Chimneys: types, equipment and operation, SNiPs

Chimneys are essential to the safe and effective operation of our heating systems when it comes to heating our homes. In addition to improving the efficiency of our heating appliances, a well-designed chimney also adds to the general safety and comfort of our living areas. We’ll examine the many kinds of chimneys, the tools used, and the fundamental requirements stated in the Building Codes (SNiPs) that control their installation and design in this article.

While selecting the best option for their homes, homeowners can make more informed decisions if they are aware of the various types of chimneys that are available. Every type of chimney, from the classic masonry ones to the contemporary prefabricated ones, has its own special qualities, benefits, and drawbacks. We’ll examine the characteristics of each kind and talk about how well they work with different heating systems and architectural designs.

For a chimney to operate safely and properly, the correct parts must be installed. Every component, including caps, spark arrestors, dampers, and flue liners, has a distinct function in maintaining effective venting and averting dangers like carbon monoxide leaks and chimney fires. We will walk you through the necessary equipment to take into account when building or renovating a chimney.

Finally, for chimneys to function safely and effectively, compliance with the guidelines and standards specified in the Building Codes (SNiPs) is essential. These standards offer recommendations for chimney construction, design, and upkeep to guarantee they fulfill the essential performance and safety requirements. We will go over the essential SNiPs requirements that contractors and homeowners need to know in order to stay in compliance and make sure their chimney systems last a long time.

Everyone interested in efficiently heating and insulating their home must have a basic understanding of chimneys. There are many different kinds of chimneys, and each type is appropriate for a particular heating system and fuel (wood, gas, or oil). Safe operation is ensured by appropriate equipment, such as flues and caps, which direct smoke and gases out of the house while keeping animals and debris out. Chimneys are built and maintained to meet safety and efficiency requirements when the standards specified in SNiPs (Building Codes and Regulations) are followed. A better informed decision for a safer and warmer home can be made by homeowners by being aware of the fundamentals of chimney types, equipment, and operation.

Chimneys: types, features

Along with stoves, heating boilers, and fireplaces, chimneys are engineering systems. It is normal for the system’s inlet and outlet pressures to differ from one another. Chimneys are categorized in various ways.

Chimneys are classified according to the material used for manufacturing:

  • brick;
  • metal;
  • ceramic;
  • asbestos;
  • polymeric.

The initial construction type takes the shape of a straight pipe. This kind of chimney has the benefit of having a strong draft; however, it also has a significant heat loss. More channels are included in complex designs. The room’s walls warm up as a result of the smoke traveling through them, acting as an extra heat source.

Chimneys built of brick are the traditional type. Its large heat capacity is the primary benefit among its many. These chimneys are the strongest mechanically, longest-lasting, and safest to use, but they are only compatible with specific models of contemporary stoves, fireplaces, and heating boilers. They call for the use of more basic, movable chimneys.

Steel single-circuit chimneys

Stainless steel pipes are the shape of the designs. Certain single-circuit chimneys used to heat fireplaces and boilers are made of galvanized iron. This kind of flue channel has walls that begin to thicken at 0.6 mm. This is insufficient to guarantee the structure will last a long time. It frequently burns through. These chimneys rarely last longer than ten years.

Summer house owners prefer steel and galvanized single-circuit chimneys in spite of these drawbacks.

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The pipes don’t gather soot because of their smooth inner surface. Such buildings don’t need a foundation.

One of the main drawbacks of single-circuit chimneys made of steel or galvanized steel is:

  • lack of insulation;
  • poor heat capacity;
  • Difficulties in jointing with roofing material.

Special gaskets are installed between the chimney and the roof when installing a straight chimney. These kinds of structures can be led through the walls.

Steel two-circuit chimneys

Two walls are the primary distinction from single-circuit designs. An insulating layer resistant to heat is placed in between them. It is possible to join the structures closely to the roof. These kinds of chimneys are typically utilized for side exit devices.

Ceramic chimneys

The designs include thermal insulation material and a ceramic pipe. A cellular concrete tube is a ceramic chimney shell. The latter has a square cross-section most of the time.

Among the design’s benefits are:

  • ease of installation;
  • high degree of fire resistance of the structure;
  • long service life;
  • smooth inner surface.

Depending on the type of constructor, the chimney is assembled. The pipes’ exterior walls are hardly heated at all. There is very little soot accumulation inside the chimney. The primary drawback of ceramic pipes is their expensive price.

Asbestos chimneys

Single-wall constructions are very resistant to heat. The chimney is a round-sectioned, straight pipe with a rough interior surface. installable on fireplaces and stoves with an upper smoke outlet channel.

A few benefits of chimneys made of asbestos are:

  • low cost;
  • low weight;
  • fire resistance.

Chimneys made of asbestos have numerous drawbacks in spite of their many benefits. The primary drawback is the lack of mechanical strength. These kinds of pipes can accumulate condensate. The shape of the chimney can only be vertical and straight. It frequently needs to be soot-free.

Polymer chimneys

The least expensive construction, which lacks dependability. can serve as a stopgap measure. Fit only for gas boiler connections. Polymer chimneys nevertheless have benefits of their own.

Among the benefits are:

  • low cost;
  • smooth inner surface;

Old brick chimneys are frequently repaired with polymer chimneys. They are merely integrated into the current structure.

The best models of chimneys

Ferrum kit 115 mm, 0,8 mm

Assign Ferrum 115 mm by 0.8%

All kinds of fireplaces can be installed with the chimney. Its inlet diameter is ideal and it has a direct connection. The construction’s welding seams are hermetically sealed, preventing condensate from getting into the flue duct. Steel that has been galvanized forms the chimney’s exterior shell. Mineral wool is placed between it and the main structure’s walls to prevent fire damage to the roof.


  • all seams of the product are made by laser welding;
  • The kit includes everything you need to install the structure;
  • Increased fire safety;
  • There is a header protecting the chimney from precipitation and leaves getting into it.


  • small wall thickness of the structure;
  • high cost.

Set Dymok 115 mm, 0,5 mm

Smoke 0.5mm and 115mm kits.

Option for a budget. The construction’s internal pipes are wrapped in deformation-resistant Rocwool basalt wool. Steel that has been galvanized makes up the exterior. TIG technology is used to create the welds.


  • affordable cost;
  • has a header and an adapter from a single-circuit to a two-circuit design;
  • high quality AISI steel used in the production of the product.


  • the kit does not include insulation material for the joints of the structure with the roof;
  • there is only one attachment to vertical structures;
  • Not recommended for installation on wood burning stoves and fireplaces.

Set Ferrum 200, 0.8 mm

Set of 200 Ferrum, 0.8 mm

Pipes with large throughput diameters can be installed in office buildings as well as private residences. Stainless steel is used to make the chimney. There is a lot of strength in the construction.

Additional benefits consist of:

  • sealed seams;
  • Good insulation;
  • easy installation;
  • high outreach;
  • there are headings on the inner and outer pipe.

Principal drawback:

  • High cost.

Phoenix 120 mm, 0.1 mm

120 mm, 0.1 mm Phoenix

These kinds of chimneys are ideal for sauna stoves. They are attached to the heat units’ rear wall. The draught from the chimneys is good. It enables the stove to be melted to the greatest temperature. There is a header and a taper on the upper portion of the structure.


  • good insulation;
  • high performance;
  • Availability of a stand for side venting;
  • strong butt joints.

Principal drawback:

  • high cost.

Set Vulkan 120 mm, 0,5 mm

Kit for Vulkan, 120 mm, 0.5 mm

There is stainless steel used in the construction. It is inserted through a roof hole in a vertical manner. Such chimneys are aesthetically pleasing. They are perfect for homes in the country.


  • Availability of insulated umbrella and condensate collector;
  • can be installed on copper furnace equipment;
  • reliability and durability.

Principal drawback:

  • high cost.


Various normative documents govern the construction of chimneys, and compliance with their requirements is mandatory. Codes and regulations for buildings are among them. They decide on the process for setting up and running the smoke exhaust system.

Chimney installation requirements are outlined in SNiP 2.04.05-91 and DBN B.2,5-20-2001. SNiP 41-01-2003 specifies the rules of operation and fire safety requirements for chimneys. One stove, one chimney is the fundamental guideline for smoke exhaust ducts. It needs to generate enough draught to release all of the flue gas volume.

The chimney’s diameter cannot be less than the stove unit or fireplace’s outlet pipe’s cross-sectional size. Installing metal chimneys with walls thinner than 0.5 mm is strictly prohibited. Products of this type need to be more resistant to heat and corrosion. There can be no more than three turns in a chimney duct.

Chimneys should not be placed close to combustible or thermally unstable surfaces. The chimney needs to be inspected at least twice during the heating season and cleaned as soon as it becomes dirty.


It is vital to protect walls as well as attic floors and rafters from excessive heating when installing chimneys in wooden homes. They need protective screens installed on surfaces that are close to them. Metal sheets can be used as long as they are situated at least 55 cm away from the chimney. Only ceramics are used at distances greater than 15 cm.

If the chimney has any horizontal sections, they should be no longer than one meter in order to prevent weakening the draught.

Sealants that withstand high temperatures should be applied to the joints where the chimney meets the walls or roof. It needs to run at a minimum of 1000 degrees Celsius.

People’s lives and health are dependent on chimneys being built correctly. It is therefore preferable to leave their installation and calculation to the professionals.

Topic Information
Types of Chimneys There are different types of chimneys, including masonry, metal, and prefabricated chimneys. Each type has its own advantages and suitability for specific heating systems.
Equipment and Operation Chimneys require regular maintenance to ensure they operate efficiently. This includes cleaning to remove soot and debris, checking for any blockages, and ensuring proper ventilation for safe operation.
SNiPs (Safety Norms and Rules) SNiPs provide guidelines for the construction and installation of chimneys to ensure they meet safety standards. These norms cover aspects like material quality, insulation, and clearance distances to prevent fire hazards and ensure proper functioning.

Comprehending the distinct varieties of chimneys is imperative for effectively heating and insulating your residence. Every type of chimney, whether made of metal, masonry, or prefabricated materials, has advantages and special qualities. The heating efficiency of your house can be considerably increased while maintaining safety with a well-chosen chimney.

Purchasing high-quality components and having them professionally installed are essential when it comes to equipment. Every part, from chimney caps to flue liners, is essential to the chimney’s functionality. Frequent inspections and maintenance are also necessary to make sure everything is operating as it should and to spot any possible problems early on.

When installing and using chimneys, SNiPs (Construction Norms and Regulations) must be followed. The purpose of these rules is to guarantee chimneys’ longevity, efficiency, and safety. Adherence to SNiPs safeguards not only your house and family but also your chimney’s long-term optimal performance.

In summary, chimneys provide both practicality and visual appeal, making them an essential component of a house’s heating system. You can have a warm and comfortable house without sacrificing efficiency or safety by being aware of the different kinds, making quality equipment purchases, and adhering to SNiPs recommendations.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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