DIY Kuznetsov stoves

Since 1962, renowned Russian engineer and inventor Igor Viktorovich Kuznetsov has been creating new stove models and continuously enhancing the ones that already exist. Over this extended period, over 150 distinct models have been released, all of which have undergone extensive testing in real-world scenarios and have garnered the highest level of demand from private home owners. This inventor’s designs stand out not only for their efficient residential building heating systems but also for their capacity to infuse warmth and uniqueness into the interior spaces.

DIY stoves for Kuznetsov

To construct Kuznetsov’s furnaces by hand, which require a rather complicated order, in my opinion. But, it is feasible if you wish to save a respectable sum and have the necessary abilities, such as the capacity to understand the pertinent schemes. As a result, if you choose to handle these tasks yourself, you must carefully consider the design’s sequence and masonry recommendations in addition to selecting the appropriate design.

Features of structures and.IN. Kuznetsova

Based on the beneficial aspects of heating apparatuses, the engineer established two objectives for his research and development: the efficiency and output of the furnaces. Because of this, the inventor places a lot of emphasis on where the furnace’s internal channels are located. These channels facilitate the intense movement of combustion products and heated air from the firebox. In his attempts to create longer delays in the heated gas mass inside the furnace structure, the master works on structures in an effort to save fuel while preserving heat for extended periods of time.

These features are consistent with stoves known as "caps," which have unique chambers designed to retain heat. Kuznetsov’s designs typically consist of two "caps": one at the top of the furnace and one at the bottom that is paired with a furnace camera. The lower "cap" works on the principle of separating the produced gases into hot and cold. As a result, the combustion products accumulate heat and rise to the cap’s ceiling, while heated air in many buildings passes through special barriers to reach the chimney.

The fundamental workings of two "caps"

Because the upper "cap" exits at its base, gases are likewise delayed there. Hot gas flows thus rise to the ceiling before entering the chimney, heating the entire space.

This system allows the furnace’s interior temperature to rise dramatically and stay there for extended periods of time, resulting in a 95% heating device efficiency. Comparing this parameter, for instance, with the unfortunate efficiency of the traditional Russian furnace (45 ÷ 50%), you can see the difference.

The proper placement of valves, which have the ability to delay or reroute gas movement as needed, not only permits the sensible movement of air but also aids in the preservation of thermal energy. These components can also control the flow of heat. Because the heated air will enter the chimney via the path of least resistance and heat only the furnace and the hob without entering the upper cap, when the valve for the "summer" move is opened, the furnace will only be used for cooking.

A stove like that has two operating modes: "summer" and "winter."

Because of this furnace system in operation, we are able to identify several benefits of the structures created by IN. Kuznetsov:

  • Warming up the furnace and heat output occurs naturally and evenly.
  • It becomes possible to highlight a larger place to install the heating element – the hob.
  • Burning is carried out without the formation of soot and smoke, since there is an almost complete destruction of combustion products.
  • Thermal losses are minimized.
  • Due to the uniformity of warming up the structure, there is almost no deformation of masonry and the formation of cracks in the seams.
  • Such an internal design allows you to create various forms of furnaces and with a variety of design design.
  • In addition, furnaces developed and.IN. Kuznetsov, can be equipped with a water circuit or a built -in heating tank, which will ensure hot water supply or even water heating of other rooms in the house.

Kuznetsov’s stove and a water circuit can be installed to create a local heating system.

Based on the functioning principle of this type of stove design, different types of domestic furnaces can be made, according to the intended use:

  • The heating type of furnace, designed only for the effective heating of a residential one -story or two -story building.
  • Hobs designed mainly for high -quality and quick cooking.
  • Bath options for stoves – for effective heating of bath rooms.
  • Street furniture complexes-barbek, with grilled and smokehouses.
  • Stove-stone stoves that are intended not only for the main heating, but also for creating a cozy environment and aesthetically attractive interior in the house.
  • If desired, you can create multifunctional options for furnaces, including heating, hobs and aesthetic functions.

How to fold a stove and.IN. Kuznetsova

Building a real brick furnace is always a laborious and complicated process that calls for specific knowledge, technological know-how, and possession of certain trade secrets. Thus, you must have some prior experience in this field in order to purchase a high-quality heating device. Experts in this field, who have practiced this craft for a very long time, advise novices to produce preliminary, or dry, masonry before investing in capital projects.

Any brick furnace’s construction is a labor-intensive and intricate process.

Furthermore, do not try to add your innovations to the already compiled guidance after the first furnace has been laid out. It is advised in this situation to strictly follow the chosen plan and carry it out without deviation. As such, you ought to make a decision regarding the oven’s functions right away. You can always select the best option from the more than 150 dumping structures that and.IN. Kuznetsov developed and compiled.

In the event that the furnace is installed during the home-building phase, it should be planned to heat two or even three rooms simultaneously.

Stove installation is more challenging in a house that has already been constructed because precise calculations must be made in order to remove a portion of the wall. Fastened options are typically chosen in this situation, but they are limited to warming a single room. Naturally, if desired, any problem can be solved while accounting for the location of the overlapped beams and bearing walls.

If desired, a brick furnace can be incorporated into the inner wall.

It is crucial to prevent combustible surfaces from overheating, so if the furnace is placed in a wooden structure, gaskets made of non-combustible material, like asbestos, must be made at the joints between the house’s walls and the furnace.

Furthermore, the gaps that these materials fill at the joints between the structures allow the brickwork to expand freely when heated; otherwise, the solution in the seams may cover in cracks, and the furnace’s structure may deform.

Putting in place a solid foundation for the furnace’s design is crucial. Usually, concrete is used and waterproofing is applied. Since they will cause different shrinkages and shouldn’t "pull" on one another, the foundation of the furnace and the foundation of the main structure shouldn’t be connected.

The concrete foundation’s linear dimensions must be at least 100 mm greater on each side of the structure than the furnace base’s dimensions. The calculation of the foundation’s depth is contingent upon the furnace’s design mass and the soil composition upon which the construction is erected. The average depth of the foundation’s torn pit is between 400 and 600 mm, and at the bottom must be placed a waterproofing cushion and a crushed stone layer for hardening. Well, formwork made of wood is installed to form the side walls.

Although setting up the foundation takes a lot of work, it is necessary to do so completely and to a high standard because the furnace’s reliability and level surface will determine how accurate and long-lasting the entire design is. A flooded concrete base requires at least a month to fully mature and harden, so construction should never be rushed.

Moving on to the next task, you must consider the following factors when laying the furnace:

  • Before starting the masonry of the first row, one or two layer of waterproofing material-roofing material, which is further recommended to be placed using a chalk by the size of the base of the furnace, are being laid on the foundation. So it will be easier to masonry the first row.

There’s no doubt that a brick stove needs a sturdy foundation.

  • If the stove for laying is planned from red brick, then it is recommended to cover the furnace chamber with refractory chamotis material. It holds warm and resistant to high temperatures longer.
  • It is very important to observe the heat gaps of 5 mm between the chamotis and red bricks – the linear expansion coefficient is significantly different, and the material must provide the possibility of free expansion when heated.
  • It is recommended, after lifting each next two rows, to strengthen the wall of the stove with wire, which is laid in the seam along the entire length of the row.
  • Cast iron and steel elements that will be in contact with open fire are wrapped around the perimeter with an asbestos rope or fragments cut out of a solid sheet. This material will not only protect the metal from burning, but also create the desired gap for thermal expansion.
  • A folded stove before starting operation is subjected to prolonged drying. To do this, all doors and valves for free air circulation in all departments of the structure open. Drying is often performed by installing a regular incandescent bulb with a capacity of 200 ÷ 400 watts. The heat given by the light bulb and the through air movement created from this will contribute to a faster drying of the structure.
  • The dried furnace is first tilled with a small amount of fuel, the flame from which will harden the wall of the wall of the furnace chamber.
  • If it is planned to carry out the exterior decoration of the structure, then it should be done after at least one season of operation of the heating device, when the folded stove gives an almost complete shrinkage.

You might be curious to know that the stove is a fireplace that has a water heating circuit.

Device scheme and materials for construction

The plan that is created for every furnace is referred to as the order. The arrangement and quantity of materials needed for every row are clearly displayed in this graphic plan. Prior to beginning work, make sure you fully comprehend the sketch scheme. If you don’t understand it, ask a specialist for clarification. For the "savvy," reading the order drawings is usually fairly easy on a technical level, especially since they are typically accompanied by a thorough description.

This is the typical appearance of the scheme.

The hard scheme ought to resemble this in general. If the ordering scheme offers multiple stove cut options, choosing the best one will make it easier to see the internal structure of the structure and make work much easier.

Both entire bricks and those that have been pilfered or cut into multiple equal pieces can be utilized in various furnace departments. A brick can sometimes be split into eight pieces, which would then form different furnace sections: ⅛, ⅜, ¼ brick, etc. The sketch scheme always specifies how these parts are to be used.

Furthermore, be aware that certain bricks will require cuts in order to install metal components, like a slide or a hob. A brick may occasionally need to be cut or broken off at an angle; this is also indicated in the order.

The amount of material needed for each particular model varies and can be determined separately based on the order or by applying the list to the completed form.

The following supplies must be bought in order to build any furnace:

  • For internal laying of the firebox, it is recommended to prepare a ball brick (Sha-8). If it is unavailable, then you can replace it with other refractory bricks.
  • For the main masonry of the structure, a regular ceramic brick will be required, having a brand of strength not less than M150.
  • For the solution, one or two types of clay are required, one of which should differ in tightness and ductility. This material will require 100 ÷ 150 kilograms, depending on the massiveness of the structure.
  • In addition to clay, for the solution you need sifted sand. Its volume should exceed the amount of clay by 2 ÷ 2.5 times. In total, for masonry consisting of 500 bricks, it is necessary to prepare 0.2 cubic meters. m. clay-sand mixture. However, many modern stoves have already managed to evaluate ready -made masonry mixtures for stoves, which can be purchased in a specialized store.
  • Metal and cast -iron structural elements are selected for each model individually. The number of wire for reinforcing the rows will also depend on the choice of the furnace model and its perimeter.

Costs of ceramic bricks from M150 brands

Ceramic brick M150

Detailed order of heating Ovik-9 Kuznetsov

The OVIK-9 model, created by engineer AND Kuznetsov, served as the foundation for the design of the heating-welding furnace that is shown below. The mutual arrangement of the furnace and blowing door is the only distinction between these structures; otherwise, their designs are exactly the same.

Furnace for heating and welding based on development and.IN. Ovik Kuznetsova-9

This furnace option is ideal for installation in any suburban private home since it is made for both cooking and heating the house.

The model has a hob with a two-carcass plate and metal doors that close for cooking. It has a valve-equipped exhaust channel of its own that allows you to control the temperature inside a closed niche. The camera doubles as an oven because it can be closed completely, so baking sheets are frequently installed by smoothing brackets into the walls of the device.

When the rooms need to heat up the quickest, cabinet doors are left open; however, in this situation, food can be cooked directly on the hob.

The furnace can only be used for cooking in the summer or for heating the house and cooking in the winter due to its two-colp structure. As a result, it can operate in two modes: "summer" and "winter."

The fuel chamber has a depth of 450 ÷ 470 mm and a "dry" seam that allows the material to expand freely when heated. The furnace chamber can be made larger if needed, measuring 510 x 530 mm. To do this, the back wall of the furnace must be arranged in quarters rather than half, as the order specifies. It is not advised to use a "dry" seam in this situation, though, as the wall will be unstable and the bricks may move when laying firewood.

This stove measures 1015 x 630 x 2100 mm and can transfer 3600 W of heat when two fluids are used. She can easily heat a room that is 30 by 35 meters or two adjacent rooms.

Necessary materials

The following supplies are needed to assemble this heating structure (not including the pipe construction and foundation layout):

  • Red brick – 430 pcs.;
  • Shamotnaya refractory brick (Sha-8) for the furnace-22 pcs.;
  • Top door (DT-3) 210 × 250 mm-1 pcs.;
  • Puncher door (DPP) 140 × 250 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • Grinking grille 250 × 252 mm – 1 pc.;
  • Double -grained cast iron hob 586 × 336 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • hob doors 510 × 340 mm – 2 pcs.;
  • Job valve 130 × 130 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • The “Summer” operation of the operating mode of 130 × 130 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • chimney valve 130 × 250 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • Steel corner 36 × 36 × 4 × 600 mm – 4 pcs.;
  • Steel strip 40 × 4 × 600 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • steel sheet 600 × 550 × 3 mm – 1 pcs.;
  • Steel Faily sheet 500 × 700 × 3 mm – 1 pcs. It can be replaced by other heat -resistant material, for example, ceramic tiles.

Costs of refractory brick made of fireclay (Sha-8)

Shamot refractor brick Sha-8

The process of erecting a furnace
Illustration with the guide of the stove masonry A brief description of the masonry operations
The first row is completely continuous, as it is the basis of the rest of the order, so it should be laid out with the exact observance of the horizontal masonry and with perfectly eliminated straight angles.
The diagram is given standard dimensions, and they can be slightly changed, since the parameters of brick and the thickness of the seams between them may vary.
, as a rule, the thickness of the seams is usually taken in 5 mm, but it should be noted that the corners of the masonry of the remaining rows should perfectly coincide with the basis. Therefore, they must be measured using a building corner, and then compare the size of the diagonals of the resulting rectangle – they should be equal to each other.
for this series will require 20 red bricks.
In the second row, the formation of a blower and the lower cap of the furnace begins.
since the base of the cap after the completion of the masonry will need to be cleaned, two halves of bricks are installed, which protrude from the general row outside.
During cleaning, these elements get out of the wall, which allows this process without problems.
When laying the second row, these bricks are not fixed to the solution – this will be done after the furnace is completely erected and cleaned of the fallen solution and other construction waste.
On the same row, a blowing door is installed, which is temporarily, for stability, you can support the bricks in paces.
on this series is used by 14 red bricks.
The third row is laid out according to the scheme.
During its laying on it, the blower door is tightly fixed.
The fourth row is partially laid out from the chamotis refractory brick – the side and back walls of the fuel chamber are formed from it.
The Door of the Puncher Camer is overlapped with two red bricks that are produced above it and are stuck obliquely.
In the same way, two shy fire bricks are laid from the back of the blower door.
Between red and chamotis brick, a thermal gap is left, which is 5 mm. To fulfill this condition, the masters use a small trick, and instead of the solution they lay a regular packaging corrugated cardboard between these types of bricks, which has the desired thickness. After its burnout, a perfectly even heat gap remains.
such gaps should be provided in the subsequent rows where red and chamotis bricks are joined.
For this series, it is necessary to prepare 11½ red and 3½ chamotis bricks.
The fourth row continues.
After laying the side bricks above the door blown, the middle of the door is overlapped with chamotis and ceramic bricks on the sides on two sides, such a masonry system is called in the “castle”.
For this will require 1 red and 1 chamoth brick.
A fuel chamber is formed on the fifth row.
The chamotum brick installed on the front wall of the firebox is cut obliquely.
The space inside the furnace between the chamotis bricks should correspond to the size of the grate, since it should freely stand into a rectangle formed by bricks, which protrudes on 10-15 mm bricks of the lower 4 row.
At the same time, between the side walls of the refractory brick and the grille, it is necessary to leave a heat gap of 5 mm, which will allow you to expand without problems when heated.
In the space behind the firebox, where the bottom cap is located, a separate vertical channel is formed with a half -brick size. This channel will connect the lower and upper oven caps.
The number of bricks used in this series is 12 ½ red and 4 chamotis.
On the fifth row, without a solution, a grate is laid on the protruding bricks of 4 rows.
Pyat -millimeter gaps between brick and grate are filled with sand.
The sixth row.
At this stage, the fuel door is installed.
Between the walls of its frame and the bricks adjacent to it, there should be a gap of 5 mm, which is filled with non -combustible material.
For this, the frame is most often wrapped with a rope or excitement segments.
To lay this series, it is necessary to prepare 12 red and 3 chamotis bricks.
Seventh row.
When laying the posterior wall of the fuel chamber in this row from the left edge of the brick, a gap of 20 ÷ 30 mm is left – this will be a “dry” seam. It is necessary for the removal of non -combustible gases from the furnace and the creation of conditions for a more intense burning of the flame.
for this series will require 12 red and 3 chamotis bricks.
Eighth row.
Masonry is carried out strictly according to the scheme using 12 red and 3 chamotis bricks.
Ninth row.
The walls of the furnace chamber are displayed, and a passage is formed between it and the lower cap for the removal of combustion products.
Lateral chamotary walls of the firebox should be lower than the rest of the row by 10 mm, (on the diagram these walls are highlighted by lilac).
Shamot and red bricks laid over the top door are slightly shifting to block part of its frame. Previously, these bricks are stuck obliquely and still form a peculiar “bowl” in which the central brick will be laid.
for a row, 12 red and 2½ chamotte bricks are used.
On the ninth row between the front side bricks above the door, the central overlapping frame of the furnace door is a brick, pre -hacked from two sides at the same angle as the side, forming the "bowl".
The left side wall of the firebox brick is covered with an asbestos strip of 10 mm thick, which equals this side with the height of the entire row.
Tenth row.
on this row on chamotis bricks, covered with asbestos, dry, that is, without solution, red brick is laid.
In red brick framing the furnace, a small neckline is arranged in size, approximately 10 mm, on which the hob will be laid. Moreover, between the stove and the walls of the brick on all sides, the gap must necessarily remain to expand the metal when it is heated, in the size of 5 mm.
Fire -controlled bricks installed on the front and right side of the fuel chamber are stuck obliquely – in the diagram they are shown by orange color. At the same time, it is imperative to ensure that there is a gap of 10 mm between the chamotis bricks and the hob.
For this series, 14½ red and 1½ chamotis brick will be required for this series.
After the completion of the previous work on laying out 10 row, asbestos rope soaked in clay solution is distributed to cuts in the laid bricks.
on top of the asbestos layer, the hob is laid.
The gaps between the stove and bricks are filled with sand.
If a panel has a stiffener on the back of the rib, then additional cutouts are made under them.
The hob should lie only on its parts, but not on the ribs of stiffness, and be “drowned” relative to the surface of the entire row per 5 mm.
11th row.
from this row begin to form the walls of the hob and a frame with doors are installed. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that a five -milemma gap should be observed between the metal frame and bricks.
To make it easier to form, it is recommended to wrap the frame with an asbestos rope.
For the 11th row, 11 red bricks will be required.
The 12th row is laid out according to the scheme, and 11 red bricks are used for it.
13th row.
The formation of a hob and vertical side channels continues.
14th row-work goes strictly according to this scheme.
The 15th row is placed in two stages.
The first step of the walls of the hob and vertical channels rise to the level of the metal frame of the door.
Next, it is necessary to arrange an overlap of the hob.
For this, a steel sheet of 600 × 550 mm is laid on the masonry of the 15th row, in which the cutout is made under the hood channel.
A metal sheet is necessary that the hob ceiling is cleaner, and during cooking on foods, various garbage in the form of a solution from the panting seams does not pour on top of the food.
Four metal corners and steel strip are installed for stiffness on top of the sheet.
16th row.
Red brick is laid on metal corners and strip – the order is shown in the scheme. Only the holes of vertical channels are left open.
Before masonry, on bricks framing the near vertical and exhaust channels, cutouts are made for installing chimney valves. The valves will provide the “summer” stroke of the furnace and, if necessary, the tightness of the hob.
cuts are made in such a way that a gap of 5 mm remains between the brickwork and the valve.
In this series, masonry consists of 20 red bricks.
On the 16th row, two valves are installed on the prepared sites with cutouts.
On the 17th row, the hob and the installed valves are overlapped with red brick, so that fluid channels remain open.
You need to prepare 19 red bricks for masonry.
On the 18th row, the formation of the upper cap of the structure is formed.
For this, two half -bricks are installed dry, which rise above the main masonry – they are necessary to clean the base of the cap.
These bricks are fixed to the solution after completing the laying of the furnace and cleaning the base from the solution and garbage.
for a series used 13½ red bricks.
The 19th row is placed according to the scheme using 12½ red bricks.
The 20th row is also laid out according to the scheme and it will require 13½ red bricks
21st row.
Masonry is carried out according to the presented scheme, and 14 bricks are used for it.
Further, the long -term section of the building is quite laid out according to a single scheme, only with alternating even and odd rows.
22nd, 24th and 26th rows.
Work is carried out according to the same scheme, the ranks consist of 14 bricks.
23rd and 25th rows are also laid out according to the general scheme and also consist of 14 bricks.
27th row.
In this case, 14 bricks are also used, but the configuration of their location is slightly different from the previous rows, as they prepare the basis for subsequent almost continuous rows.
On the 28th row in bricks framing the chimney channel, cutouts are made to install the main chimney valve.
on the scheme of the place of the cutouts, to a depth of 10 mm, are highlighted by lilac.
making cuts, you need to periodically try on the valve itself, since it should be 5 mm from the brick walls, that is, should freely enter the cut out gap.
On the same row, the valve itself is installed in the neckline on the solution.
For the 29th row, 19 red bricks will be required, since an almost complete overlap of the surface of the structure is performed.
only a chimney with an already installed valve remains open.
The 30th row per secondly overlaps almost the entire surface.
19 bricks also need him.
31st row – the base of the nozzle pipe is laid with the section of the chimney, the size of one brick.
consists of a number of 5 bricks.
Next, the chimney itself is formed.
For each of the rows, when lining it, 5 red bricks will also be required.

These schemes along with the detailed instructions will enable you to raise this reasonably small furnace model on your own. It is advised to purchase rounded, curly bricks or prepare them yourself for laying corners to give the area a more refined, orderly appearance. Consequently, the stove will gain excellent security in addition to accuracy. When there are young children living in the home, it is very crucial to provide this.

Once the Device Scheme has been disassembled and rendered comprehensible, construct the structure and.It will be very easy with IN. Kuznetsova. When chosen appropriately, the model can be used to decorate any interior design. Do not hurry if you want it to be tidy and beautiful; instead, take your time, calculate each step, and adhere closely to the accompanying plan. coal-read automatic boilers on our website.

Additionally, a video tutorial on installing a second heating and welding furnace for the structure is included at the end of the publication. IN. Kuznetsova:

Video: Kuznetsova Ovik-4 heating and welding furnace

One effective and affordable option for heating and insulating your home is the do-it-yourself Kuznetsov stove. These stoves provide an economical and environmentally friendly way to heat your living area while reducing energy expenses. Their designs are influenced by classic Russian stoves. With easily accessible materials and basic building methods, homeowners can easily construct their own Kuznetsov stove. These stoves not only provide warmth, but they also become the center of warmth and comfort in any house. DIY enthusiasts can reap the benefits of a Kuznetsov stove while maintaining the safety and efficiency of their heating systems by taking appropriate ventilation and insulation measures.

Afanasyev Evgeny, Chief Editor

Video on the topic

The film "Kuznetsov’s stoves with your own hands"

DIY heating-welding oven. Oresh the furnace.

Kuznetsov’s heating furnace OIK-4

What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
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Michael Kuznetsov

I love to create beauty and comfort with my own hands. In my articles I share tips on warming the house and repairing with my own hands.

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