends on energy. There wouldn’t be any flow of heated water via the pipes to the appliances and back to the heat generator without the pump.

The closed heating scheme’s details

Expandable reservoir for thermal systems

Benefits of an enclosed system

Equipment preservation circumstances

Closed plan combined with boilers

Security Unit within a closed system

Closed tank selection guidelines

Appropriate installation system types

Fundamental components of a closed circuit

  • boiler;
  • air heat valve;
  • Thermostatic valve;
  • radiators;
  • pipes;
  • expansion tank not in contact with the atmosphere;
  • Balance valve;
  • ball valve;
  • pump, filter;
  • safety valve;
  • manometer;
  • Fitings, fasteners.

The closed system functions effectively if the house is run continuously. "Warm floors" are frequently added to the structure to improve its efficiency and heat transfer.

This location makes it possible to avoid having a pipeline beneath the slope, which makes installation easier, and to not have to adhere to a specific pipeline diameter, which also lowers the cost of acquiring materials. The pump cannot function unless a liquid with a low temperature enters it.

A portion of the components used in other kinds of systems are included in closed heating circuits.

One drawback to this option is that, while heating functions when the slope is constant, the closed system fails when the pipeline is positioned strictly horizontally. This happens when there is no power supply. This disadvantage is offset by the high efficiency and several benefits when compared to other kinds of heating systems.

Installation can be done in any room and is reasonably easy to complete. Pipeline insulation is not required because heating happens quickly and can be controlled by a thermostat if one is present in the circuit. When the system operates in a proper manner, теплоносителя потерь, причин для его пополнения и следовательно происходит.

The unquestionable benefit of a closed heating system is that the boiler’s operating period can be extended thanks to the temperature differential between the supply and return. There is less chance of corrosion on the pipe in the closed circuit. If the heating must be turned off for an extended period of time during the winter, antifreeze can be added to the circuit in place of water.

Water systems are the most widely utilized closed systems; however, non-freezing liquids, steam, and gases with the required properties can also be operated by the coolant function.

Two -pipe heating system with natural coolant circulation

A more intricate gravitational heating plan that allows the heating system to have two contours at once. Hot water is transferred from the boiler to the radiators one at a time. Additionally, the second circuit is intended to allow cooled coolant from radiators to exit into a heating boiler. With this gravity heating system, more materials (pipes) can be used and more careful planning can be done.

A natural coolant circulation system utilizing two pipes for heating

Mounting a two-pipe system, which involves heating by gravity, is a laborious process that can be broken down into multiple steps:

  • Installation of the main riser. Heating pipe (along which hot water moves) rises from the boiler to the expansion tank. It should be noted that the best place of connection of the riser to Baku is the lower third of its total height.
  • at about a third of the height of the room (measured the floor level), the heating pipe is connected to the wiring. It is from it that pipes will be laid to heating devices – radiators.
  • For timely removal of excess fluids in the system into the tank, a pipe of overflow should also be cut. Through its use, excess fluid will be directed to the sewer.
  • Pipes for the removal of already worked out (that is, cooled) water should be cut into the lower part of the radiator. On these pipes, water returns to the heating boiler. They are laid parallel to the pipes of hot coolant supply.

There are a few features that need to be considered when designing a home with natural heating. The main riser pipe must, first and foremost, be insulated; otherwise, there is a chance that a substantial amount of heat will be lost.

Furthermore, it is imperative that you insulate the room where the expansion tank is located. Such a room is typically an attic or top floor special room. The lack of insulation in this room may cause some coolant to simply freeze, which could cause the system to malfunction.

Another crucial component is that the level of placement of the boiler, expansion tank, and radiators must be precisely calculated during system planning, even in the absence of a pump. The required pressure is reached with careful planning, which helps the system operate more effectively. Remember that the heating boiler needs to be placed at the lowest point.

He should outfit a different room in the basement or on the basement floor, if possible. The boiler should be positioned in a recess if there isn’t any equipment in a separate room or if there isn’t even a basement. Such a system can heat the structure of four to five rooms with adjoining household rooms if the calculations are done correctly.

Boel of a personal residence

The scheme of the two -pipe system

Here, one pipe carries heat to the radiators while the other carries cooled water back to the source. By doing this, you can guarantee that multiple batteries connected to a single horizontal branch operate efficiently. The feeder is positioned above the floor in a one-story home, whereas in an attic or beneath the ceiling. Here, there is no need for acceleration because the pipe has already been raised to a suitable height, as seen in the image:

As the scheme illustrates, a two-pipe heating system split into two branches with an equal number of radiators on each is the best option for good natural circulation. Otherwise, the installation of pipelines will be challenging because of the long length’s slopes. Regarding the two-story building, the vertical wiring is suitable once more, but it should be done with the feed and return on the highway separated. This is how to do it correctly, as shown in the diagram:

An essential benefit of a two-pipe system is that all batteries get coolant at the same temperature. Because the devices are independent of one another, automatic regulation also becomes simpler. The drawback is that horizontal wiring options, like those in two-story buildings, require more materials to be used:

As a point of reference. On the reverse manifold, the majority of homeowners still install a circulation pump. However, it is bypassed so that you can always switch to a gear and open the corresponding crane in the event that the electricity is cut off.

Criteria for choosing a heating system

There are just two options available: a house’s closed or open heating system. Has anyone considered the reason behind the initial systems’ open design? And they were open for the sole purpose of using solid fuel in boilers to heat water. The water in the boiler boils when the circulation is stopped, preventing the safety valve from opening, but it quickly becomes impossible to put out. Because gas and electric boilers can be turned off automatically at any time, closed heating systems with forced circulation started to be used.

Open heating system

Open heating systems, which are found in small private homes and rustic cottages, are now regarded as antiquated. To guarantee circulation under the effect of gravity in this situation, we must install an expansion tank in an open heating system at the highest point of the accelerated manifold.

The circulation pump, the most crucial component of the closed system, is borrowed by the modern open scheme of the heating system. In order to lessen the system’s inertia, it is typically used to start it. The bypass then opens when the pump shuts off during operation. Knowing where to install the pump in the heating system is essential to its dependable and long-lasting operation. Usually in the "return" close to the boiler, the pump is positioned where the coolant temperature is the lowest.

Because water in an open expansion tank is constantly in contact with atmospheric air, the system is referred to as "open."

The open system is inexpensive, easy to use, and dependable. There is a misconception that installing such a system costs more money since a bigger diameter is needed. The installation will undoubtedly not be less expensive if we account for the closed heating system, the cost of an expansion membrane tank, a circulation pump, and electricity. There may not always be a substitute for using the open heating system. For instance, when there is no power source.

The primary benefits of systems with open heating are:

  1. Extreme simplicity for installation and maintenance;
  2. noiselessness;
  3. energy dependence;
  4. reliability of working with boilers of any type;
  5. relatively low costs for the purchase of equipment, pipes and reinforcement.

Naturally, a straightforward and dependable open heating system typically consists of two pipes and is not perfect:

  • The evaporation of fluid in the expansion tank makes it impossible to use antifreeze, it is necessary to monitor the level of water in the tank;
  • a large inertiality of the system, a circulation pump and bypass is installed to eliminate this deficiency;
  • For complex circuits of multi-storey buildings with warm floors, the system is not suitable due to the large hydraulic resistance of such heating systems.

Closed heating system

The primary characteristic of a closed-type heating system, which can have one or two pipes, warm floors, or neither, is that the coolant is not in contact with the air, i.e. She is really, really close. A circulation pump is produced by the coolant moving in the circuit. Additionally, the airtight membrane expansion tank compensates for the liquid’s thermal expansion. Forced circulation makes installation easier because it eliminates the need to strictly withstand the bias of the pipes, which can have a smaller diameter. The energy-dependent system is made possible by the pump.

When private homes have more stories and their heating contours are more complicated, a closed-type heating system is employed. This type of system can have multiple circulation pumps, collector radiation wiring, and automated electronic temperature control for distinct rooms. The expansion tank in the heating system is installed differently in a closed circuit than it is in an open system. Placing a membrane tank in a "return" close to the boiler is the ideal solution.

Popular closed heating systems have a few drawbacks in addition to their benefits:

  1. In a closed system, evaporation is completely absent, therefore, you can apply antifreeze as a coolant;
  2. the relatively lower expenses for the contour pipes, the pipes can be hidden under the floor or decoration;
  3. Installation is simplified, you do not need to thoroughly measure the angles of inclination of the pipeline;
  4. small inertia of the system and high heat transfer;
  5. A small amount of oxygen in the coolant reduces the corrosion of steel pipes.

Pipe wiring options in the system

The placement of heating components and connecting pipes affects the heat supply system’s effectiveness, aesthetics, and efficiency. The layout of the house and its design elements influence the wiring selection.

Specificity of one -pipe and two -pipe schemes

There are various ways that heated water enters the boiler and exits the radiators. One high-diameter highway supplies the coolant in a single-circuit system. Every radiator has the pipeline passing through it.

The benefits of a self-cycling single-pipe system include:

  • minimum consumption of materials;
  • ease of installation;
  • Limited number of pipes inside the dwelling.

The uneven heating of heating radiators is the primary disadvantage of the scheme wherein one pipe serves as both the submission and return functions. The further away batteries are from the boiler, the less intensely they heat and transfer heat.

The final battery may be totally useless if there are many radiators and a lengthy wiring chain. It is advised that hot heating appliances be placed in the bedrooms, children’s rooms, and rooms on the north side.

The two-pipe heating scheme waits its turn with assurance. Radiators join the supply and reverse pipelines. Between the batteries and the heat source, local rings form.

The principal benefits of the system are:

  • All heating devices are evenly heated;
  • the ability to adjust the heating of each radiator separately;
  • Reliability of the operation of the scheme.

A double-circuit system necessitates high labor and investment costs. It will be more challenging to install two communication branches in building structures.

The two-pipe system is simple to balance, guaranteeing that all heating devices receive coolant at the same temperature. The room’s rooms heat up uniformly.

Upper and lower heat generator supply

Make a distinction between the upper and lower eyeliners based on where the highway supplying hot coolant is located.

Air diverting devices are not necessary in open heating systems with upper wiring. It dumps its excesses through the expansion tank’s surface (+)

Warm water is transferred into radiators through the dividing pipelines as it rises along the main riser during the upper wiring. Installing a heating system of this kind is recommended for private homes and one- and two-story cottages.

It is very practical to have the heat supply system with lower wiring. Positioned beneath, adjacent to the return, is the supply pipe. the coolant moving up from the bottom in this direction. Water is sent to the heating boiler through the opposite pipeline after passing through the radiators. Maevsky cranes are installed in batteries in order to extract air from the roadway.

It is necessary to use air devices in heating systems with lower wiring; the most basic of these is the Maevsky crane.

Vertical and horizontal risers

The pipeline can be wired vertically or horizontally, depending on the type of riser and its location. All floor radiators in the first version are wired to risers that are positioned vertically.

When designing a home with two, three, or more stories and an attic where the pipeline can be installed and insulated, vertical wiring is utilized (+)

What makes "vertical" systems unique:

  • lack of air traffic jams;
  • Suitable for heat supply of high -rise buildings;
  • poetry connection to the riser;
  • the difficulties of installing apartment heat meters in multi -storey buildings.

Radiators on one floor can be connected to a single riser using horizontal wiring. The circuit’s benefit is that the device uses fewer pipes, which lowers installation costs.

Most often, one- and two-story rooms use horizontal risers. The system’s configuration matters in panel-frame homes and wall-free residential structures.

Open system of advantage and disadvantages

Even though more sophisticated closed-type systems are becoming more and more popular, many people still prefer the traditional version of the system, which uses an open expansion tank, when setting up heating in private homes. The following benefits of open at-home heating systems led to this decision:

  1. Energy dependence. For an area with unstable power supply, the issue of heating without the use of equipment consuming electricity is relevant. In addition to arranging an open system, it is important to use a power -dependent boiler unit.
  2. Reliability. This is the main plus – this variant of heat supply has proven its functionality for decades of operation in various conditions, including in regions with a harsh climate. In fact, the reliability of open systems is reduced to the reliability of the boilers, since there are no more elements that may fail. It is only important to carefully approach the choice of heating devices and elements for laying the pipeline – the duration of the system functioning depends on their service life.
  3. Simple scheme. There are no complex nodes, installation can be carried out independently.
  4. Debugging and setting are not required – after the installation is completed, the circuit is filled with water. If the heated coolant began to circulate, everything is done correctly.
  5. Silent work, lack of vibrations (if a circulation pump is not used).
  6. The ability to supplement the power -dependent heating with a circulation pump, making a universal system and increasing its effectiveness.

The following are some drawbacks of using an open-type heating circuit:

  • Restriction in application. Such a system is not suitable for large houses – if the length of the horizontal line exceeds 30 meters, the value of the hydraulic resistance in the pipes exceeds the level of the pressure of the stream of heated coolant, that is, natural circulation is impossible, static balance will occur.
  • Inertia. Without installing the circulation pump, heating the system (access to the operating mode) will take a lot of time, since the speed of moving the heated fluid is extremely low. For the same reason, it is impossible to organize operational control of the microclimate in the room.
  • Structural nuances. In order to minimize hydraulic resistance in the pipeline, it is mounted from pipes of different diameters (as it removes from the boiler, the diameter must decrease so that the normal speed of fluid movement is maintained), and this complicates the installation and requires additional costs – the pipes of a large dimeter is more expensive, transitions are needed, etc.D.
  • Features of installation. Be sure to observe the calculated bias of the pipes on each section of the highway – even the only mistake is capable of making the system inoperative or reducing its effectiveness. In the latter case, to overcome hydraulic resistance, it will be necessary to increase the operating temperature of the coolant, which leads to the overspending of fuel and increase the financial cost of heat supply.
  • Service. Due to intensive evaporation of hot liquid from an open expansion tank, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of water and add it in time.
  • Active metal corrosion. Oxygen constantly enters the coolant through the tank, which accelerates corrosion processes. This reduces the durability of the metal elements of the system, including the steel heat exchanger of the boiler unit.

Boiler types and their selection

The right choice of a boiler for a closed system

A closed-type heating system has an autonomous mode of operation. Installing automatic boilers that operate based on parameters set after installation is advised by experts. This is a very convenient situation where the hosts don’t need to get involved.

The primary types of boilers, based on the fuel type they operate on:

  • gas;
  • electric;
  • on liquid fuel;
  • On solid fuel.

Boilers that run on gas are the best choice for closed heating communication. It is possible to connect to the system thermostat when installing a gas boiler for a closed heating structure. With the help of this device, you can precisely control the temperature in heated rooms—even to the nearest degree.

Certain types of boilers, which are placed outside the building and transmit weather data, can be equipped with special weather sensors. The boiler controls the coolant’s power and heating rate, based on its indications.

Any kind of boiler, including electric ones, can be used to set up a closed system for heating the home.

A brief mention of models that run on electricity is also warranted. These boilers come in three varieties:

  • ordinary boilers, including a tubular electric heater (Ten);
  • induction;
  • Electric.

As far as finances are concerned, the last two varieties are thought to be more profitable and compact. They also have a smaller coefficient of inertia, which is unquestionably advantageous.

Boilers that run on either solid or liquid fuel are currently the most widely used.

Be aware that installing a device that runs on liquid fuel combustion necessitates setting up a separate room (keeping fire safety regulations in mind). Additionally, installing solid fuel appliances in the home is permitted.

Boilers that use solid fuels can be programmed to automatically regulate the combustion process; however, the efficiency of this kind of system will be limited because of the characteristics of the fuel.

Although the device’s power is calculated quite simply, there are some subtleties involved. Experts suggest using this calculation as a guide when selecting a boiler: A 100 watt power source requires 1 square meter of space. Choosing a boiler with a power that is marginally higher is advised. The exceptionally cold winters are the cause of this. The recommended power supply range is between 30% and 50%.

What is the fuel in the closed system for

A closed heating system must maintain its working pressure continuously in order to function effectively. Even though the system is sealed, there are small leaks that are not immediately noticeable. When air is extracted via the Maevsky crane and seeps through the circulation pump’s lambs and different contour joints, water from the system is lost. These losses are totaled and eventually have an impact on the system’s performance. A closed heating system from the water line is required to make up for these losses.

Manual or automatic

The typical application of a mechanical control crane is for small and basic heating systems. It is mounted in front of the circulation pump, at the point where pressure is the lowest. A manometer is now installed to keep an eye on the process of recharging.

A bubble valve is used to prevent coolant from entering the water line.

Feed valve pricing varies based on manufacturer brand in large, intricate systems where automatic folking of the heating system is implemented. Automatic recharge valves can occasionally be found in boiler equipment. Everything proceeds fairly easily if the feed is obtained from the water supply, which typically has a pressure of three to four bar. 1.5 bars are the factory valve settings.

The valve will open and remain open until the set pressure is reached if the heating system’s pressure drops below 1.5 bar. In the event that the automatic feeding system utilizes coolant from external sources, a pump is required to activate the valve’s signal and provide the coolant to the heating system at a specific pressure.

Automatic temperature control

How to automate and select the best mode for the home’s surroundings, particularly in an apartment or a private country home where occupants are frequently absent? To put it simply, you need to purchase a controller for your heating system. This device lets you set and remember the home’s temperature. Make sure the boiler has the right control unit installed before purchasing a heating controller. Speak with experts is the best course of action.

Using radiation (collector) wiring yields one of the best automation options. The multichannel controller control unit is in charge of the special valves that are mounted on the comb. A signal to turn on the boiler is sent out by the same control unit.

Every room has its own thermostat, which is set to a particular temperature. The radial heating system’s multi-channel controller analyzes data from thermostats and, upon detecting a drop in temperature in any room, activates the boiler and opens the comb valve for that particular room. In any event, the boiler will operate until every room’s temperature reaches the set point.

There is no clear winner when it comes to heating systems: closed or open. A system’s use is determined by a variety of factors, including the house’s size and number of stories, location, financial resources available, and geographic area. You can only select a home heating system that will offer comfort and warmth at the lowest possible installation and operating costs by using a reasonable approach.

How to fill the system with a coolant

Filling the heating structure that is coasted with a ball crane tap system is simple: one person needs to open the crane alternately while the other releases extra air from the batteries. It is advised to only open the crane to a third of its full potential to reduce the pressure.

The person in the boiler room needs to keep an eye on the measuring device’s pressure indicators. The second person must stop adding water to the heating communication when the indicator reaches two bars. Next, they must use specialized cranes to remove any remaining air from the battery. The process is then repeated until the system’s pressure indicator reaches the computed value.

A pump is used to fill the system with coolant by forcing the liquid into the pipes from the container.

A pump (either manual or electric) and a container from which the coolant will be pumped into the heating communication system are needed to fill the system with the coolant, which is not connected to the water supply. Air cranes on batteries must be opened before filling the heating system. Once the drain fitting is attached to the pipeline, the pipes are filled using the pump.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that in order to prevent coolant leaks, you must promptly shut off the battery taps.

It is essential to start the system and inspect every piece of equipment after filling it out. The download was successful if the heating system functions normally, there are no leaks, and the pressure gauge indicates the desired pressure.

System"s equipment and principle of operation

A liquid acts as a bridge in the water heating system, transferring thermal energy from the boiler installation to the radiators. Long distances can be covered by the coolant circulation, which heats homes and other buildings in various locations. This explains why water heat supply has become so widely used.

Without the pump, the open-type heating system can function as intended. Thermodynamic principles underpin the coolant circulation process. The gradient of the pipe laid and the difference in density between hot and cold liquids cause the water to flow through the pipes.

Because warm water has a lower density than cold water, hydrostatic pressure builds up in the system. Hot water is forced toward radiators.

An open expansion tank, which allows excess heated coolant to enter, is a crucial component of the system. The tank is responsible for the automatic stabilization of fluid pressure. The capacity is positioned above every system component.

There are two conditional stages to the entire "open heat supply" operation process:

  1. Innings. Warm coolant moves from the boiler to radiators.
  2. Return. Excess warm water enters the expansion tank, cools and returns to the boiler.

In one-pipe systems, a single highway serves both the function and return function; in two-pipe schemes, the supply and reverse pipes are separate from one another.

For independent installation, the one-pipe scheme is thought to be the most straightforward and cost-effective. The system’s architecture is simple.

The following components make up a one-pipe heat supply:

  • boiler;
  • radiators;
  • expansion tank;
  • Pipes.

Some people opt not to install radiators and instead surround the outside of their homes with an 8–10 cm diameter pipe. Experts point out that there is a decrease in the system’s efficiency and operation with this solution.

Diagram of an energy-dependent open-type gravitational single-pipe system. Purchasing pipes, fittings, and equipment doesn’t have to be expensive. Working with various types of boilers is feasible.

The device and implementation costs are higher for the two-pipe heating option. Nevertheless, the elimination of common flaws in single-pipe systems fully offsets the structure’s costs and complexity. Nearly simultaneously, all of the devices receive the same temperature coolant; the cooled water is collected by the reverse line and does not flow into the next battery.

The supply and return lines are set up in a two-pipe heating circuit so that the system temperature supplies coolant at a constant temperature to every point, and the cooled water gathers and directs the return to the boiler—the line that is independent of the supply (+)—in order to maintain each device.

We are aware that one publication cannot possibly address every nuance of the construction and mechanisms of closed water systems in detail using your own hands. On the path to functional heating, the novice will need to take numerous steps; our other articles will try to shield you from errors as much as possible:

  • selection of a solid fuel boiler;
  • Which gas heat generators are better;
  • how to choose and connect heating devices;
  • Installation of a security group;
  • installation of air vents;
  • how to fill the pipeline network and remove air;
  • What should be .

Make an effort to gather information about installing a closed heating system from reputable sources. Uncle Vasya, the plumber, whose work you have never seen, is not someone to listen to. For illustration, we suggest familiarizing yourself with the following video content, which clearly demonstrates where and why an expansion tank should be installed:

Determination of the open heating system

It is commonly known that a liquid coolant circulates via pipes between the boiler house and heating devices, acting as a middleman in the transfer of thermal energy. Long-distance heat transfer is possible with the water system, in contrast to furnaces that heat the air directly around them. This resulted in its widespread adoption. The figure depicts the most basic layout of an open heating system for a single-story home:

Heating causes the water in pipelines to expand. An expansion tank is used as a special container to replace the excess that results. An open-type tank positioned at the highest point is a feature of an open scheme that sets it apart from other systems. Put another way, the container used to replenish hot coolant that has gone bad is directly exposed to the atmosphere.

The plan is operating in this manner. The volume of water in the network grows as the temperature rises, and the expansion tank’s level correspondingly rises. In this instance, the pipe merely allows for the partial displacement of the container’s air into the atmosphere. When the temperature drops for a variety of reasons, the coolant level in the tank drops as well, allowing outside air to freely enter the open pipe.

It should be noted that the plan under consideration cannot be confused with an open heat supply system. The idea is applicable to centralized networks where the coolant is fixedly chosen to meet the demands of the hot water supply. Such schemes do not apply to individual heating of private residences and other buildings.

Advantages 1. Simple installation
2. No need for a pump, reducing energy costs
3. Minimal maintenance
Disadvantages 1. Limited to single-story or small buildings due to low pressure
2. Uneven heating distribution
3. Potential for air pockets causing system inefficiencies

For many homes, installing a heating system with natural circulation can be an affordable and energy-efficient solution. These systems use the natural flow of heated water or air to distribute warmth throughout the house by utilizing the principles of convection. One of the key benefits of these systems is their simplicity; unlike forced circulation systems, they don’t require pumps or other extra parts, making them simpler to install and maintain.

Furthermore, natural circulation systems frequently function silently and without the noise produced by a pump. Those who appreciate quiet in their homes may find this especially appealing. Furthermore, if there is less reliance on mechanical parts, there might be fewer potential weak points, which lowers the possibility of unplanned malfunctions and the frequency of repairs.

It’s crucial to take into account the limitations of natural circulation systems, though. Larger or multi-story homes might not be a good fit for them because the natural circulation of air or water might not be able to disperse heat throughout the entire area. Furthermore, these systems may find it difficult to provide constant warmth in colder climates or during exceptionally cold winters, which could cause discomfort for occupants.

In the end, the choice to install a natural circulation heating system should be based on a number of variables, such as the home’s size and layout, the climate where you live, and your personal preferences. These systems might not be the best choice for every household, even though they are straightforward and could save money. A competent heating specialist can assist homeowners in making well-informed decisions and guaranteeing that their heating system satisfies their unique demands.

Video on the topic

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Natural heating circulation

Self -stroke heating system.The usual mistake.Advice.

Natural / forced circulation of the heating system

Heating system with natural circulation without a pump and electricity

What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
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