Heating of a two -story building with natural circulation

Particularly in colder climates, efficient home heating is crucial for both comfort and energy cost management. Natural circulation can be a useful and affordable solution for heating a two-story building. Without the use of mechanical systems like pumps or fans, natural circulation uses the laws of physics to distribute heat throughout the house as warm air rises and cool air falls.

The ease of use of natural circulation heating is one of its main advantages. Natural circulation uses the fundamental idea of convection to transfer warm air from the heat source to colder sections of the house, in contrast to forced-air systems, which call for intricate ductwork and motors. Over time, this may lead to decreased energy consumption as well as lower installation and maintenance expenses.

When planned carefully, natural circulation heating can be especially efficient for two-story buildings. Heat rises naturally, so if you put the heat source (wood stove, radiant floor heating, etc.) on the lower level, warm air will rise through stairwells and open areas and warm both floors of the house.

However, attaining the best possible natural circulation necessitates meticulous planning and taking into account a number of variables, including thermal mass, insulation, and layout. In order to effectively retain the warmth produced by the heating source within the building envelope and to prevent heat loss, proper insulation is essential. Furthermore, by absorbing and gradually releasing heat over time, thermal mass materials like stone or concrete can aid in the stabilization of indoor temperatures.

What is a heating scheme with a natural circulation of a two -story house, and why is it needed

One of the many issues you face when building or purchasing a private home is heating. For your home to be a comfortable and enjoyable place to live, every calculation must be done accurately. To accomplish this, select the appropriate heating scheme and sketch a two-story house’s natural circulation.

Rice. 1 Diagram showing a two-story house’s single-pipe heating system

Of course, it is preferable to do this with a professional, but this is very uncommon owing to numerous unrelated factors. As a result, each owner attempts to connect the heating system independently after studying the relevant material. 100% of the time, connection technology should be used. Since there is a lot of information available, it will not be possible to study every feature of the gas device; however, the most crucial factor should be considered.

Selecting the appropriate scheme for the heating system is the most crucial step. It is important to consider the size of your house and where the boiler will be placed.

What is the mechanism of the natural circulation system? And it all begins with the fact that heated liquid expands, travels up the pipes, and enters the heating system’s upper point. After a brief period of cooling, the water circles back to the boiler. It’s a never-ending cycle.

What to consider when developing a heating scheme of a two -story house

It is essential to consider certain features prior to beginning the construction of a heating system. One can rely on the boiler and other equipment to operate for an extended period of time because all safety regulations have been carefully studied.

Thus, prior to creating a heating plan for a two-story home, you will require:

  • Calculate the area, number of storeys, as well as features of the construction of the house (its geometry);
  • Which boiler will be installed and in what place;
  • What circulation will be in the coolant;
  • Will electricity be used when heated at home or not, and t. D.

The heating system’s circulation type is the primary criterion for selection. Since the natural circulation warms the coolant’s liquid, moves it through all of the pipes, and eventually returns the water to its original source, it is used less frequently than it should be.

Large diameter pipes are installed in gravitational heating systems, and a coolant tank is also required for the liquid’s heating. It is typically installed in the insulated attic space (requirement). When installing pipes in a gravity system, it is imperative to anticipate every rule. For water to circulate, they need to be fastened beneath the slope.

If there are electrical issues in the area, the gravitational system works flawlessly or not at all. It could be private homes in far-off villages or vacation cottages. One benefit of the gravity system is that it doesn’t rely on centralized heating because it is fully autonomous. However, you must perform the accurate hydraulic calculation—which takes into account all system branch changes and resistance—prior to installation.

What types of heating schemes are there

There are only two types of systems with natural circulation:

  • One -pipe system. The pipe from the radiator enters directly immediately into the boiler.
  • Two -pipe heating system. The water that has cooled down does not immediately go through the pipe into the boiler, but at first it goes into another highway, and then gets back into the boiler.

Such a heating system is more practical if the wiring plan includes a vertical riser, as the heating element can be mounted on every floor. But gravitational heating with horizontal wiring is still more profitable in a two-story home.

Rice. 2 Heat generated by gravity that is horizontal WITHIN

When installing gravity heating in a home, the most crucial thing to remember is that radiators have a small hydraulic resistance.

For installation, these are the best options:

  • Cast iron radiators. They have the lowest hydraulic resistance indicator.
  • Aluminum radiators.
  • Bimetallic radiators. It is also well suited for heating, but you need to take into account before buying that the inner diameter should be at least ¾.

For the system to function better, it is preferable to combine household batteries with various connection types.

It is also important to choose pipes carefully because not all of them work with the gravitational system. Every requirement must be fulfilled. Prior to looking at the diameter of the pipe itself, you should consider the material the pipes are made of. An inexpensive solution would be basic metal pipes. However, because of their internal roughness, which will only get rougher over time due to corrosion (IT. D.), it is necessary to purchase them with the largest diameter.

The following are the best choices for a two-story building’s gravitational heating system:

  • Metal -plastic pipes.
  • Reinforced polypropylene pipes.

The pipes in the initial version have so-called dumped fittings, which reduce the clearance and are unacceptable for gravity heating. Consequently, installing reinforced polypropylene pipes is the best choice. However, this has its own "but." Metal-plastic pipes can tolerate temperatures above 100 °C, but reinforced pipes cannot. Regardless of the option you select, make sure this is a high-quality product.

Rice. 3 The natural flow of energy

Advantages and disadvantages of the heating system with natural circulation

This has benefits and drawbacks, just like any other type of heating apparatus.

So, the benefits consist of:

  • If there is no pump, then the heating boiler will work silently. This is very good when the unit for gravity circulation is in the kitchen, for example, where the whole family is always gathering.
  • The heating gravity system works regardless of electricity. This is good for those people who live in places where there are problems with power supply, or for those who want to save on utilities.
  • Boilers according to a scheme for gravitational heating of a two -story building are cheaper than conventional units.
  • When servicing and operating this equipment, a minimum amount of funds will go away.
  • The coolant has a continuous ec. It will provide heat and comfort in the house throughout the heating period.
  • When designing this heating scheme, as well as during installation, you do not need to have special skills. Even a beginner can cope with this.
  • If you have made the correct circuit of the heating system, and then I installed it perfectly – then the boiler operation time is uninterrupted up to 30 years in a row.

Among the drawbacks are:

  • The action will be horizontally according to the radius of up to 30 m, so such a heating system is not suitable for a two -story house too much.
  • It is necessary to install an expansion tank. Without it, water will not circulate through the system of a two -story house. But it does not just need to be put, but also installed in the insulated place so that the water in it does not freeze in winter.

As you can see, there are far fewer drawbacks than benefits, so you can install this type of unit in a two-story home without worrying about anything.

With what means this heating system works

A two-story house requires consideration of certain features in order for the boiler to function properly. You must select an appropriate boiler before you can begin installing. These days, the market is flooded with options, and everything can be chosen, even for the solid fuel-powered home unit.

Rice. 4. System of gravitational heating

Additionally, you must purchase all required pipes. Remember that they need to have a sufficiently large diameter. This may cause some minor interior decorator damage, but there are plenty of modern ways to fix the house and conceal the pipes. The purchase of radiators for the house is the next step. What is above should be written.

Installing the expansion tank should come next. Installation will be easy once the heating system’s circuit has been designed correctly. As shown in the heating system diagram, the pipes in the two-story house should be installed beneath the slope.

The expansion tank helps to generate more heating pressure, which benefits a two-story house’s entire heating system.

Heating a private home on its own

Когда выгодна однотрубная система отопления двухэтажного дома — схема, монтаж и эксплуатация

Homeowners prefer a two-story building with a single-pipe heating system because it is thought to be the most cost-effective design. Its pipes are shorter than a two-pipe option, but their diameter is larger, the batteries are not evenly distributed, the coolant volume is increased, and more electricity is used for pumping.

Is the gravity one -pipe system of a two -story house beneficial

The homeowner is gravely mistaken in thinking that this inexpensive circuit can be installed. The summarian system, also known as "gathering" informally, will double in size when outfitted with a circulation pump. For natural circulation to occur,

  • thick pipes to minimize hydraulic resistance to the coolant;
  • the sufficiency of the slopes of the main pipes;
  • the location of the heating boiler below the level of heating devices in the pier in the kitchen /in the basement shown in the figure below.

One common disadvantage of the two-story building’s gravity heating is that the second floor’s batteries warm up more quickly. Installing bypasses and adjusting devices raises the system’s cost.

In which houses is a single -pupil "Samoy"?

However, not in a three-story home. Coolant that is "summary" flows "lazily." There isn’t going to be enough pressure differential between the "feed and" return for intensive movement through pipes and batteries with the current 20 kg weight difference between tons of heated and cold water.

"Samoytek" will function well in the two-story home, but the second floor needs to be fully functional with an attic that permits the installation of an expansion tank. The main vertical feed riser runs from the boiler in the basement (pit) to the tank. Stear, the riser leaves, evaded the descent. I move from the "sunbed" to the floor radiators by going down the risers. The vertical system depicted in the figure below is similar to a multi-story building’s heating system.

A two-story building’s single-pipe vertical system in summary.

The installation of the gravity system is made more difficult by the second floor attic of your house, which has low walls and windows in the roof. Antifreeze cannot be installed in an open expansion tank installed in the attic. Although it will cost more, a sealed tank with an outward-bred gas outlet pipe will prevent the problem.

Slanted pipes, also known as "sunbeds," don’t fit well in the attic’s limited space and can get in the way of window openings, ruining the interior decor.

"Samoytek" works better in areas with erratic power supplies for single-story homes.

One -pipe heating system of a two -story house with a circulation pump

Consists of floor circuits with one-pipe horizontal wiring connected by risers on the vertical sides for the "feed" and "return," the latter of which can be divided into two-pipe risers or spaced out spatially. The reverse highway ("Return") in front of the heating boiler includes the circulation pump.

Below is a schematic of a two-story house’s most basic one-pipe heating system, which has two circuits with three radiators each.

Horizontal one-pipe system with a pump installed in a two-story building.

The amount of coolant that a two-pipe circuit requires to be consumed on the horizontal line, multiplied by n (the number of radiators connected in succession). The "one-tube," which has the same quantity of heating elements as the "two-pipe," is outfitted with a more powerful circulation pump.

Heating a two-story building using natural circulation involves a simple yet effective method of distributing heat without relying on pumps or mechanical systems. By harnessing the principles of convection, heat moves naturally from warmer areas to cooler ones, effectively warming up the entire space. This approach is not only energy-efficient but also environmentally friendly, as it reduces reliance on external energy sources. Proper insulation plays a crucial role in enhancing this natural circulation process, ensuring that heat is retained within the building for longer periods. Additionally, strategic placement of heating sources such as radiators or wood stoves can optimize heat distribution throughout both floors. Overall, harnessing natural circulation for heating offers a cost-effective and sustainable solution for maintaining comfortable temperatures in a two-story house.

In which houses are the installation of pumping single -pipe systems beneficial?

Reducing the length of heating pipes in comparison to two-pipe schemes is a natural feature of multi-story residential buildings and industrial buildings (warehouses, workshops), which are distinguished by hundreds of meters of heating contours. Heating pipes are actually saved by the use of "one-pipe" in them. The fact that both consumers and heat engineers/practitioners misunderstand the true cost-benefit ratio of this kind of heating accounts for its widespread use in custom construction.

Small two-story homes measuring roughly 100 square meters (50 kV on the first floor and 50 kV on the second) are common places to install "one-pipes," which function best with short contours holding four to five heating devices. Single-pipe schemes are not ideal for large houses with lots of radiators, but they do work for objects with 12 batteries in the floor circuit, like the vertical-horizontal one-pipe scheme below.

Mixed one-pipe (vertically – horizontally) system.

Common errors during installation

Above is a diagram of the "Leningrad" schemes for horizontal single-pipe floor circuits with radiators connected to a common highway via two tees. Just a portion of the coolant flowing along the contour passes through each device. Without a main pipe, you can locate an incorrect connection (see the first floor’s outline on rice below).

Types of radiator connections in one-pipe, horizontal shapes.

This is a very low-cost way to connect heating radiators. Every radiator has a fitting for attaching a DA20 or DU25 metal-plastic pipe to a section of pipe that connects adjacent devices. Coming up with nothing is less expensive. However, half of the radiators perform poorly when cost is taken into account. Due to the coolant’s intense cooling into the radiators as it passes through them, the first of them—which faces the coolant—will heat up to 55 °C, while the second one, at n = 6–8, will only heat up to 35 °C.

And how the correctly collected scheme works?

When performing a classic one -pipe scheme (“Leningrad”), when a main pipe is laid under the radiators, the situation is different. The moving coolant, meeting the first tee in its path, is distributed to two streams in accordance with the values of the hydraulic resistances of the direct path and the side of the tee of the tee. Due to the greater hydraulic resistance of the lateral withdrawal, a small part of the total flow of the coolant flows into the radiator (the usual "leak coefficient" is 0.2-0.3). This small part cools inside the battery for several degrees, as shown in the figure below, mixing at the exit to the main unheated flow. Its resulting temperature is higher than when passing the entire fluid volume through the heating device.

Coolant distribution within the radiator strapping of the "Leningrad" scheme.

The fluid temperature decreases as one moves along the contour, albeit less sharply, to a temperature of about 45 °C instead of 35 °C, meaning that the chain’s batteries are heated more evenly. Experts believe that up to 10–11 radiators (ten sections in each device) can be uniformly heated in a circuit using a single-pipe scheme (also known as a "Leningrad" scheme).

How to align the uneven heating of radiators?

A gradual increase in the thermal power (or, equivalent to, the number of sections) of radiators in the direction of the coolant’s movement in the circuit is the standard method for aligning their heat transfer with unequal heating. If the first heating device in the circuit draws 100% of its power, the second one will draw 110%, and so on, up to 150–200% of the latter’s capacity (depending on the number of consecutive radiators).

When installing a single-pipe heating system in a two-story home, the diameter of the main pipe is determined by a large component. Therefore, the "highway" with DU40 should be used when completing the carts to radiators with a metal-plastic pipe DU16 for eight to nine heating devices in the floor circuit. Although the DU32 pipe will function, the system’s stability will decline. This implies that any variation in the coolant’s temperature will result in a change in its effort, i.e., a discernible variation in the temperature differential in the heating of nearby radiators within the circuit.

As seen in the image below, distributed schemes "one-pipe" with a radiator strapping known as "Bypasses."

Utilizing bypas to connect the radiator in the "Leningrad" scheme.

These are areas of smaller diameter, included in the ruptures of the highway under radiators, sometimes also with the set -in consumption regulation device (needle valve or other.). Adjusting valves are placed in one (or in both!) eyeliners to radiators. It turns out that instead of a continuous line of one diameter there is a variable diameter pipe. At the same time, practitioners-practitioners mistakenly believe that to branch the flow of the coolant into two components in the tee of the eyeliner to the radiator, it is necessary to narrow the main passage for it. This is incorrect, since the fluid under pressure will fill in any free volume found on the path of its flow.

Naturally, you can spend a lot of time continuously searching for uniform heating in a system with so many devices for controlling expenses if you constantly engage in manual warnings for each device. But is a "sheepskin" really worth it? When creating a "one-tube" system, the radiators ought to be fixed to a continuous, large-diameter highway. This will ensure steady operation and a gradual reduction in the devices’ heating along their contour.


The cost of such costs for materials can be lowered in the chain to 8–10 devices if the radiators in a single-pipe diagram are connected to a trunk that has a diameter that is at least twice that of the carts to them (with the corresponding size of the fittings). All of the heating pipes in a two-pipe scheme have a small diameter, which yields the same outcome.

  • A two -pipe heating system of a private house – classification, varieties and practical design skills
  • One -pipe and two -pipe heating wiring in a private house
  • Collector heating system of a private house – advantages and disadvantages
  • Two -story heating system with natural circulation

    Owners of their own suburban houses know that housing heating is paramount and expensive, but it is facilitated by the fact that almost all existing heating schemes can be repeated independently without resorting to paid services of professionals. A house on one or two floors – it does not matter, since the indicators will not double for purchases and labor costs, but less. The implementation of the heating scheme with natural circulation (in everyday life is simply called “gravity” or “physics”), in which the circulation pump and concomitant fittings are not supposed to save a little more. Moreover, the scheme has been crowded for decades, and during this time the failures have not shown, since it consists of a minimum number of nodes and details. Gravitational heating scheme of the house

    What is the gravity system that consists of and how

    1. Solid fuel heating boiler, less often – gas or electric;
    2. Pipe wiring – its circuit depends on the type of heating system – with one pipe or with two: filing and return;
    3. Radiators, batteries or heating registers;
    4. Expansion capacity.

    Water circulation naturally with upper pipe wiring

    A solid fuel heating system of a two -story building with natural circulation operates due to the principle of burning firewood, coal or pellets in a boiler. The heated coolant through the supply pipes moves towards the radiators that arise due to the difference in the pressure of the cold and heated fluid, and the gravity forces arising due to a certain bias of the pipes. Having given a certain amount of heat to the atmosphere, the coolant moves through the reverse supply pipes into the boiler shirt. The expansion tank provides the constant flow of fluid into the system, and also serves to enter the air formed in the pipes. The coolant turnover cycle will be continuous, while the water heats up and maintains at least minimal pressure in the pipes due to the expansion tank – therefore, the container should be mounted above the upper point of the heating system. Therefore, this implementation of heating is called "natural".

    The distinction between forced and natural circulation

    The gravitational circuit in a two-story home functions as follows: heated coolant is delivered to risers, which are vertical pipes, on the second floor. Three elements combine to produce pressure in vertical risers:

    1. The operation of the expansion reservoir;
    2. Expansion of heating coolant;
    3. Pressure due to the difference in pressure between hot and cold coolant.

    Simply put, hot water rises up the risers in accordance with the laws of physics, and the cooled water rushes down, displaced by a new hot pressure. Having hit the first floor, the water moves through horizontal pipes due to the three factors listed above – by gravity. For complete confidence that the movement of the coolant will not be stopped by air traffic jams or a plot with a stagnant coolant, the pipes are mounted with a slope of at least 2 cm per 5 linear meters. Automatic air removal occurs through an expansion container – this is a mandatory part of the natural circuit circulation of water in heating. Also, excess fluid is squeezed into the tank, which during the expansion is heated.

    Decorative heating system container

    As a result, you must determine the tank’s volume, which can be accomplished using the following algorithm:

    1. It is necessary to clarify how the volume of the heated coolant will increase (from). The standard water value is 5%. If antifreeze serves the coolant, then the parameter will increase;
    2. The total volume of the coolant in the circuit (TC). The easiest way is to just measure the number of liters of the coolant in the system;
    3. Find out the value of the maximum pressure in the boiler and circuit (DC) – the parameter is usually indicated in the accompanying documentation for the heating device;
    4. Find out pressure in the expansion tank (DR) – also from documents to the device.

    The volume of the expansion reservoir can be computed using the following straightforward formula:

    From (DK + 1) x x TK / DK – DR

    It is advised that the results be rounded in that direction. An apparatus with the ability to expand

    For the obvious reason that friction on the rough interior walls of the pipes prevents the coolant from moving quickly, even if pressure were to build up in the pipes. When pipes pass through valves and fittings, there is an increase in speed loss on corners and in their branches. Additionally, the following variables affect the coolant’s speed:

    1. The difference in the height of the central point of the heating boiler and in the height of the central point of the heating battery. The larger the difference between these points, the faster the speed of the heated fluid in the system;
    2. The difference in the density of the cooled and heated coolant – the high temperature creates a lower density of water and a greater pressure difference.

    If the heating boiler’s and the heating batteries’ central locations are taken as the starting points, then the temperature in each node of the heating system fluctuates spasmodically. In other words, a two-story building with natural ventilation will always have half of its heating coming from the top and half coming from the bottom.

    Heating a two-story home using pipe wiring in the upper and lower levels

    When heated coolant expands, its specific mass decreases, resulting in a decrease in density. Hot water will therefore weigh less than chilled water with the same lot. In actuality, this effect looks like this: when an upper circuit is absent from a pipe wiring, the circuit becomes a regular one with communicating vessels, where one of the vessels—the boiler—should be lower than the others (pipes and radiators). The coolant will begin to move as a result of this device arrangement as it attempts to permeate the entire volume (see the picture below).

    The most basic gravitational plan

    The circuit makes it evident that the supply pipeline carrying the heated coolant passes above the return pipe carrying the cooled liquid. This should, in theory, slow down the coolant’s speed. However, as a result of the boiler shirt’s coolant’s continuous heating and decreasing density, it starts to rise, which aids the cold water’s effort to push it out of the lower pipe. The procedure ensures that the coolant moves continuously.

    The pressure in the system primarily determines the differences in the boiler and radiator pipe installation centers. The bias of the pipes that carry the coolant to the radiators and the radiators’ own slope both contribute to slightly lower pressure. It is recommended to angle the feed pipe in the direction of the radiators and the return pipe to the side of them. Finding the ideal location for the boiler installation is made possible by the combination of all these factors.

    Warming up without a pump

    The heating boiler needs to be installed in the basement if the private heating system is installed inside the home. However, the boiler is buried at least 1.5 meters below the ground on the ground floor because it is not always convenient. Given that the heating plan for a two-story building initially assumes a sufficient height difference between the unit and batteries, this is the safer option. The appropriate fire precautions should be followed when dripping the boiler, including creating a concrete foundation and using asbestos sheets and metal to shield the pit’s walls.

    Self -regulating system

    The way fluid moves through pipes is influenced by the variations in its temperature regime. Self-regulating plumbing systems use either vertical or horizontal pipe wiring to adjust pressure within the home. The stream forms instantly when a certain liquid density is reached, where the cooled coolant becomes heavier than heated to begin moving through the pipe. The only way to increase the flow rate of warm fluid is to raise the boiler’s temperature.

    Diagram showing how the boiler is connected to the heat

    Thus, the natural process of burning fuel for heating the house helps in a different heating method – using radiators or batteries. The more intensively the fuel burns, the faster the house will warm up not only from the heat of the boiler, but also from the rapidly heated sections of the radiators, since the liquid in the pipes will move at an increased speed. Accelerated movement of hot water will be observed until the air in the room warms up, and until the reverse feed pipe warms up along the entire length than a little slows down the speed of water from the boiler. Warm air in the house and the heated return automatically reduce the difference in the temperatures of the start and final point of the system, and inhibits the movement of the coolant.

    The temperature in the room naturally drops when the flow rate is slowed. and accelerates the coolant by widening the temperature differential between the first and last cycles. This is how the room’s temperature self-regulation and the water’s flow rate through the pipes are set up.

    A self-regulating mechanism that modifies the coolant’s temperature and flow rate

    Heating Method Natural Circulation
    Benefits Cost-effective, No need for pumps or electricity

    During the colder months, heating a two-story building with natural circulation can be an effective and economical way to keep the interior temperature comfortable. Thermodynamics can be used to harness natural convection currents and provide enough heat for homes without the need for mechanical systems.

    The simplicity of natural circulation heating is one of its main benefits. The fundamental principles of hot air rising and cool air sinking govern natural circulation, in contrast to complicated radiators or forced-air systems. As a result, there will be fewer moving parts to maintain and possibly fewer points of failure, which will save energy use and maintenance costs.

    The uniform heating distribution throughout the structure is an additional advantage. Natural circulation systems can efficiently heat every area of a two-story house with the right insulation and design, guaranteeing that residents feel consistently comfortable no matter where they are in the house. By removing drafts and cold spots, this balanced heating contributes to a more comfortable living space.

    Furthermore, compared to forced-air systems, natural circulation heating systems are frequently more environmentally friendly. Their carbon footprint is lower and they use less energy overall because they don’t need electricity to run fans or pumps. For homeowners who want to simultaneously cut their utility costs and lessen their environmental effect, this can be especially alluring.

    But it’s important to understand that not all circumstances call for natural circulation heating. Without additional systems, homes with particularly large floor plans or multiple stories may find it difficult to distribute heat adequately. Similarly, areas that experience extreme cold might need to use different heating techniques or more insulation to keep wintertime comfort levels high.

    In conclusion, heating a two-story building with natural circulation provides an easy, effective, and eco-friendly solution. Throughout the winter months, homeowners can experience consistent warmth and lower energy bills by making the most of natural air movement and insulation. It might not be the best choice in every situation, but for those looking for a home heating system that is straightforward, dependable, and sustainable, this is a worthwhile alternative.

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    A suburban heating system with natural circulation

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