Coal-fired boiler with your own hands

For many homeowners, keeping their house warm and comfortable throughout the winter is of utmost importance. A coal-fired boiler is a common heating option because of its dependability and efficiency. Even though taking on a project like this alone could seem intimidating, building a coal-fired boiler yourself can be a rewarding do-it-yourself project that will ultimately save you money.

Understanding the operation of a coal-fired boiler is crucial before beginning construction. In essence, heat is produced by burning coal and then transferred to water to create steam. Through pipes and radiators, this steam is distributed throughout your house, giving every area constant warmth. A coal-fired boiler can effectively heat your home while reducing energy costs if it is properly insulated.

Being able to tailor your own coal-fired boiler to your own requirements is one of its main advantages. You can customize every element, including the boiler’s size and the materials used, to match your house and budget when you do it yourself. Taking a hands-on approach also helps you learn important information about your heating system, which will make future maintenance and troubleshooting simpler.

Naturally, undertaking a do-it-yourself coal-fired boiler project calls for considerable thought and preparation. Given the inherent risks associated with working with combustible materials and high temperatures, safety should always come first. To ensure compliance and safety, familiarize yourself with local building codes and regulations prior to beginning construction.

Assuming the correct equipment, supplies, and expertise, constructing a coal-fired boiler can be a rewarding and economical way to heat your house. We’ll walk you through every step of building your own coal-fired boiler in the ensuing sections, from assembling the parts to lighting the boiler for the first time. Prepare to take command of the heating system in your house and relish the warmth and comfort it provides.

Coal boiler with their own hands – drawings of homemade equipment on coal

Device pyrolysis boiler

Two chambers are present in the design of pyrolysis boilers, also known as long-burning boilers: the loading and gas combustion chambers. Bricks made of fireclay or other heat-resistant materials line the walls of the chamber.

The loading chamber’s bottom has a hole for the nozzle and is lined with fireclay bricks. Through it, pyrolysis gas enters the combustion chamber, where it burns to heat the heat exchanger, a pipe connection.

The operation of the pyrolysis boiler is based on the requirement for two chambers. A coal boiler can be ignited by adding fuel to the loading chamber (see the article at this link for instructions on how to do so: Using a damper, lower the air supply after ignition. This causes the combustion process to slow down and results in the formation of a mixture of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, which enters the combustion chamber through the nozzle.

The high temperature and secondary air supply system guarantee that the gas mixture ignites. Huge volumes of heat, water, and carbon dioxide are produced as a result. The heat exchanger receives heat from the source, and the chimney releases the remaining products. If certain requirements are satisfied, the pyrolysis boiler can burn for roughly ten hours.

Due to the use of pricey materials that guarantee heat resistance, operational safety, and the inclusion of devices for automated operation with little need for human intervention, factory models of these devices are exceedingly costly. If you meet the necessary conditions and possess certain abilities, you can assemble such an aggregate by hand.

Tools and materials

Prior to beginning a coal boiler installation project on your own, you must choose the project, t. You need to know exactly where it will be placed, how much power it should have, etc. Based on this, a drawing of the future device must be made or it must be found online.

In order to put together a coal boiler by hand, the following supplies and equipment are required:

  • fireclay bricks, sand, clay;
  • pipes with rectangular or round cross-section;
  • sheet steel at least 5 mm thick. Having a drawing, on specialized bases you can cut the steel into the necessary pieces;
  • metal corners;
  • doors for the firebox and for the ash collector;
  • grates, you can buy ready-made grates;
  • flap for the chimney;
  • stainless steel;
  • welding machine and electrodes for welding;
  • bolgar;
  • drill, drill bits.

Instructions for making with your own hands

Operating principle of a pyrolysis boiler

It should be considered when installing the DIY gadget. that the heat exchanger’s pipe count can be decreased thanks to the expanded afterburning chamber and the usage of a shelf inside. Hatches must be provided from the boiler’s top in order to clean the heat exchanger pipes. On the side, in the lower portion of the return, is a connection to the upper portion of the water supply.

The upper portion of the chimney, which is on the side, is welded. Utilize the pre-made drawing to create the housing blanks. An electric jigsaw or a bolt cutter can be used to cut out the holes for the heat exchanger pipes. The device’s metal components must all be welded together after that.

You can use a 76 cm diameter pipe for the heat exchanger’s pipes; just cut it into equal pieces and weld them to the unit’s two sides. The outer casing should then be welded in place and fastened to the inner portion using spacers.

Make incisions for the charging chamber, ash, and afterburning chamber door. To ensure a tighter fit, the stoking chamber door can be made with two handles. Use asbestos rope or vitrified clay cord to seal the direct draught damper’s doors and handles.

Bricks made of fireclay should be used for both the afterburning chamber and the gasification chamber’s bottom. Install a removable hatch so that the chimney glass can be cleaned. Installing an expansion tank, a fan, and connecting the heating system are the next steps.

Plan for connecting the boiler to the chimney

Connect an uninterruptible power source to the fan to ensure stable operation. The boiler drum needs to be primed and shielded from the elements with a thermal insulation screen and thermal insulation. This kind of device can run on wood, coal, or any other solid fuel.

Installation and safety requirements

It is advised that the following considerations be made during the installation process:

  • the boiler should be installed as low as possible in relation to the heating pipes;
  • the pipeline is fixed at a slight angle ;
  • the number of pipeline bends should be minimized;
  • The boiler must be installed in a separate fire-safe room;
  • the unit is installed on a concrete or brick floor, or on a metal sheet;
  • a thick steel sheet is placed in front of the firebox door;
  • the distance from the walls to the unit should be at least 20 cm;
  • careful thermal insulation of the chimney is required to avoid heat losses and the formation of acid condensate, which can corrode the inner surface of the chimney.

The efficiency of the boiler can be assessed while it is in use; if there is no carbon monoxide odor coming from the chimney, the device has a high index.

  • Device, principle of operation, hydraulic and electrical circuit diagram of the boiler.
  • Consumption of diesel fuel for diesel boilers: how much is needed for the season and how to change it.
  • Choosing the best waste oil boiler – review of models.

How to make a long-burning boiler on wood and coal with their own hands

Private home owners who choose to install a solid fuel heating boiler are mainly focused on three factors: the boiler’s thermal capacity, cost, and duration of combustion with a single load. These factors are correlated: the heat generator will cost more the more power it uses and the longer it runs. One way to cut costs in half is to build a long-burning boiler yourself or hire reputable, skilled craftsmen known as masters to handle the job. You can also get the blueprints and design here, and you can learn how to make a heater at home.

How to increase the duration of combustion of solid fuel

Many homeowners’ dream is to install a solid fuel boiler so they won’t need to run wood every four to six hours. Taking advantage of this, producers and retailers of heating apparatus prefix "duration of burning" to any heat generator—including pellet—that can function on its own for a maximum of seven days.

Classic boiler varieties featuring larger fuel chambers

Smoldering mode with restricted air supply typically justifies the length of the combustion process. However, here’s why burning coal and wood in this manner is inefficient:

  1. Wood and coal boilers reach their efficiency of 70-75% during maximum combustion. When smoldering, the efficiency of the unit is reduced to 40-50% (as in a conventional birzhuyka).
  2. Smoldering wood emits little heat energy. Who needs a "long-playing" heat generator, not heating the house to the fullest extent?
  3. Freshly cut wood of certain species (e.g. poplar, willow) and low-calorie fuel cannot be burned normally in smoldering mode.

Wood burns in a factory boiler with an expanded fuel box from top to bottom.

When all else is equal, the only factor affecting the length of the process in solid fuel boilers with long combustion are those with larger fuel chambers. The basic idea is that heat is released from a furnace for a longer period of time when there is more wood inside.

These are the types of household boilers that can run on one tab for up to 24 hours on coal and 8–12 hours on wood:

  • classic, with forced air supply;
  • operating on the principle of upper combustion (like Baltic "Stropuva").

These TT-boiler designs are fairly feasible to build at home with the right equipment and welding experience. Drawings of mine boilers using solid fuel and sawdust can be found even on the vast Internet, but these heaters are quite large and challenging to make, so they merit their own discussion.

Classic boiler of continuous combustion

This section features a homemade coal and wood heating unit that our skilled technician Vitaliy Dashko designed and built. The master has put together dozens of these heat generators with varying capacities, continuously refining the design. Boilers’ dependability and effectiveness have already been put to the test over time on a variety of objects. The following are the technical attributes of the unit’s model that is being presented:

  • power – 22-24 kW;
  • duration of combustion (on average) on wood – 10-12 hours, minimum – 8 hours;
  • the same, on coal – up to 1 day;
  • EFFICIENCY – 75-77%;
  • maximum working pressure in the heating system – 3 bar, nominal – 1 bar.5 Bar;
  • amount of water in the boiler tank – 50 liters;
  • product weight – 150 kg;
  • the size of the loading aperture (width x height) 360 x 250 mm;
  • total volume of the firebox – 112 liters, useful (for fuel loading) – 83 liters;
  • The depth of the firebox is 46 cm, the optimal length of the log is 40 cm.

As a point of reference. The master manufacturer produces long-burning boilers with varying capacities; the line consists of 16, 24, 36, and 130 kW units. When ordered from a master, the finished product costs approximately 450 u. е for 24 kW. You can speak with Vitaly directly about any queries you may have about the solid fuel boiler device and its manufacturer; his contact details are provided on the "Our Experts" page.

The drawing illustrates the apparatus and general measurements of the wood-fired long-burning boiler that you can assemble yourself:

It is possible to run the heater efficiently using both coal and wood fuel. It is not desirable to fill the fuel compartment to the brim, so the useful capacity is calculated up to the lower edge of the loading opening. The boiler operates in the following sequence:

  1. The doors are sealed after the solid fuel has been laid and ignited.
  2. The desired temperature of the heat carrier is set on the electronic control unit, it is recommended not lower than 50 ° C. Then the unit is switched on by pressing the corresponding button and the fan starts up.
  3. When heating up to the set temperature, the fan is switched off, the air access to the fuel compartment stops. TT-boiler is in standby mode, wood smolders very weakly and gives practically no heat.
  4. After the temperature in the boiler tank drops, the controller gives a command to start the fan and the combustion process in the furnace resumes.

To maximize combustion efficiency, the controller modifies the fan’s productivity at its discretion. This DIY boiler burns coal and wood in an intense mode; it does not have smoldering combustion. Instead, it operates in standby mode.

The boiler drawings in section: illustrate the internal structure of the unit.

The heating installation uses the traditional solid fuel combustion method, which transfers heat directly to the water jacket walls and the boiler tank’s bottom, or the vault. This tank contains a heat-tube heat exchanger that absorbs heat from flue gases. Through the grate, heated air from the duct is fed into the furnace from below. What guarantees the length of combustion is:

  1. Large volume of the firebox.
  2. Complete blocking of air access to the firebox in standby mode. After the fan is switched off, a gravity damper is activated, which closes the air duct and thus prevents the chimney draught from fanning the coals.

The following drawing illustrates how the heat exchanger and back are arranged:

Tools and materials for manufacturing

Low-carbon steel grades St 3, 10, and 20 are typically used on the blanks for the assembly of solid fuel boilers that burn for a long time. Heat generators made of St 20 are the best option and can last up to 15 years. Because steel with higher carbon content (such as St 35 and St 45) can fuse at high temperatures, a heat generator is not the best tool for welding.

Heat-resistant steel alloyed with molybdenum and chromium (e.g., 12XM, 12X1MF) can be used for the combustion chamber if you have the necessary welding experience and can afford to purchase more expensive metal. This article explains how to independently determine the steel grade with a sufficient approximation.

This is a table that lists the blanks that you will need to assemble a solid fuel boiler by hand:

Advice: Somewhere in the workshop, it is preferable to use guillotine shears to cut the blanks. By doing this, you can cut and deburr materials by hand much more quickly.

Furthermore, the following supplies will be needed:

  • angle equal-sided 50 x 4 mm for the manufacture of grates;
  • pipe DN50 – for the heat exchanger and connection pipes of the heating system;
  • pipe DN150 – on the chimney spigot;
  • 60 x 40 mm profile pipe for the air channel;
  • steel strip 20 x 3 mm;
  • basalt insulation with a density of 100 kg/m³ and a thickness of 2 cm;
  • smooth sheet metal 0.3-0.5 mm with polymer coloring;
  • ready-made handles for the doors;
  • cord, asbestos cardboard.

Among the equipment, a welding machine, a drill, and a bolgar are noteworthy. ANO-21 or MR-3S welding electrodes are utilized. The remainder are a typical assortment of tools and measuring devices found in every home.

Polish-made control unit and fan

Polish-made control unit, fan, and temperature sensor comprise the automatic set used in the TT-boiler (do not confuse it with the Chinese one, as they look the same). The fan is labeled DP-02, and the control unit is labeled KG Elektronik SP-05.

Assembly of the heating unit

The first step in the production of a long-burning boiler is welding on tack welds to assemble the fuel-box body made of 4 mm thick metal. As seen in the picture, everything begins at the bottom of the unit, to which the side walls, vault cover, and door openings are tacked:

The bottom sheet is made on both sides in accordance with the drawing and functions as the ash pan door’s bottom frame. The grate will rest inside the chamber on the angles’ welded shelves. Every joint on the assembled fuel box is carefully welded, and its tightness is verified.

Installing the 3 mm metal water jacket is the second stage. Since its side walls are only 2 cm thick, sections of steel strip must be welded to the fuel box’s body, allowing 20 mm of space between them. They have steel cladding sheets nailed to them.

Take note! The ash chamber is not cleaned by the water jacket, which begins at the grate level.

The so-called clips are arranged in a staggered pattern in the center. This steel circle was butt-welded to the furnace after passing through the boiler tank’s wall holes. As seen in the picture, the second end of the clip is welded around the hole.

The location of the water jacket’s bottom is depicted in the picture on the right.

A brief description of how to add more clips to the water jacket edges of a homemade solid fuel boiler. A 20 mm strip must be inserted from the end between the walls to a depth of 50 to 100 mm, and both sides must be welded.

Installing flame tubes in the boiler tank’s upper section is the third stage. To accomplish this, the pipes are inserted through holes that are cut in the front and back walls in accordance with the drawing. Both their ends and every joint in the water jacket are hermetically welded.

The flame pipes of heat exchangers are fan-shaped.

Making doors and grate grate is the fourth stage. To seal the door, weld a strip in two rows to the inside of the doors and place asbestos cord in between. The #5 angles used to make spike grates are welded with the outside corner pointing down. Thus, they act as diffusers for the air that enters the ash pan through the fan.

Install the flue pipe and air duct made of 60 x 40 mm pipe with a flange for mounting the fan at the fifth stage in the boiler tank cut fittings for connecting the supply and return piping. In the center of the rear wall, directly beneath the water jacket, is where the air duct enters the ash chamber.

Step six involves welding the door hinges and inserting pieces that are 2 cm wide to secure the long-burning boiler’s decorative lining.

Step seven. last. Insulation made of basalt is fixed with a cord and covers the boiler tank from the sides as well as the top. The doors are then installed after the painted metal sheets are fastened to the embedded components using self-tapping screws.

The body is well-insulated and able to tolerate high temperatures by the dense basalt fiber. You should not use glass wool.

Finally, the control unit is mounted on the boiler from above and the fan is fastened to the duct’s mating flange. The temperature sensor needs to be positioned beneath the basalt insulation on the unit’s back wall. Additionally, depending on your preferences, a long-burning boiler made at home can have a number of beneficial additions added to its design:

  • build into the boiler tank water heating circuit for DHW;
  • Provide a submersible thermometer sleeve in case of a power failure when the controller display goes out;
  • the same – for the installation of the safety group;
  • install an electric heating element that heats up the coolant after the wood burns out.

A brief explanation of how to circulate hot water in a solid fuel boiler so that it can be heated for domestic use. Ten meters of copper tubing with a diameter of 8 to 12 mm must be used, and the tubing must be bent into a spiral shape. The latter is led outside from the unit’s back side after being wound around the flame tubes inside the boiler tank. acquiring a long-burning, two-circuit boiler.

Note: Experience with using these heat generators has demonstrated that homeowners who wish to heat their homes at night must install an electric heater. In other situations, there is enough firewood to last through the night without having to rush to the boiler room.

It is preferable to immediately remove the film from the painted metal and coat the doors with enamel that can withstand heat.

Any time during the process, the legs can be fastened to the unit by choosing the right rolled metal sections. See the master, the person who invented the heating unit, in the author’s video for more information and secrets about the TT-boiler assembly:

Boiler with upper fuel combustion

These heat generators are known by two names in the former Soviet Union:

  1. Baltic units of the firm "Stropuva" (Stropuva) and their derivatives from other manufacturers.
  2. Wood stoves of the "Bubafonya" type.

The Bubafonya stove has become very popular as a heater for dachas, garages, and other buildings with low standards for the product’s aesthetics; it is unknown which of the heaters initially appeared. Nothing can be said about upper combustion boilers, despite the fact that many of them mistakenly believe that they are the only type of solid fuel heat generators capable of continuous combustion. Actually, their one and only advantage remains the same: a sizable fuel box.

These boilers work on the basis of the combustion of fuel that is compressed from top to bottom by a weight. Furthermore, a telescopic tube attached to the load allows air to be supplied to the combustion zone from above. The figure depicts the unit’s operating scheme:

The boiler scheme originally came from

The feedback from owners on forums indicates that Stropuva boilers had numerous operational flaws.

  1. It is not possible to add logs to the furnace until the previous one is burnt out. Physically it is possible, but then the principle of top combustion will be violated, the flame will cover all layers of fuel.
  2. When working on fresh sawdust and other small debris, fuel residue "hangs" on the walls.
  3. The efficiency of the TT-boiler is not too high, because there is no heat exchanger in it. Because of the air heating chamber and the large fuel box, there is no room for the heat exchanger.

There aren’t any other significant flaws in the heat generator, and you can choose to fix certain issues with the homemade version. For instance, setting up an ash chamber by arranging the grates and bottom. By adding a door between the loading and ash doorways, it is also feasible to eliminate the drawback of additional loading. Vladimir Sukhorukov, one of our experts, has this idea for updating the upper combustion boiler. In his video, he discusses it as follows:

Preparation of materials

Although the round body presents certain manufacturing challenges, a square body would also not work because the fuel would "hang" in the corners. It is preferable to remove this component from the Bubafonya stove because there is an issue with the assembly of the telescopic pipe with a load. An illustration of a long-burning boiler that is about the same size as the traditional model is as follows:

Prior to building the boiler, we choose the materials based on the drawing:

  • DN 400 pipe with a 5 mm wall – to the fuel box;
  • the same, DN 50 – for air supply and water spigots;
  • same, DN 100 – for the chimney;
  • billet from a 10 mm thick sheet of round shape with a diameter of 38 cm;
  • 40 x 4 mm strip – for air distributors;
  • 16-20 mm diameter reinforcement of periodic profile – on the grates;
  • Basalt wool with a thickness of 3 cm and density of 100 kg/m³;
  • thin sheet metal with polymer coating.

The water jacket’s material selection is dependent on how it is installed, as a do-it-yourself craftsman is unlikely to have rollers on hand that can give the metal a 3 mm cylinder shape in thickness. Variants of this type (illustrated on the scheme below):

  1. Scheme 1. Take a thin-walled pipe of a larger diameter, although it is not easy to find one, and the usual one will weigh the boiler heavily.
  2. Scheme 2. Bend two sheets of metal in 2 places at an angle of 60° and then weld the two halves together. You will need a press – sheet bender.
  3. Scheme 2. To weld the jacket from 6 sheets – segments on clips.
  4. Scheme 3. Weld a rectangular box, which will increase the volume of the boiler tank.

In addition, 3 mm sheet metal is needed to frame the doors, cover the bottom, and install an air damper.

Manufacturing of the heat generator

Cutting out holes and blanks in the pipe wall in accordance with the dimensions shown in the drawing is the first step in the production process. Canopies and pre-purchased handles are attached to the parts that have been cut out to create doors. As seen in the picture, the grate is welded to the armature:

The upper combustion boiler’s assembly algorithm generally looks something like this:

  1. Cut a hole in the round billet for the load, insert a pipe into it and weld it.
  2. Weld 6 curved strips to the lower part of the weight, which will serve as air distributors.
  3. Attach the bottom to the furnace and install the grates inside it.
  4. Having cut a hole in the center of the cover for the air pipe, attach it to the fuel box. Before this, the pipe with a weight must be put in place.
  5. Weld the flue pipe.
  6. Assemble the water jacket according to the chosen scheme, hermetically weld all the joints.
  7. Make taps for the coolant spigots.
  8. Insulate and cover the boiler, install the doors.
  9. Place a damper on top of the air pipe.

It takes six strips to distribute air evenly.

Because the fan cannot be connected to the moving pipe, installing automation and a supercharger on an upper combustion boiler is challenging. A flexible hose must be made, and the temperature sensor must have a submerged sleeve. Since the combustion zone in these heaters is continuously displaced, it is not possible to place it beneath the insulation.

Of course, testing the boiler outside is preferable.

Installing a coal-fired boiler is an important consideration when it comes to heating and insulating your home. Building one yourself can be a rewarding project, both financially and environmentally, even though it may seem daunting. You can effectively heat your house and possibly lessen your dependency on other energy sources by utilizing the power of coal. But it’s imperative that you approach this project cautiously, paying close attention to safety, making sure that adequate ventilation is provided, and following local laws. A do-it-yourself coal-fired boiler can contribute to a warm and sustainable living space in your home with proper planning and installation.


Both designs of solid-fuel boilers of long combustion, made with their own hands, have the right to life and their supporters. In addition to the duration of work with 1 load, they have another common feature: to weld the unit can not be any person and the assembly process is not as simple as it may seem. Of course, an enthusiast will eventually get the job done, but there are not many people of this stock. Hence the conclusion: if you see that you can not overpower the independent assembly or you do not have time for this, turn to the masters. This way, you"ll save up to 50% of the money compared to buying a factory-made TT boiler.

How to assemble a solid fuel boiler’s straps How to flush the heat exchanger in a gas boiler to clean it How can I properly connect a hot water boiler to a comb and select one for a warm floor?

Boilers and burners: An easy DIY method for creating a long-burning boiler using coal and wood

Solid fuel boiler with their own hands: drawings, schemes and options

What are the primary requirements for building a solid fuel boiler by hand: blueprints, designs, the availability of suitable materials, or technical know-how? All of this is obviously required, but the first step is to determine precisely what kind of boiler or what design you can create. This article will discuss various metal structures, along with their schematics and drawings. We hope that some of the options we’ve thought of will be helpful to you, or that you’ll use them as inspiration to create a custom design that meets your needs as closely as possible.

Materials Needed Step-by-Step Instructions
Steel Barrel, Grate, Chimney Pipe, Door Hinges, Handle, Fire Bricks, Insulating Material 1. Prepare the barrel by cutting holes for the door, chimney, and air vents. 2. Install the grate at the bottom for the coal to sit on. 3. Attach the door hinges and handle. 4. Line the inside with fire bricks for heat retention. 5. Insulate the exterior to prevent heat loss.

Consider the benefits and drawbacks before installing a coal-fired boiler in your house. The advantages of coal include its low cost in comparison to other fuels and the high heat output of coal-fired boilers. Also, it can be a practical choice if coal is easily accessible.

But there are a lot of disadvantages to burning coal for fuel. When coal is burned, dangerous pollutants are released into the atmosphere, which can have a negative impact on the environment and human health. Furthermore, burning coal releases a lot of carbon dioxide, one of the greenhouse gases that causes climate change.

Constructing a coal-fired boiler on your own demands considerable thought and experience. Although the initial investment may be lower, it’s important to make sure the boiler complies with safety standards and laws. Inadequately built boilers can present significant risks, such as fire and carbon monoxide leaks.

Investigate other heating options before deciding on a coal-fired boiler. Alternatives to coal that are more sustainable and clean include solar or geothermal heating systems. Enhancing insulation and making the most of your house’s heating system can also help you use less energy and spend less on heating.

In conclusion, there are serious safety and environmental risks associated with coal-fired boilers, despite the fact that they may have some financial and efficiency benefits. Take into account all of the possible hazards and look into alternative heating options that put environmental responsibility and sustainability first before choosing to install a coal-fired boiler.

Video on the topic

Simple heating boiler with his own hands for a house in 100 square meters. м. (simple stove)

Automatic feeding of coal into the boiler with their own hands

coal crusher for automatic boiler.

Solid fuel boiler with their own hands finite


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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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