Heating and hot water supply of a private house

In any private home, having a heating system and hot water supply is crucial to comfort and functionality. Knowing your options for heating and hot water systems is essential whether you’re building a new home or remodeling an old one. There are many options to think about, ranging from conventional techniques like boilers and radiators to cutting-edge inventions like heat pumps and solar water heaters.

Efficiency is a key factor to take into account when selecting a heating system for your house. Energy consumption and utility costs can be greatly decreased with a well-planned and installed system. Additionally, by lowering carbon emissions, effective heating systems support environmental sustainability. Purchasing an energy-efficient heating system is a prudent financial and environmental move in light of the rising costs of energy and the escalating concerns regarding climate change.

Reliability is an essential consideration as well. Having a dependable heating system means that even in the coldest winter months, your house will remain cozy and warm. Maintaining and servicing your heating system on a regular basis will keep it operating efficiently and help you avoid unplanned repairs. Enhancing the dependability and durability of your heating system can also be accomplished by selecting premium parts and hiring a pro installer.

Regarding the supply of hot water, there are various choices to take into account, each with pros and cons of their own. Many homeowners prefer traditional water heaters, like storage tanks and tankless heaters. On the other hand, more recent technologies—such as solar and heat pump water heaters—offer longer-term cost savings and improved energy efficiency.

Appropriate insulation is essential for preserving a cozy interior atmosphere and cutting down on energy waste, in addition to selecting the ideal heating and hot water system. Efficient insulation keeps cool air inside your house in the summer and reduces heat loss in the winter. When insulating your home, there are a lot of things to take into account, from installation methods to insulation materials, but the results are well worth the cost.

  1. The use of a running water heater
  2. Traditional DIS wiring
  3. What is bad
  4. All in white and on a white horse
  5. Water source
  6. Water supply highway
  7. Summer water supply
  8. Well, well
  9. Gas boilers
  10. How the hot water supply of a private house with a layer of layer heating works
  11. Tips for installing a heating system and hot water supply
  12. Recommendations
  13. How to choose a boiler power for a hot water boiler
  14. DHW diagram with water circulation in the system
  15. Combined water supply and hot heating systems of the house
  16. Installation of the heating system
  17. Necessary tools and materials
  18. Installation of the boiler: what to consider
  19. Installation of radiators: important points
  20. How to choose the volume of a storage water heater
  21. The selection of equipment for hydraulic devices and heating of a private house
  22. The choice of a running water heater
  23. Useful tips
  24. Hot water supply scheme with a running water heater
  25. Accumulative systems
  26. Electric water heating system.
  27. The pluses of water electric heaters:
  28. Combined heating system Pluses and minuses
  29. Wiring
  30. HVS
  31. DIS
  32. Heating
  33. Radiator connection schemes
  34. Heat sources
  35. Economy
  36. Autonomy
  37. conclusions
  38. The use of combined mounted turbocharged boilers with a double contour.
  39. Advantages of use by turbocharged double -circuit boilers.
  40. Disadvantages of the DHW system with a double -circuit gas boiler
  41. Installation of a heating system
  42. Materials and tools
  43. Features of the installation of the system
  44. Installation of radiators
  45. Video on the topic
  46. Heating and water supply system of private house
  47. 💪 Own water into the house with your own hands | Water supply system at home
  48. Hot water in a private house with your own hands: 3 ways to heat water. Hot water in a house with gas
  49. Heating and hot water supply of a private house
  50. Choosing a heating and hot water supply system for a private house // Forumhouse
  51. ✅ DIY water supply in a private house. TOP 10 – errors. [Sashabagot.ru]
  52. DIS recirculation. Hot water in a private house

The use of a running water heater

In this instance, a flowing water heater is installed to supply the house with hot water. These water heaters come in a variety of styles:

  • gas column;
  • electric column;
  • the contour of the double -circuit boiler;
  • plate heat exchanger, which is connected to the heating circuit.

The way they operate is based on how rapidly this happens right after the water supply starts to heat up. Water flow must be restricted in order to obtain high temperature water quickly. The pressure of the water supply will directly affect the temperature of the water at the output.

The water heater apparatus in operation.

The power of such equipment should be fairly high in order to provide one point of fence with hot water in a high-quality manner. For instance, 10 kW is sufficient to run a shower, and at least 18 kW is required to fill a bathtub. If you intend to use the hot water supply system at multiple locations at the same time, you should choose a device with a 28 kWh power source.

When hot water is drawn from a double-circuit boiler, less power is required to supply a small home. Everything hinges on how much water you require; once you know this amount, you can accurately determine how much power the apparatus needs.

Cons of using a stream water heater in the system:

  1. The temperature depends on the amount of water consumed, the larger it is, the lower the temperature. It will be inconvenient to use at two points at two points, as the temperature jump occurs.
  2. If the water pressure is weak, then this type of water heater will not work at all.
  3. After turning on the tap, hot water will not come immediately, but with a slight delay. The farther the fence point is from the heater, the longer you will have to wait.
  4. In the heating chamber, scale is postponed, which worsens the quality of the heater, so it must often be cleaned.

Due to all of this, there is an increase in the amount of water, electricity, and sewer load.

Due to the low cost of equipment, this scheme is widely used despite its shortcomings. Furthermore, its small sizes make installation easier. You can do the following to make this water heating scheme more comfortable to use: Place the heaters close to every fence line. On the other hand, turning them all on at once will put a tremendous load—roughly 30 to 35 kW—on the cottage’s electrical network, potentially rendering it unusable. As a result, it is wise to take into account alternative DHW system types.

Go back to the contents table.

Traditional DIS wiring

The hot water supply system device found in early Khrushchevs’ stalks is identical to the cold water wiring. Dead end risers are the only fantasy’s termination point, where the apartment wiring leaves off. Rosping branches into the supply and reverse thread inserts in an elevator node.

The DOS system and elevator node’s principled diagram without recirculation

Manually switching the DHW from filing to return is done in compliance with the heating schedule’s temperature schedule:

  • At the temperature of technical water at the output of thermal power plants to 80-90 degrees, the hot water is supplied from the feed;
  • With exceeding 90 ° C, the water supply switches to the reverse water supply.

Through a feed thread, hot water enters the home. The return’s valve is closed.

What is bad

Such a scheme has the advantages of being very easy to maintain and inexpensive to implement. Fluids are present.

Two of them have already been mentioned:

  1. Without water cleansing, water in risers and eyeliners cool. To wash or take a shower, it has to be drained for a long time (up to several minutes). For the residents of the apartment, this means not only a loss of time, but also significant costs: in fact, you drain cold water, but if there is a water meter, pay for it as hot;

The water meter logs the amount of hot water used when you empty the cold water.

Reference: In the middle of 2017, a cubic meter of hot water cost 163 rubles for Moscow residents. An average family of three to four members is thought to combine into the sewer once a year in order to heat at least ten to twelve cubic meters of water.

And in the near future, hot water rates will rise even in the absence of such high tariffs.

  1. Room resistors, blurring intra -apartment submarines of DHWs, heat up only from water clearance in your apartment. You can forget about the high -quality heating of the bathroom.

The intra-apartment eyeliner rupture is linked to the heated towel rail, which only gets hotter when the hot water is examined.

We deposit a few minor items into a collective piggybank representing the shortcomings of the solution:

  • Cold and damp in the bathroom contribute to the appearance of the fungus;

The consequences of low temperature in the bathroom are dampness and mold growth.

  • The towels hung on a cold dryer quickly become musty;
  • Cyclic heating and cooling of the hydraulic downtrrubs are accompanied by cycles of their lengthening and reduction in size. As a result, the sealing of the risers in the overlap with a cement mortar is gradually destroyed.

Any material’s pipeline lengthens noticeably when heated.

Note: pipes that connect to the ceiling reinforcement may lengthen when heated, and this may cause loud noises. According to the author’s memory, the riser’s conflict over reinforcement resulted in the amusing scenario where residents accused their neighbors of… secret money printing.

All in white and on a white horse

What distinguishes the recirculated hot water supply system from the one mentioned above? It is simple to estimate. Within it, hot water is constantly flowing via the GVS risers and outsticks (if the building is multi-story).

  • Instant supply of hot water is provided to the water sector at any section of the circuit;
  • The heated towel rails are transferred from the intra -apartment eyeliner to the riser (or, in the case of a private house, roslice) of hot water. Thanks to continuous circulation, they remain hot around the clock, provide heating bathrooms and bathrooms, and at the same time a quick drying of towels;

In the picture, the heated towel rail is connected in a parallel fashion to the riser and is always hot.

  • The temperature regime of the DHW system remains stable, without cyclic cooling and heating.

Water source

In a private home, only cold water is typically started. A nearby heat source is used to heat it for the hides. And what might turn into a water source?

You can watch the video in this article to learn more about the device of the engineering systems of the cottage.

Water supply highway

If a trunk water supply passes close to your house, you can resolve the issue by reaching a Vodokanal agreement. Following the compilation and approval of the project, a water meter is constructed, placed in the highway, and equipped with a coarse cleaning filter and crane cutoff.

The well’s watermaker

Summer water supply

The accumulative container is installed in a house that is connected to a summer water supply in accordance with a schedule, to ensure an uninterrupted supply of water. Installing it in the attic is the easiest way to solve the problem. Water enters the container through the float valve, which prevents overflow, and moves toward the poverty points gravitationally.

The tank that is located in the attic provides water to the water supply.

Unfortunately, this makes it difficult to plan a wooden house’s water supply and heating because the several-ton weight of the accumulative tank will be too much for the beams made of wood. Plan "b" is an option in this situation; it involves installing the container in a heated basement or underground space and outfitting it with a pumping station and hydraulic accumulator.

Water supplyfrom the basement container using the pumping station’s water supply

Well, well

How can a well or wells be used to supply water?

  • Well pump It is supplied with a check valve, which will not allow water to merge from the water supply when the pump is turned off (see. Fended pump Belamos);
  • A pressure sensor and automatic relay are responsible for the control of the pump;
  • A hydraulic accumulator is placed in the water supply circuit. Its task is to stabilize pressure and save the pump resource.

Water supply using a submersible pump in a well

Practical: The pump can be superficial if the distance between the soil’s level and the water intake is less than eight meters. The check valve is situated on the suction pipe in this instance.

An autonomous water delivery system utilizing a surface pump

Gas boilers

In addition, the gas is ignited electronically with batteries or hydrodynamically using a wick that is constantly burning and ineffectively burning gas. When the cold water tap is turned on, it functions. A small turbine that lights gas in a burner is rotated by the flow.

How the hot water supply of a private house with a layer of layer heating works

These days, a private home’s STS system with a layer-outdated heating boiler is highly well-liked. Such a device uses a double-circuit boiler that is in operation to heat the water. Because it lacks a heat exchanger, the cost of this type of heater is greatly lowered.

The upper section of the tank contains heated water. Cold tap water starts to flow back into it right away. The water from the tank is pumped through the flow heater and into the tank’s upper section. Because of this, the user does not have to wait for the full volume of water to heat up, as they would with an indirect heating boiler. Instead, they can immediately enjoy hot water.

You can install a smaller boiler in a private home and use less energy to run a water heater because the water’s upper layer warms up quickly enough.

Differentiate between dual-circuit boilers that have a removable layer of heating and those that have a built-in heater. Therefore, in contrast to indirect heating boilers, the private home DOS system’s equipment is less expensive and smaller in size.

Even if you don’t use the device, the water inside warms up beforehand. There is sufficient heated water to last for several hours.

Owing to these characteristics, the water in the tank stays heated for an extended period of time, and the thermal energy in hot water keeps building up. As a result, another name for this type of heater is a storage water heater.

Owing to the extended heating period of water, you may choose to use a heater with comparatively lower power.

How to select a storage gas water heater for a private home’s hot water supply

Among the DOS systems in private homes, the accumulative boiler—which uses a gas burner to heat the water—is less common. The cost of using two gas appliances at once, a gas boiler and a gas boiler, is high.

While gas boilers are practical for use in apartments with central heating, they are also frequently utilized in private homes with solid fuel boilers, which heat water through liquefied gas hot water supply systems.

Gas heaters come with both closed and open combustion chambers, a forced flue gas removal system, and natural chimney traction.

There are models of cumulative gas boilers available on the market for residential use that don’t require a chimney connection. These devices are distinguished by their modest gas burner power.

The larger heater is mounted on the floor, and the gas boiler, which has a capacity of no more than 100 liters, is fixed to the wall.

Water heaters use a variety of gas ignition techniques, such as hydrodynamic ignition, electronic ignition powered by batteries, and wick on duty.

A small light that is manually lit is burning in the device that has a wick on duty.

Electronic settings operate on batteries or are linked to an electric grid.

The turbine’s rotation, which is triggered by the flow of water, activates the hydrodynamic settings.

The volume of the storage heater directly affects how comfortable it is to use the hot water supply in a private home. However, the cost of the boiler and the cost of maintenance and repairs also increase with its size.

How to choose the right boiler size for a private residence:

  • the volume of the boiler, which will provide minimal comfort, are calculated based on the flow rate from 20 to 30 liters of hot water for each person;
  • more comfort will be able to provide a DOS of a private house, the volume of which is from 30 to 60 liters per user;
  • For a high level of comfort, a heater is chosen, the volume of which is from 60 to 100 liters per person who takes place in a private house;
  • In order to fill the bath, you will need about 100 liters of hot water.

When selecting a boiler, take particular note of how strong of a heating element it has. For instance, the boiler needs to have a heater (gas burner, etc.) in order to heat 100 liters of water to +55 °C for fifteen minutes.

D.), with a 20 kW power output.

Go over the relevant material:

Tips for installing a heating system and hot water supply

A system with a layer storage boiler or a boiler heating system with a minimum volume of 100 liters is required for the supply of hot water in private homes. This system ensures minimal access to the sewer, economical water consumption, and good comfort when using hot water. The expensive price is one drawback.

A flowing water heater is installed in suburban buildings intended for temporary residents on a modest budget. Such a plan works best in homes with a single bathroom and kitchen, where the water selection point and heat source are small enough. Three cranes at most should be connected to a single heater.

The cost of heating and hot water supply is cheap, and there aren’t many significant drawbacks. The two-configured gas boiler takes up less room. Every piece of equipment is set up inside the casing. A separate room is not necessary if the boiler has less than 30 kilowatts of power. If a basic storage heater is positioned between the parsing points and the heater and the heater, it can improve the supply stability of the hot water system.


The water from the boiler enters the heater in the diagram that shows such a tank. As a result, hot water is always available. When there is no analysis, the heater only maintains the water temperature and makes up for heat loss.

It will be more expensive to install a hot water supply system with a running heater and multiple layers of layout. However, comfort will be similar to that of an indirect heating boiler and there won’t be a need to use electricity to heat the water.

It is advisable to plan the water circulation and hot water supply calculations with a storage boiler when working with a large network. This plan ensures optimal comfort and cost-effective system operation. The initial expenses of setting up such a system are high, though.

Buying boilers with a boiler included is a good idea. In this instance, the equipment’s features are predetermined by the manufacturer, and the boiler itself houses the majority of the equipment. Installing a backup tank that can sustain heat is preferable when heating with solid fuel. It is connected to the entire water circulation system. If not, the water is heated by an indirect heating boiler that is connected to an electric heater.

Water is frequently heated exclusively with electricity. As a result, a storage heater is placed close to the parsing locations. In this instance, there is no circulation of the hot water supply. Installing a single heater is more cost-effective close to the locations that have been far removed. Electric energy will be used more wisely in this scenario.

Hard salts are released from water when its temperature rises above 54 degrees. It is preferable to avoid heating the water above the recommended temperature in order to minimize the formation of scale. Heaters that flow are sensitive to scale. Heating appliances should not be run when the water is excessively hard. The heater’s channels will become scored by even a tiny amount of scale, which will halt the water flow.

It is recommended to use a special filter to lower the water hardness before supplying water to a flowing type heater. It has a changeable cartridge installed. It is preferable to use a storage system with indirect heating to heat hard water. Salt deposits, however, will only lessen the effectiveness of water pressure—not stop it. It will be simpler to clean the boiler of salts.

It is important for you to understand that the presence of dangerous bacteria in the tank is caused by extended water heating. It is therefore advised that the system be thermally heated to 70 degrees in order to disinfect it.

How to choose a boiler power for a hot water boiler

The power of the heating element installed in a boiler is an important consideration when selecting one. For instance, a boiler needs to have a heater (heat exchanger for a boiler, built-in gas burner, or heater) with a capacity of roughly 20 kW installed in order to heat 100 liters of water to a temperature of 55 OS in 15 minutes.

Only when the heating is first turned on does the water temperature in the boiler match the water temperature in the water supply under actual operating conditions. There will almost always be heated water in the boiler in the future. Use lower power heating devices to bring the water to the necessary temperature within the allotted time.

Nevertheless, it is still advisable to find out how long the boiler will take to heat the water. To do this, apply the following formula:

M is the mass of water in the boiler, kg (the mass of water in kilograms is equal to the volume of the boiler in liters); CW is the specific heat capacity of water, equal to 4.2 KJ/(kg • k);T2 is the temperature to which the water should be heated; and t = m • cw • (t2 – t1)/q.T1 is Boyler’s initial water temperature;Q: The boiler’s power in kilowatts.

Example: A 200-liter boiler with a 15 kW capacity will take the following amount of time to heat water from 10° C (assuming the water enters the boiler at that temperature) to 50° C: 200 X 4.2 X (50 – 10)/15 = 2240 With, or roughly 37 minutes.

DHW diagram with water circulation in the system

You can plan the hot water circulation in pipelines by utilizing a storage water heater in the DHW system. Since the ring pipeline connects all hot water selection locations, hot water is continuously circulating.

Every hot water consumption location’s pipe section length from the ring pipeline should not exceed two meters.

The DHW system’s circulation pump is tiny and low-powered.

A circulation pump is provided by the DHW system’s water circulation. The pump has a meager few dozen watts of power.

Without the need for a pump, DHW can produce a natural water circulation in some pipeline designs.

The DHW system’s water circulation ensures that hot water is continuously provided to the selection sites.

The water supply mode in the DOS system with a storage heater and water circulation is more reliable:

  • In places of selection, hot water is constantly present.
  • Water selection is possible simultaneously in several places. The temperature and pressure of the water when the flow changes changes slightly.
  • You can pick up any, arbitrarily small water from the tap, the amount of hot water.

Not only can the recirculation circuit improve the comfort of the water supply in the house’s outlying areas, but it also enables the underfloor heating system’s contours to be connected to it in different rooms. For instance, a warm floor in the bathroom is comfortable year-round.

Energy is continuously used in the DOS system with water circulation to run the circulation pump and make up for heat loss in the boiler and the water-circulating pipes. Installing a circulation pump with a built-in programmable timer that turns off water circulation during off-peak hours is advised in order to save energy usage. Hot water pipes and the boiler are insulated.

Combined water supply and hot heating systems of the house

Why combine a private home with hot water heating? First and foremost, this option saves a lot of money on the purchase and installation of a boiler, which provides hot water. An electric or gas boiler can be used for this purpose. Furthermore, this choice saves some of the space that a boiler would take up in the kitchen, bathroom, or office. The primary benefits of a combined water supply and hot water heating system for a private residence are as follows.

However, it goes without saying that such a system has drawbacks and is not the best option. Among them are:

  • The difference in heat consumption modes in paired hot water supply and heating systems of the house. If for the first they are pronounced peak character in the morning and evenings, then for heating equipment, heat supply is needed constantly. Thus, the predominance of hot water consumption over the load for the housing heating system is obvious – and this leads to a certain discomfort for residents.
  • With the variant of the combined autonomous heating system and DIA, a high -power boiler is required to ensure the issuance of heat in peak loads for both systems. But at the same time, when the need for hot water does not arise, the entire fuel consumption goes to heating the premises (while the household needs such a situation far from always). For economical operation, such a cauldron needs to be adjusted manually, which is not always possible to perform, or to purchase appropriate automation, which will increase the total estimate for the equipment of systems.
  • If the hot water system and the heating system have a common heat source (boiler), the water temperature created by it in the general system should not exceed 80 ° C. Otherwise, on the inner surface of the radiators from the decomposition of carbonate salts under the influence of high temperature, scale begins to form. In the future, this can lead to burns of households in contact with the radiator.

It is worthwhile to concentrate on the heating system’s scheme independently with regard to the coolant’s flow rate (water, of course, in a combined scheme). Additionally, there are two ways to put the plan into action:

Additionally, there are two ways to put the plan into action:

  • Without the flow rate of the coolant, when the system is closed and the constant volume of water circulates inside heating devices and communications;
  • With the flow rate of the coolant, the compensation of which through the expansion tank is performed by the recharge system.

It is important to note that there are extra requirements for the selection and installation of the expansion tank in this instance because it is also a hot water drive under the combined scheme. It should, in particular, be installed at a height where the hot water pressure within the system is sufficient for its efficient functioning and have a respectable volume. To prevent the possibility of scooping the entire volume of water and violating the heating system, the collapsible reinforcement of the DHW system should rise 10-15 cm above its bottom.

Installation of the heating system

We will work with plastic pipes, steel panel radiators, and a gas boiler as an obvious example. Of course, steel pipes can be used to serve water in radiators, but this method is more expensive and less reliable. After all, plastic is relatively cheap and doesn’t rust. Furthermore, long-term welding and painting work is not required for the installation of a heating system with plastic pipes. Even extremely complex systems are typically put together in a matter of a few days.

And we require this for its installation.

Necessary tools and materials

Prepare the following using the tool:

  • soldering iron for plastic pipes and special scissors;
  • punch and screwdriver;
  • hammer and level;
  • pencil and roulette;
  • Divorce key (not one better);
  • Plafers and scissors for metal.

And from consumables, the following are included, excluding the radiators themselves and plastic pipes:

  • various fittings for pipes and taps;
  • silicone, pacla or fumlat;
  • self -tapping screws and fast installation;
  • spare mounts for radiators (they are not always included, and if there are, then very often are not suitable for hard fixation);
  • mounts for fixing pipes to the walls.

Generally, there is enough of what is mentioned above, but in some specific cases, you might need something else.

Scissors and a soldering iron for plastic pipes

Think about a few crucial installation guidelines.

Installation of the boiler: what to consider

Although a specialist from the gas service or the service center will most likely install the boiler for the hot water supply and heating instead of you, it won’t hurt to be aware of the following information:

  • The boiler needs to be suspended so that it is always possible to quickly get to it in case;
  • You can not hang the boiler close to the ceiling – a minimum of free space between the upper part of the boiler and the ceiling is 50 centimeters;
  • Pay special attention to the junction of the boiler with the wall – in no case should you use cheap Chinese fasteners, as well as do everything on the principle of "and will hold on".

All of the radiators must be attached once the boiler has been suspended. And there are sufficient subtleties.

Installation of radiators: important points

  • Firstly, the radiators must be fixed under each window, otherwise the room will warm up poorly.
  • Secondly, make sure that the radiators are located at least at least about the same level-otherwise it will be simply ugly.
  • Thirdly, take into account that during the supply of water to the system, radiators can “tremble” slightly, which means you need to screw them as rigidly as possible.

In theory, once the batteries are fixed, you can measure the length and number of pipes required, cut the appropriate pieces, and solder them.

An increase in plastic pipes

Advice: Avoid using cheap, low-quality metal fittings to connect the pipe and battery. These fittings are bad because they can easily break with a few firm turns of the wrench and will probably need to be replaced in a few years.

You can connect everything to the boiler and contact the master once the pipe and radiator system is ready. He will start the heating, check the boiler settings, and shoot water into the system.

How to choose the volume of a storage water heater

The comfort level of using hot water in the house increases with the storage water heater’s volume. However, the bigger the boiler, the more costly it is, the more space it takes up, and the higher the cost of repair and maintenance.

The following criteria are used to choose the boiler’s size.

It is thought that a boiler with a capacity of 20–30 liters per person will supply the bare minimum of hot water needed for comfort in the home.

A boiler that can hold between thirty and sixty liters of water per user will offer enhanced comfort.

A water heater that holds between 60 and 100 liters for each person residing in the home is necessary to ensure a high level of comfort.

It is necessary to use nearly all of the water from an 80–100 liter boiler to fill the bath.

Ensuring efficient heating and hot water supply for a private house is crucial for comfort and cost-effectiveness. Proper insulation plays a pivotal role in retaining heat within the house, reducing energy consumption, and consequently, lowering utility bills. Choosing the right heating system tailored to the house"s size and occupants" needs is essential for maintaining a cozy environment while minimizing energy waste. Additionally, incorporating renewable energy sources like solar panels or geothermal heating can further enhance sustainability and decrease reliance on traditional fossil fuels. Regular maintenance of heating equipment and insulation is vital to ensure optimal performance and longevity. By prioritizing insulation, selecting appropriate heating systems, and embracing sustainable alternatives, homeowners can create a warm, efficient, and environmentally friendly living space for themselves and their families.

The selection of equipment for hydraulic devices and heating of a private house

Several considerations must be made when selecting equipment for hydraulic devices and private home heating, including the amount of hot water needed daily, whether the location is electrified, Exist any prerequisites, such as an open space that receives constant sunlight, for the installation of a solar manifold?

Оогда потребность в горячей воде постоянна и повышена, как правило, владельцх индивидуальных домов покупке мощного двухконтурного котла предпочитаят разработать собственную систему горячего водоснабжения, учитывахщую условия. Since there are numerous options, there isn’t a single solution that works for everyone. The most widely used hot water supply device is a system that uses a boiler connected to a single-circuit heating boiler.

In other words, a boiler is a water heater with an integrated heat exchanger that is used to heat water and keep it at a specific temperature. Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat from a hot carrier (liquid, gas) to a colder medium. They can be structurally different (leather-pipe, sectional, etc.), but in recent years, plate heat exchangers—which are the most common—have become more compact, have a high coefficient of heat transfer, and have an efficiency of 99%.

Providing the house with a hot water supply system is impossible without creating hot water recirculation circuits. As a rule, this is a pipeline that has the shape of a loop that goes from the boiler past the points of analysis of hot water and returns to the boiler. Thanks to such a system, hot water follows from the water -divided crane after 1-2 s, and not after 5-25 s, as it would happen if the water -cutting crane was far from the heat exchanger. In addition, without creating recirculation, in anticipation of when hot water will flow from the tap, its huge amount simply flows into the sewer, t.e. It is consumed unaccounted.

The choice of a running water heater

Prior to beginning the model selection process, you should educate yourself on the following indicators: A bathroom or shower uses roughly 9 liters of hot water per minute, while a sink uses about 4.2. The remaining computation is straightforward: a summary of all the water heater’s indicators is provided, along with information on how much power it uses.

For instance. He needs water for the shower and washbasin if the water heater serves as a bathroom. Its indicators should therefore be 9+4.2 = 13.2 l/min.

You must consider the temperature differential in addition to performance when selecting a particular model. Up to 55 degrees should be reached by the heating. You will need to learn about this on your own because sellers tend to keep quiet about it and focus more on performance at this point.

Knowing the minimum inclusion size, which is an indicator of the minimum passing amount of water in which the heater will turn on, is equally important as knowing the working volume. ideal if the capacity is just 1.1 liters.

Useful tips

It makes sense to install a cumulative boiler with a capacity of more than 100 liters as soon as a new building is constructed. It will offer living comfort without requiring future modifications.

Installing the funded system is not necessary if the house is only used occasionally, such as a summer cottage; a flow heater will suffice. Simultaneously, the flow points’ compact placement in these kinds of buildings will guarantee operational convenience.

Installing an extra container in the accumulative water supply system is an option for families with large numbers of members. With a large number of households, a 30-liter tank with additional electric heating to offset heat loss will make up for variations in water flow.

Finished boiler sets should be chosen over unfinished ones when purchasing a gas boiler. Since their parameters are pre-selected for one another, the ligament will dissipate heat in the best possible way.

It makes sense to use a heat-bearing tank to create a secondary circuit for hot water supply if your home is heated by solid fuel. This will cut the cost of electricity considerably.

Salts actively separate from the water at temperatures above 55 degrees. They worsen the water current by clogging the pipes’ lumen.

When using heaters that heat large volumes on short lengths of pipe, this is especially crucial. Running water heaters should not be used if the impurity level in the water is more than 140 mg/liter because they will fail too soon and stop heating the water.

Hot water supply scheme with a running water heater

As a water heater that runs, you can use:

  • GVS gas column;
  • a heating contour of the DOS of a double -circuit heating boiler;
  • Electric flow heater of water.
  • plate heat exchanger connected to the heating contour.

The water heater starts heating up when the hot water crane is opened, which is when the water starts to boil.

In the brief time it takes for the water to pass through the heater, all of the energy used for heating is transferred from the heater to the water almost instantly. The design of a flow water heater allows for the limitation of the water flow velocity in order to quickly obtain the necessary temperature in the water. The water flow, or the volume of hot water shooting out of the crane, has a significant impact on the temperature of the water at the heater’s output.

The power of a flow water heater needs to be at least 10 kW in order to provide hot water for a shower with just one horn. From a heater with a capacity greater than 18 kW, you can fill the bathroom in a reasonable amount of time. Additionally, if the hot water crane in the kitchen is opened while filling the bathtub or taking a shower, then at least 28 kW of power is needed for the prototype heater to operate comfortably.

Generally speaking, a smaller boiler is sufficient to heat an economy class home. For this reason, the double-circuit boiler’s power is selected. according to the demand for hot water.

For the following reasons, the DOS diagram with a running water heater cannot provide the household with comfortable and cost-effective hot water use:

  • The temperature and pressure of the water in the pipes are very dependent on the value of the water consumption. For this reason When opening another tap, the temperature of the water and the pressure in the DIS system change very much. To use water at the same time even in two places is not very comfortable.
  • With a small consumption of hot water, a flowing water heater does not turn on at all and does not warm the water. To obtain water, the required temperature often has to spend more water than it is necessary.
  • Hot water from the crane appears with some delay. Waiting time grows as the length of the pipes from the water heater increases to the place of parsing the water. Part of the water at the very beginning has to use it uselessly into the sewer. Moreover, this is the water that has already been heated, but managed to cool in the pipes.
  • Paying deposits are quickly accumulated on a small surface inside the heating chamber of a flow water heater. With hard water, frequent cleaning from scale will be required.

In the end, the use of a flow water heater in the DHW system results in an increase in energy consumption for heating, an unjustified growth in the consumption of water and sewage effluent, and an inadequately comfortable use of hot water in the home.

Despite its drawbacks, the DHW system with a flow water heater is utilized due to its small equipment size and reasonably low cost.

Installing a separate, individual flow water heater close to each location where water is parsed will improve system performance.

Installing electric flow heaters is practical in this situation. However, these heaters have the potential to use a large amount of grid power (up to 20–30 kW) when used concurrently in multiple locations for water analysis. A private home’s power supply is usually not built for this, and electricity is expensive.

Accumulative systems

The storage boiler apparatus.

  1. Boiler and circulation of water in the system. A boiler is a tank that has good thermal insulation and large sizes. Typically, an electric heater and tubular heat exchanger are built into the tank, which is connected to the boiler. Almost constantly water heats up due to the boiler. The heater turns on when the boiler is disconnected or when a large amount of hot water is required. This work scheme is called an indirect heating boiler, this is a closed system. If necessary, hot water leaves the upper part of the boiler, after which cold water comes from below, which heats up again. Modern boilers are also equipped with a solar heater, for this, an additional heat exchanger is inserted into the lower part. Water heats up with solar energy, and if it is not enough, then a boiler or heater is used for additional heating.
  2. Last -layer boiler. This type of water heating becomes very popular. There is no heat exchanger in this system, and the water heats up, passing through the flow heater. The principle of operation is as follows: first hot water is spent on top, cold water enters its place from below, the pump drives the water through a prototing type heater. The consumer receives hot water almost immediately and does not have to wait until the water is warming in the entire boiler, as in the previous type of water heater. This solution allows you to purchase a smaller boiler and take a smaller heater, while the user comfort does not decrease.
  3. Water circulation system. Using the boiler allows you to make hot water in the water supply circulate. The places where the water is taken, connected to the ring pipeline, while the length of each section should not exceed 2 meters. This system uses a low -power pump with small dimensions. If you make slopes, then water can circulate without the help of the pump. Such a solution allows you to supply water to the fence points constantly, and it can be taken from several places at the same time, this is an open DIS system.
  4. Heat recovery from sewage drains. To save the consumed energy that is spent on heating water in the house, there are various ways. After use, hot water often just flows into the sewer. To prevent this from happening, use the recovery system, that is, the return of part of the energy from sewage sewage again to the DIS system. Before you get into the boiler, the water goes to the heat exchanger, to which drains from the sewage system are also sent. They begin to interact, but do not mix together. This allows you to ensure the flow of warm water into the boiler, so less energy is spent on its heating. Although this is a more complex system, it allows you to save energy, which is a very urgent issue.

The recovery process has the advantage of being able to be used with both accumulator and flowing heaters.

Go back to the contents table.

Electric water heating system.

Water heaters are frequently used in daily life. There are two varieties of it: nasty and the accumulative principle.

Accumulative: in this case, an electric heating element is used to type the water in the tank and raise its temperature to a predetermined point. The heater periodically turns on and off to maintain this temperature after it reaches the specified value.

Water that passes through electric heaters and heats up practically instantly is said to be flowing.

The pluses of water electric heaters:

One advantage over the previous system is that it is not linked to the heating system.

Water doesn’t take long to heat up when electric heaters are operating.

Drawbacks of electric water heaters:

When heating water, the cost of using electricity is significantly higher than the cost of using gas.

Electricity can be extremely hazardous, particularly when combined with water. When compared to gas use, the risk of injury from an electric shock is significantly higher.

Combined heating system Pluses and minuses

A combined heating system has benefits, but it also has drawbacks:

  • The heat consumption modes of heating and hot water supply systems do not coincide: the first is characterized by constant heat consumption, the second has its own maximums (morning and evening hours) and minimums (daytime hours). In this regard, the consumption of hot water prevails over the heating load, which creates certain inconvenience;
  • For a combined DHW and heating, the installation of a large power heat generator from an economic point of view is unprofitable, because in the absence of a need for hot water (t. e. Then they do not use it) The load on the generator will be insufficient (despite the fact that fuel consumption will continue). In such cases, at the time of the largest need for hot water, you can turn off the heat generator from the heating system so that it only heats the water. This kind of method of operation of the heat generator should be considered a necessary measure than convenience;
  • In the presence of a common heat generator in the DHW and heating system, the water temperature in it should not exceed 80 ° C so as not to provoke the formation on the internal walls of the pipes and the scale of the scale due to the decomposition of carbonate salts, which is fraught with burns.


The selection of the engineering system scheme is the first step in the installation of the heating and water supply system in the house.


A deadlock is used to dilute cold water, meaning that it only flows through the water supply while the water is being analyzed.

The wiring may be:

Soviet buildings typically have troinic wiring.

Water supply collector cabinet


Apart from dead end wiring, DHWs also practice recirculation diagrams. Water is continuously pumped between the boiler inserts by the circulation pump. This keeps the towels placed in the gaps warm and supplies hot water to any cranes instantly.

DIS supply from an indirect heating boiler with recirculation


Similar to the water supply, heating can be either trigemic or collector. One circle of 100–120 meters with a value is limited by the first type of wiring, which is more frequently used with warm floors. It is made of small diameter pipes with high hydraulic resistance that are laid in the screed.

Furthermore, heating wires can be

Traditional "Leningradka": the single rosel is connected in parallel to the batteries

Leningradka’s advantage is its complete failure tolerance; even though there are variations at the ends of the rose, circulation within it persists. One drawback is that there is a noticeable temperature discrepancy between the heating appliances.

Two-tube dead end: since the majority of the coolant passes through the radiators near the boiler, they are heated and lengthy.

With this wiring, you can create multiple parallel branches of the heating system and avoid any obstacles. As they move away from the boiler, jumpers between roslines, however, cause the difference between them to decrease.

As a result, distant heating devices cool until they defrost in extremely cold temperatures. The solution to the issue is balancing, which limits the patency of the area next to the battery boiler.

Without a throttle, the Tichalman loop maintains the same battery temperature.

Radiator connection schemes

The installation of heating devices is one aspect of the country house’s heating and water supply installation. Sectional radiators can be connected to a roser or riser of one of three circuits if panel radiators and convectors are mounted exclusively according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

For moderate sections, a one-way connection

Connecting two outlines diagonally

The eyeliners are only linked to the radiator collector located below.

Heat sources

A private home’s hot water and heating systems may draw from one or more common heat sources. First, let us examine the economic effectiveness of various approaches to heating water (that is, we will calculate the cost per kilowatt-hour for each option).


Type of boiler The price of a kilowatt hour
Electric 3-5 rubles depending on regional tariffs
Diesel 3.5-4 rubles
Gas gas -boiled gas 2.4-3 rubles
Coal, pellet 1.4-2 rubles, depending on local fuel prices
Wood 1.1-1.3 rubles
Gas with power from the highway 0.7-0.8 rubles

You cannot look for alternative heat sources if your street is gas-lit.

Hint: For the purposes of the hot water supply, electric, gas, and diesel boilers are frequently equipped with a separate heat exchanger (the so-called dual -circuit). But any heating boiler will do the same thing if you connect it to an indirect heating boiler, which is a heat-insulated tank whose water warms up from the energy in the heating system’s coolant.

The heating system coolant’s thermal energy is utilized by the indirect heating boiler.


A private home’s heating and water supply systems should ideally be more affordable. Additionally, they should require as little maintenance from the owner as possible, ideally keeping the tap water and air at the ideal temperature in a fully automatic mode.

This parameter determines the different order in which heat sources are distributed:

  • Electric boards work autonomously unlimitedly, do not require chimney installation and can be connected to removable thermal attits. In addition, they can flexibly change the power without loss of efficiency: the useful action coefficient of any electrical appliances of direct heating always strives for 100%. Energy losses are reduced only to its scattering by the body of the device. When installing a boiler in a heated room, scattered heat is used to heat it;

Elektrokotel: switched on, then overlooked

Practical conclusion: all electric radiators and boilers that are marketed as being economical are fabrications. Regardless of the coolant’s heating principle, you must use kilowatts of electricity to produce one kilowatt of heat. This thesis is directly related to the energy conservation law.

While there are many benefits to electric and induction boilers over heat pumps, these do not include cost-effectiveness.

  • Gas, Heating and hotel equipment requires the removal of combustion products. Otherwise, autonomy and ease of use, it is not inferior to electric boilers;
  • The diesel boiler works until there is fuel in its tank. The disadvantages include the loud noise of the burner and the smell of solarium;

Diesel boiler room: fuel tanks take up a large portion of the space in this room.

  • Automatic coal and pellet boilers work autonomously 7-10 days depending on the volume of the fuel bunker;
  • Wood and classic coal boilers need to be trampled every 6-8 hours.

Nevertheless, because of a unique fuel burning scheme, the pyrolysis boilers of the upper burning can operate for up to 1.5 days on a single bookmark. It smolders in a separate chamber, burning incomplete combustion products, and has restricted air access. Smoldering in a top-down manner prevents firewood or coal from igniting throughout the furnace’s entire volume.

Upper-burning solid fuel pyrolysis boiler


  1. Magistral gas is the most practical heat source. It combines the cheapness with the convenience of equipment operation;
  2. If you have gas heating – the hot water supply of an individual house is easiest to implement on the same gas (by installing a double -circuit boiler or indirect heating boiler);

A double-circuit gas boiler will supply the home with affordable hot water and heating.

  1. In the absence of gas, heating and hot water supply of houses with automatic coal and pellet boilers will provide a reasonable balance of the cost of heat and autonomy of equipment;

Subtle: The cost of heating automation is high. The author resides in Sevastopol, where an automatic boiler with a 10 kW capacity can be purchased for 90–95 thousand rubles.

  1. Hot water supply and heating of country houses are usually organized by classic wood and coal boilers. They combine efficiency with cheapness. Alas, the cost of frequent tramples.

An antique wood boiler in a rural home

The use of combined mounted turbocharged boilers with a double contour.

The most recent method for simultaneously solving two problems. The purpose of double contour boilers is to heat the water in the water supply system. For every purpose in a different heating circuit. The installation of a chimney is not necessary for wall boilers that are turbocharged. This apparatus combines a gas column and a gas boiler simultaneously.

These boiler models include a circulation pump as standard equipment, which enhances water circulation throughout the system and raises the boiler’s efficiency.

Advantages of use by turbocharged double -circuit boilers.

Heating and hot water are independent of one another, so it’s a one-shot deal that kills two birds with one stone. conserving the boiler room’s space. less expensive gas project. needs no chimney to function. A built-in circulation pump is present.


You won’t have heating or hot water if one of them breaks. This may be the only drawback, but experience indicates that problems with these boilers rarely occur.

We enumerate.

We opted for the last system, which is a two-configured turbocharged boiler.

Disadvantages of the DHW system with a double -circuit gas boiler

As you are aware, a double-circuit gas boiler can heat a home’s water and serve as a source of heat for the heating system. The boiler’s suppurate heat exchanger is where hot water preparation takes place.

Frequently, the power required by the boiler to prepare hot water ends up being significantly greater than the power required to heat every room in the house.

Double-circuit boilers have a fairly large maximum power of about 24 kW or more, which is sufficient to heat the required amount of water. Because of the automation in the boilers, the burner flame can be modulated to the point where the boiler’s power can be reduced to about 30% of its maximum. A double-circuit gas boiler typically has a minimum power of 8 kW or more. This is the boiler’s lowest power setting for both heating and domestic hot water.

Because of structural characteristics, a double-circuit boiler’s gas burner cannot operate steadily at less than the minimum power (less than 8 kW.). Simultaneously, the boiler in heating mode should typically have a capacity of less than 8 kW in order to function with the heating system of a private home or the autonomous heating of an apartment.

Let’s say the power is 8 kW. Sufficient to heat a house or apartments between 80 and 110 square meters, especially during the five coldest days of the heating season. During warmer times, the boiler’s power should be significantly reduced.

The double-circuit boiler’s adaptation (coordination) to the heating system is problematic since the boiler cannot operate at a power lower than the minimum.

The boiler produces more heat than the heating system can handle in small facilities with low heating energy consumption. The double-circuit boiler starts to operate in pulsed mode as a result of the system’s and the boiler’s inconsistent parameters, "So" as the people say.

When boiler parts are operated in "Tabble" mode, there is a significant reduction in resource usage and efficiency.

When operating at maximum power, double-circuit gas boilers have an efficiency of over 93%; at minimum power, their efficiency is less than 80%. Consider how much less efficient the boiler will be if it is forced to operate in pulsed mode and continuously rejects the gas burner.

Remember that the dual-circuit boiler uses the least amount of power when heating for the majority of the year. Literally, at least 25% of the gas used for heating will fly into the pipe ineffectively. Include in this the price of replacing the boiler’s early-wearing parts. This will be the cost of installing inexpensive heating equipment in the home and paying the dowry.

With a heating system power of under 8 kW. Installing a boiler in conjunction with a 60–120 liter hotel boiler is more financially advantageous.

When a storage boiler is present, a boiler with a lower maximum power—less than 9–11 kW—will be installed. When used in conjunction with another boiler, the boiler will operate at peak efficiency in both heating and cooling modes.

For just these kinds of situations, a number of heating equipment manufacturers create special sets that include a boiler and a built-in or remote boiler. Although such a set of equipment will cost more, it will guarantee more equipment resources, gas savings, and more comfortable hot water use.

Installation of a heating system

Think about who gets paid what, how a private home gets its water and heating, and what is needed to get the job done. We’ll look at steel radiators, plastic pipelines, and gas boilers, for instance.

Although they serve less and are more expensive, water can also be supplied through steel pipes and radiators. Plastic pipes are reasonably priced and suitable for a family on a tight budget, as they do not rust.

You don’t need to perform any welding or painting when installing and assembling a heating system made of plastic pipes. Even a complex system can typically be put together in a few days.

Materials and tools

It is essential to get ready the following instrument:

  • scissors for cutting pipes and soldering iron;
  • screwdriver, punch;
  • building level;
  • hammer;
  • roulette and pencil;
  • several divorce keys;
  • scissors for metal;
  • Passatigi.

The following consumables will be required:

  • fittings for connections;
  • FUM-toe, silicone;
  • self -tapping screws;
  • Fasteners for radiators and pipes.

In every instance, the materials are typically added one at a time, and a locking reinforcement is offered to enable the hot water supply to be disconnected.

Features of the installation of the system

Although a service specialist installs the system most of the time, it doesn’t hurt to know the following:

  • The boiler is suspended in such a way that it is convenient to serve it;
  • It is not recommended to hang a boiler near the ceiling, the gap between the ceiling and the boiler should be at least 0.5 meters;
  • Particular attention should be paid to the boiler mount on the wall, it is undesirable to use Chinese mounts for this.

Installation of radiators

The radiators need to be fixed after the boiler is installed.

  • Under each window there should be a radiator, otherwise the room will not warm enough;
  • radiators should be located at the same height, another location will violate the interior;
  • When water supply, the radiators will vibrate a little, so they should be fixed the most rigid.

Once the batteries are installed, you can measure and cut the pipes to ensure adhesion. Avoid connecting pipes and radiators with low-quality, inexpensive fittings. They frequently break when a heavy load is applied with a wrench. Once the radiator and pipe system is put together, you can connect it to the boiler and request a call from the master, who will verify that everything is put together correctly and start the water.

Heating System Options for heating the house
Boiler Gas, oil, electric, or biomass boilers
Heat Pump Air-source, ground-source, or water-source heat pumps
Radiant Heating Underfloor heating or radiant panels
Hot Water Supply Options for supplying hot water
Water Heater Gas, electric, solar, or heat pump water heaters
Storage Tank Tankless or storage tank hot water systems

Comfort, economy, and sustainability all depend on a private home’s heating and hot water systems operating efficiently. Homeowners can drastically cut down on energy use and heat loss by installing the right insulation.

Purchasing superior insulation for roofs, floors, and walls can result in significant long-term energy bill savings. Keeping an even interior temperature while reducing energy waste is also facilitated by caulking air leaks and putting in energy-saving windows and doors.

It is crucial to select the ideal heating system for the house, taking into account its unique requirements. Every choice has pros and cons, whether it’s a solar thermal system, heat pump, boiler, or furnace. Weighing factors like budget, fuel availability, climate, and environmental impact should be done carefully.

For heating equipment to operate at its best and last a long time, regular maintenance is required. Qualified professionals can maximize efficiency, ensure safety, and prevent breakdowns through scheduled inspections, cleanings, and tune-ups. When it is possible, homeowners ought to think about updating to newer, more energy-efficient models.

Carbon emissions can be decreased and dependency on fossil fuels can be further decreased by integrating renewable energy sources like geothermal heating systems and solar panels. These environmentally friendly alternatives may be even more appealing if there are government rebates and incentives available to cover their initial costs.

In the end, choosing the right equipment, performing routine maintenance, adding insulation, and taking into account sustainable options are all necessary to create a heating and hot water supply system that is dependable and efficient. Homeowners can minimize energy costs and environmental impact while creating a comfortable living environment by giving priority to these factors.

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