Central heating classification of systems and their installation

An dependable heating system is crucial for maintaining a comfortable and warm atmosphere in our homes. The efficiency and comfort of your home can be greatly improved by knowing the various types of central heating systems and how they are installed, whether you’re looking to stay warm during the harsh winters or just want to be comfortable all year round. Let’s examine the different types of systems that are available and delve into the world of central heating.

For many homes, central heating systems are the foundation of year-round indoor comfort, offering warmth and a comfortable atmosphere. These systems function by using a system of pipes, radiators, or vents to disperse heat from a central source throughout the house. It’s critical for homeowners to comprehend how these systems are classified if they want to choose their heating solutions wisely.

The fuel type that central heating systems run on is one common way to categorize them. Conventional systems typically rely on propane, oil, or natural gas-fueled boilers to provide heat. These boilers heat the water, which is then distributed via pipes to underfloor heating systems or radiators, warming the area around them. Modern systems, on the other hand, might make use of biomass boilers or electric heat pumps, which provide low-carbon, environmentally beneficial options.

The way that heat is distributed throughout the house is another criterion for classification. Heat is released into the air through radiators in each room via pipes carrying heated water from the boiler. This type of system is known as a radiator-based system. On the other hand, a forced-air system uses ducting to supply heated air from a furnace to every room in the house. Every strategy has benefits, and the selection of one can be influenced by variables like budget, effectiveness, and individual taste.

A central heating system’s longevity and performance are greatly influenced by its installation. An optimal installation guarantees minimal maintenance needs, optimal energy consumption, and effective operation. To guarantee safety and adherence to building codes, professional installation by trained technicians is crucial, regardless of whether you’re installing a system in a newly constructed home or retrofitting an old one.

  1. Installation
  2. Classification of centralized heating systems
  3. According to the heat consumption regime
  4. By type of coolant used
  5. By the method of connecting the heating system to the heat supply
  6. By the method of joining the heat supply system of hot water supply
  7. Purpose and principle of operation of the elevator node
  8. Central heating of apartment buildings
  9. How they drown in Russia
  10. General information about central heating
  11. Features of functioning
  12. The pros and cons of the centralized scheme
  13. Design features of the heating scheme
  14. How to conduct central heating to a private house
  15. The principle of operation of the central heating
  16. The pluses of central heating
  17. Kinds
  18. Types of radiators for heating apartment buildings
  19. Peculiarities
  20. TOP-5 economically developed countries where there is no central heating 22 photos
  21. Adviсe
  22. Pipping pipeline
  23. One -pipe connection
  24. Two -pipe connection
  25. SUMP
  26. Document package to turn off the central heating.
  27. Features of heat supply of multi -storey buildings
  28. What to do to the owners of country houses
  29. Centralized heating is simultaneously pros and cons of
  30. How to switch to autonomous heat supply
  31. Centralized systems
  32. Independent and dependent system
  33. Single -circuit system
  34. Double -circuit scheme
  35. One -pipe heating system
  36. Heat supply of a multi -storey building
  37. Autonomous heating of a multi -storey building
  38. Centralized heating of a multi -storey building
  39. Video on the topic
  40. Types of heating systems. How to figure it out and choose with ease.
  41. Two -pipe heating system. The loop of the Tichelman
  42. How does it work. Heat supply system
  43. Heating systems principle of operation


The quality of the heating system is primarily determined by the connection scheme. Furthermore, you don’t need to pay attention to what the sellers have to say, what you’ve done in the past, or what your neighbors have suggested. All such hints may be false, and the only person qualified to determine whether they are true or not is the specialist. For any wall-mounted heating device, the general connection principles are the same. The wall has brackets installed and is meticulously marked.

Next, make sure everything is arranged correctly. Only then, and never in any other order, connect the heating device to the feed pipe and the return pipe.

It’s critical to keep in mind that the connection method, in addition to the rated thermal power and value, determines the system’s actual characteristics. Selecting the right kind of radiator and strategically placing the apartment’s occupants is preferable to completely blocking it off with a screen from the outside.

As a result, heating will be much less effective.

Other essential guidelines are:

  • setting all the batteries in the same room at the same level;
  • The location of the convector ribs is strictly vertically;
  • the coincidence of the centers of radiators and windows of windows at the window sill (with a shift of not more than 20 mm to the side);
  • the placement of the screen reflecting on the capital wall behind the heater;
  • approaching the radiator of the wall to the windowsill and half a maximum of 50 mm.

A single-pipe system and a two-pipe system are not interchangeable; the distinction lies in whether or not water flow and discharge are accomplished through a single pipe. Radiator connections can be made from the side, below, or diagonally in both situations.

Additionally, it is worthwhile to consider the so-called collector (radial) options. Every radiator in the "Luch" has a separate eyeliner, which necessitates direct pipe installation and a lot of them.

However, these shapes are excellent if a warm floor is to be used in addition to battery heating.

One can install central heating in a private home as well as an apartment. Its installation will have unique qualities there. Using plate heat exchangers is advised. Such a device functions, providing water systems while simultaneously identifying and combining heterogeneous heating. The plates will be heated and then removed by the centrally supplied coolant that travels through a designated channel.

Autonomous coolant rides to the opposite side to the plates. As a result, it heats up without saturated with harmful substances that are used in the preparation of water at the TPP. Therefore, such a liquid can be safely used not only for heating, but also for water supply. To make life in the house even more comfortable, you can, in addition to heating devices, put a complex of weather -dependent automation. But in fact, not everything is so simple. A lead fluctuations in street air temperature, in theory, allows you to have a stable microclimate in the dwelling. But sometimes there are situations when it is more inconvenient. So, in houses with high heat capacity and excellent insulation, heat accumulation is fully carried out by walls.

As of yet, automatic complexes lack efficient algorithms to adjust to such a scenario. Thus, if at all possible, switching modes by hand is far more efficient.

Classification of centralized heating systems

They are able to rank them based on certain classification features because of the diversity of central heating organization schemes that are currently in use.

According to the heat consumption regime

  • seasonal, heat provision is required only in the cold season;
  • year -round, in need of constant heat supply.

By type of coolant used

  • Water – This is the most common heating option used to heat an apartment building; Such systems are easy to operate, allow you to transport the coolant over long distances without worsening quality indicators and adjust the temperature at the centralized level, and are also characterized by good sanitary-hygienic qualities.
  • Air – These systems allow not only heating, but also the ventilation of buildings; However, due to the high cost, such a scheme does not find wide application;

Figure 2: Building air heating and ventilation

  • steam – are considered the most economical, t.To. For heating the house, small diameter pipes are used, and hydrostatic pressure in the system is not enough, which facilitates its operation. But such a heat supply scheme is recommended for those objects that, in addition to heat, requires water vapor (mainly industrial enterprises).

By the method of connecting the heating system to the heat supply

  • Independent, in which the coolant circulating along the heating networks (water or steam) heats the coolant (water) supplied to the heating system in the heat exchanger;

Diagram 3: Self-contained central heating system

  • dependent, in which the coolant heated in the heat generator is supplied directly to the heat consumers through the networks (see. picture 1).

By the method of joining the heat supply system of hot water supply

  • Open, Hot water is taken directly from the heating system;

  • Closed, In such systems, the water fence is provided from the general water supply, and its heating is carried out in the network heat exchanger of the central.

Figure 5: A central heating system that is closed

Purpose and principle of operation of the elevator node

As mentioned earlier, a multi-story building’s heating system heats its water to 130 degrees. However, regardless of the number of stories, this temperature does not require consumers, and heating the batteries to such a value is completely useless. In this instance, the nine-story building’s heating system will be identical to any other. Everything is very clearly explained: in multi-story buildings, the heating supply terminates at an elevator node, a device that reverses its outline. What does this node mean, and what are the functions that it serves?

The coolant warmed up to high temperature enters the elevator node. which, according to the principle of its action, is similar to an injector-submarine. It is after this process that the liquid carries out heat transfer. Leaving the elevator nozzle, the coolant under high pressure goes through the reverse highway. In addition, through the same channel, the liquid enters the recirculation into the heating system. All these processes together allow you to mix the coolant, leading it to the optimum temperature, which is enough to heat all the apartments. The use of an elevator node in the scheme allows you to ensure the highest quality heating in high -rise buildings, regardless of the number of storeys.

Central heating of apartment buildings

The trunk pipelines indicate that the heating unit of an apartment building receives coolant from the central boiler room, which is then distributed throughout the apartments. In this instance, additional hot water supply adjustment is generated on-site at the heat station, where circular pumps are employed. We refer to this process of providing the coolant to the end user as independent (see "Centralized heating: the pros and cons" for more information).

Furthermore, apartment buildings employ dependent heating systems. In this instance, the coolant is delivered straight from the thermal power plant to the apartment batteries, requiring no further distribution. Regardless of whether the water is supplied directly to customers or through the distribution point, the temperature of the water is located in this instance.

In the latter version, coolant is supplied separately for hot water supply and radiator heating after entering the camshaft through a thermal power station or central boiler room. Open systems lack this kind of separation, allowing residents’ heated water needs to be met from the main pipe. As a result, customers are left without hot water outside of the heating season, which leads to a high volume of utility complaints. Also see "The battery’s heat meter."

How they drown in Russia

Thermal power station

In our nation, the production of electricity and heat are closely linked. In actuality, the station’s whole electrical output produces heat in addition to hydropower. The operation of a thermal power center (CHP) can be used as an example to illustrate a simplified heat generation scheme. Burned fuel releases steam into the air, which powers turbines to produce electricity. The steam is then assembled to heat the central heating system’s coolant. The heat supply system indicates that it is aimed at customers.

Heat centers claim that heated coolant seeps into city apartment batteries. He also heats water on the central or individual heating points (CTP and ITP) using heat exchangers. After cooling down in the batteries, the water is brought back to the station where it is used in the boilers, produces steam, turns a turbine to generate electricity, and warms the coolant once more.

Large Russian cities typically have a connected heat supply system that functions as a single network. It consists of a network of small thermal boiler houses that insure against accidents or heat remote areas in addition to thermal power plants.

Kirill Lushin

Superintendent of the MGSU’s Institute of Engineering and Ecological Construction and Mechanization (IIESM)

Due to the characteristics of the climate in Russia, centralized heat supply is the best option. This is not an ideological solution, but rather forced: nowhere in the world there is no such dense resettlement of people in the harsh northern latitudes as we have. Analogues of Moscow – a giant city in such a cold climate – there is no in the world. The decentralized heat supply of Russia would be much more expensive, and the tariffs for it were likely to be higher, because we need much more heat than even Scandinavia or Canada. At the same time, there are other examples of the use of central heating systems in the world: the Danes, in some regions of Asia, but again, because of the climate there, it is not very in demand.

Such a system’s primary drawbacks are its rigidity and lack of alternatives. There is no alternative for city dwellers to stay warm, and the city heating network functions as a monopolist in this regard. Any monopoly is inherently cruel, even though the government has placed restrictions on its tariffs. However, this is an economic issue; technically speaking, I believe that Moscow’s central heating system, for instance, has been constructed extremely well.

Accidents like the one that occurred the other day are primarily caused by faults in the device and system’s operation. The reality is that he is frequently circulating too much heated coolant due to its savings, and frequent temperature changes cause the pipeline to deteriorate more quickly. However, the current heating system performs admirably. In an emergency, the emergency site is sealed off, and the cut-off area’s heat is supplied by backup heating systems (which was the case last week). This is sufficient to stop all of the injured area’s heating systems and the residents in it at the same time.

It is important to note that the current laws in Russia severely restrict decentralized heat supply in areas where there is a central. For instance, many homes with boiler houses still have their own boilers connected to the central heat supply system, and they only use their own boilers when necessary (for example, when disconnecting the hot water proactively or in the event of an accident). However, even if the homeowner is successful in producing all of the heat on his own, this will only result in the replacement of one monopolist with another—the gas or electricity supplier that provides the heat.

Images: 1 – Caifas – Stock.Adobe.Com, 2 – Stock.Adobe.Com, Cover – Stockphotovideo – Stock.Adobe.COM

General information about central heating

Features of functioning

Let’s first examine the basic moments that, in accordance with the scheme outlined here, determine the work of the heat supply.

Diagrammatic representation of the system

  • With centralized heating of apartments or private houses (yes, such options are also sometimes realized) heat is generated not in the room in which it is consumed.
  • The place of production of thermal energy is a thermal power plant or a district boiler room, from which the heated coolant through pipelines enters the apartments of Consumer Consumer.

Take note! The district boiler room has an average radius of roughly three kilometers. The amount of heat lost when hot water is transported through pipes determines this distance. Improved pipe isolation must be used in order to extend the distance between the boiler rooms.

  • Heat supply systems are water and steam, respectively, steam or hot water boilers are installed in the boiler rooms. The heating of the boilers is carried out by burning fuel – gas, fuel oil, stone coal, wood waste, etc.D.
  • After the coolant (water or steam) reaches the required temperature, it enters the pipeline system, by which it is transferred to heating radiators in consumer apartments. The radiators are cooling water, after which it returns to the opposite contour to the boiler room.

Modern boiler room apparatus

The chemical treatment process is also supported by thermal power plants and boiler rooms. The coolant’s dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide are eliminated, and the water’s hardness is also decreased. This is done to lessen the amount of scrap that forms inside pipelines and to lessen the rate at which corrosion processes occur.

The pros and cons of the centralized scheme

A centralized heating scheme has several very objective advantages, despite the fact that it is viewed as ineffective by many (which we will discuss below).

  • Firstly, the cost of obtaining thermal energy on a large scale will be lower than with individual heating.
    At the same time, you will not need to purchase heat -generating equipment, mount it with your own hands or with the involvement of masters, perform configuration, etc.D.

An image of a boiler

Be aware that one of the things impeding the growth of personal heating is the high cost of heating equipment.

  • Secondly, installations for central heating can operate on relatively cheap fuel, which additionally increases the economic effect of their use.
  • The boiler rooms use a fairly reliable heating equipment, which quite often allows you to use fuel of different types. This increases the level of failure tolerance of the system.
  • Since heat -generating enterprises are at a distance from a heated object, residential apartments are not contaminated with fuel combustion products.

Nevertheless, there are some fairly serious drawbacks in addition to these benefits:

  • Central heating is characterized by impressive volumes of heat loss both in the production of heat and when transferring it to the consumption point. During the passage of a multi -kilometer pipeline, the water manages to cool, therefore, to maintain a comfortable temperature in the apartment, it is required to spend much more fuel than in the case of autonomous heating.
  • It is almost impossible to control the temperature in the room: all adjustments are carried out in the boiler room itself. So that the situation with the pelopus and the opposite can arise, when, with an acceptable external temperature, they heat up too much.

Don’t forget about money matters either. Because many people prefer to determine when they need to heat their home and how much they are willing to pay on their own, it is very difficult to predict the dynamics of heating tariffs in our nation.

Design features of the heating scheme

There are various valves in the heating chain that is located behind the elevator node. Since they enable the regulation of heating in individual entrances or throughout the entire house, their importance cannot be overstated. When this is necessary, heat supply company personnel typically manually adjust the valves.

Additional components, like collectors, heat meters for batteries, and other equipment, are frequently utilized in modern buildings. Almost all high-rise building heating systems have been automated recently in an effort to reduce human intervention in the building’s design (see "Minor -dependent automation of heating systems – about automation and controllers for boilers with examples"). With the help of all the information provided, you can improve performance, boost efficiency, and distribute thermal energy more fairly throughout each apartment.

How to conduct central heating to a private house

The key to a private home’s wellbeing is proper central heating installation.

In central heating, thermal energy is produced independently of the average consumer by the main boiler room, such as thermal electric central. Heat is carried by heat networks, and it is consumed by heating appliances inside your home.

How is central heating installed?

Assessing whether installing central heating is economically feasible should be done first. The distance between your home and the central heating system’s insert point is the fundamental criterion. You must get in touch with the heating networks to obtain such information. You can choose between installing central heating in your private home, which is considerably more complicated technically, or individual heating based on the pertinent calculations.

In the event that central heating is chosen, the following steps will take place:

  1. Obtaining permission of local (municipal) bodies for connection to the central heating system;
  2. Obtaining technical conditions from a heat supply organization;
  3. Development and approval of the draft work;
  4. Completion of work in accordance with the project, conclusion of an agreement with a heat supply organization and receiving the necessary documents.

Naturally, a typical private homeowner is unable to perform this amount of work. As a result, the issue of the contractor’s competence comes up. It is in this context that you should address several nuances that consistently present challenges.

The first challenge that arises in this situation is "paper" work: securing necessary permits, work approvals, and technical conditions. It is advisable to give preference to contracting organizations whose list of services includes this stage’s implementation when selecting a contractor. Naturally, this can be completed on one’s own, but it won’t be simple for someone with no background in this field to comprehend such matters. Elezar LLC is responsible for processing technical conditions upon receipt, obtaining and processing permits and approvals, and handling paperwork related to completed objects. Elezar LLC has built its structures with tolerances.

Project compilation is a particularly important issue. If the installation was carried out correctly, but the project includes certain flaws – heating cannot be installed. For this reason, only those contractors who have a positive experience in this work, that is, those who do the work efficiently, observing all the conditions and deadlines, should be addressed only. Elezar LLC has more than 10 years of experience in this industry. The total number of executed projects exceeds 1000 – both with organizations and individuals. The terms of connection and input into the final operation of the object are determined initially and strictly observed. All requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation are also observed.

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The issue that results from the preceding issue is the potential for challenges to arise at various phases of the project, such as when the project was put together by one organization and direct installation is done by another. When work processes are inconsistent and reasonable claims are made against previous stage performers for work defects only at the subsequent stage, when another organization provides services, you may be forced to incur significant expenses and engage in protracted disputes and potentially even legal action with various contractors. Naturally, this will have a severe negative impact on the work’s progress.

For the reasons mentioned above, you should choose a contractor who will complete all phases of the project—that is, when all phases are completed by workers from the same company, coordinating the project under the auspices of a single contract that assigns responsibility to a single contractor. Elezar LLC completes a full cycle of work, guaranteeing the project’s support at every turn, from work and documentation for completed facilities to the preparation of preparatory documentation. Every step of the process involves control. There’s a promise given. Additionally, constructed object maintenance is done.

If you choose to get in touch with Elezar LLC, all you have to do is give them a call and speak with an engineer to begin the process of hooking up your private residence to the central heating system. We’ll take care of the rest!

When it comes to heating and insulating your home, understanding the different types of central heating systems and how they"re installed is crucial. Central heating systems can be classified into various types, including forced air, radiant heating, and hydronic systems. Each system has its own advantages and installation requirements, impacting factors such as cost, energy efficiency, and comfort levels. Whether you opt for a traditional forced air system that distributes heat through ductwork or a modern radiant heating system that warms your home through floor panels or walls, knowing the ins and outs of each option helps you make informed decisions for your home"s heating needs. Additionally, proper installation is key to ensuring optimal performance and longevity of your central heating system, so consulting with professionals or following manufacturer guidelines is essential. By understanding the classification of central heating systems and their installation requirements, homeowners can effectively choose the best option to keep their homes warm and cozy while minimizing energy costs and environmental impact.

The principle of operation of the central heating

Diagram of a single-pipe, closed system in an apartment complex.

The CHP department measures the air temperature. It states that the time when a hot water supply is required is decided by the communal workers. There are occasions when this is done in accordance with the calendar (local governments are obligated to install central heating during a specific period of the year). However, it also happens that the cold sets in much earlier than the legally mandated deadlines. Local authorities frequently ignore low temperatures, but if they get too cold, they turn on the central heating earlier than planned.

Here, from this very CHP, water enters separate boiler houses attached to apartment buildings. There it heats up taking into account how low the temperature is in this location. Of course, all apartments are heated from one boiler, which is fraught with a problem. The liquid becomes hot to the limit and only then goes down the pipes. This is done so that the inhabitants of the last houses have managed to get a cooling water yet. Of course, thanks to this approach, the temperature is distributed in a strange way. Residents of those apartments through which water runs first have to endure unbearable heat. They cannot open the windows, because outside the window is minus, and moreover, quite low. But it is also impossible to keep them closed, because the air becomes so dry that even plants die. Difficult position, isn"t it?

Why do workers at schools and hospitals always complain about the water’s constant low temperature when everyone is so hot? It is unknown why, but the hospitals receive their water from the central heating battery at a minimum temperature required by law. This is applicable to all public spaces that are maintained at the state’s expense, not just these municipal establishments. Put simply, less money is spent on room maintenance the more frugal the space.

Naturally, after reading everything that has been said thus far, you may conclude that there are no benefits to using this method of heating our homes. This opinion will be incorrect, of course. He still gets by and functions, after all. Let us examine the principal benefits of central heating.

The pluses of central heating

The "Autobalance" system of the house balances.

Let’s start by stating that there aren’t many good points, and that some of them are highly debatable. Cheap fuel, for instance. In fact, the only energy carriers used when using central heating boilers are those that don’t require significant financial outlays. Doesn’t it sound funny? Although it appears that they heat us with coal, fuel oil, and other inexpensive methods, they seem to be charging for gas or even gasoline. Whatever one’s opinion, there is undoubtedly a benefit. Though generally not to us, it is advantageous.

But there are also interesting times for apartment building occupants. For instance, high dependability. Think carefully, because if you install your own boiler in a private home, for example, you will have to adhere to it at all times. Any malfunction or gas leak will happen all of a sudden. If it comes to central heating, housing and community organizations are in charge of it. Though, of course, anything is possible in this day and age. The bureaucratic machinery was dispersed so widely that it occasionally accepts funds but refrains from making repairs. As a result, this plus could also be referred to as controversial.

And again it seems that centralized heating does not have positive points. But there is still something. It"s about environmental friendliness! Well, think for yourself, are the above sources of fuel can be dangerous? Of course not! But what"s the difference, they will use them state boilers or our own? After all, if we are talking about heating the cottage village, in which centralized heating prevails, then in it you can independently install economical boilers working on coal and heating the host separately from the general system. And if we talk about apartment houses, then. About what can be done by the inhabitants of the apartments, we will tell you a little below.

It is now evident that those who are in favor of removing the state’s common heating system have a single point of contention. There is a simplicity to this that never changes. All you have to do, after all, is pay the substantial costs. It is said that everything else is used to create living spaces and public areas. It’s only at this point that it’s utterly incomprehensible and so much money is being taken.

Distinctions between a two-pipe and a single-pipe system.


It is important to note that individual heating devices, as an alternative to central heating, are not very efficient. However, it is crucial to consider the pumping distance of coolant in a boiler room or CHP. As was previously mentioned, water format SO systems are the most prevalent kind found in buildings. Since these complexes don’t require complicated equipment, most people prefer those with natural water circulation. The difference in the densities of the hot and cold liquids acts as an independent mixer, eliminating the need for pumps and other machinery.

These complexes function even in the event of a power outage or intermittent power outages. The natural heating system is almost universally mountable, and the pressure is safe.

One of the drawbacks of this kind of apparatus is the requirement for using comparatively large pipes, which

  • give heat slower;
  • have a limited radius of action;
  • determine a prolonged launch and a slow stop if necessary.

Even accounting for the cost of extra equipment, forced circulation proves to be more profitable. Regretfully, the system will not function if the electricity is cut off and there isn’t an independent generator. Additionally, even the presence of a network current is ineffective when there is an electronic malfunction in a pump. First and foremost, heating systems are classified by additional indicators based on the materials used for radiators and pipelines. Steel, copper, polypropylene, metal-plastic, and aluminum can all be used for these structures, but you must consider the material compatibility.

For the most part, central heating nodes run on one of three types of fuel, though other fuels are also used.

  • coal;
  • gas fuel;
  • fuel oil.

Types of radiators for heating apartment buildings

The choice is not very restricted because there is no single rule in multi-story buildings that permits the use of a particular type of radiator. A multi-story building’s heating system is fairly common and has a good pressure-temperature balance.

The following appliances may be among the primary radiator models found in the apartments:

  1. Cast iron batteries. Often used even in the most modern buildings. They cost cheaply and are very easily mounted: as a rule, by installing this type of radiators, owners of apartments are engaged in their own.
  2. Steel heater. This option is a logical continuation of the development of new heating devices. Being more modern, steel heating panels show good aesthetic qualities, are quite reliable and practical. It goes very well with the regulatory elements of the heating system. Experts agree that it is steel batteries that can be called optimal when used in apartments.
  3. Aluminum and bimetallic batteries. Products made of aluminum are very appreciated by owners of private houses and apartments. Aluminum batteries have the best indicators when compared with previous options: excellent external data, low weight and compactness are perfectly combined with high operational characteristics. The only minus of these devices that often scare away buyers is the high cost. Nevertheless, experts do not recommend saving on heating and believe that such an investment will pay off quite quickly.

The working indicators that are built into the coolant in this area will determine which batteries are best for a centralized heating system. It is possible to determine the necessary number of radiator sections, as well as their size and material, by calculating the coolant’s rate of cooling and movement. Remember that following all regulations is essential when replacing heating equipment, as breaking them may result in system flaws that prevent the panel house’s heating from working as intended (see "Heating pipes in the wall").

Additionally, it is not advised to perform repairs on an apartment building’s heating system, particularly if the system heats the panel house’s walls. This is because, in the past, homeowners have been known to remove crucial system components from their homes when they lack the necessary knowledge. Centralized heating systems have many positive aspects, but in order to keep them in good operating order, you must regularly replace their elements and keep an eye on a number of indicators, such as thermal insulation and equipment wear.


In Russia, central heating is the primary method of home heating. They frequently lament it, particularly in light of the infrastructure and equipment obsolescence of today. The fact that the system cannot be independently regulated is a source of frustration for many. However, the centralized heating method has already demonstrated its efficacy over several decades. The engineering communications selection is extremely intricate and multifaceted.

The heated rooms are supplied with heated coolant while traveling on long highways. When he cools down, he goes back to the boiler room, which lets you create a closed heating circuit. Water serves as a coolant in the majority of Russian Federation settlements, where central heating is split between steam, water, and air. The benefit of this option is that it is easy to use and can serve the coolant from a distance without negatively impacting its parameters. Due to its high cost, air heating is far less common.

The majority of steam heating occurs in industrial settings, where steam is used to heat the buildings during the winter while also meeting the needs of main production. The value of the pipes is decreased by decreased hydrostatic pressure. In any event, costly volumetric infrastructure must exist in the "center" for central heating to function, but this is totally worthwhile. The idea’s practical implementation’s curvature is what causes the disadvantages, rather than the approach’s inherent viciousness.

The boiler houses come on if the average daily air temperature does not increase by more than 8 degrees Celsius for 120 consecutive hours. When the temperature on the street rises above that point for more than 120 continuous hours, they are permitted to cease their operations. The heating season in most places runs from the middle of October to the first part of April, although variations occur depending on how long winter lasts, whether it’s the early thaws or the return of cold weather.

The heat supply starts earlier in the most significant social facilities. Summertime experimental starts are conducted periodically to assess the system’s readiness for operation and to preemptively fix any new defects.

Every central heating system has certain requirements. Conventionally, it is based on the observation that air temperatures between +21 and +25 degrees provide comfortable living conditions. The interpretation of these data, which took into consideration psychological studies and large-scale surveys, indicated that sticking to warming between +18 and +24 degrees Celsius is primarily worthwhile.

The actual circumstances differ based on:

  • climatic specifics;
  • capabilities of heating devices and highways;
  • features of the room itself.

TOP-5 economically developed countries where there is no central heating 22 photos

It turns out that although there is no central heating in some countries in Europe and Asia, the locals there do not freeze during the winter. Great Britain

Every Brit gets "alone" warm. There isn’t one single central heating system in this nation. In homes and apartments, boilers are installed to heat water and batteries through individual gas speakers. You can either drown with might and main, hot batteries, or freeze, saving on the heating, depending on the owner’s desire and capabilities.

Kotatsu is another feature of Japanese culture that has been historically utilized for heating. Every Japanese home has him. A table with a heating element hidden under the lid is called a modern kotatsu. Although it had a different name and appearance in the past, kotatsu was still present in ancient Japan.

If there are no small children present, then keep the temperature down. You can save up to 6% of thermal energy in a room by lowering the temperature by one degree. According to the recommendations, a drop in temperature from 24 to 20 degrees will result in up to 24% of heat savings.

Alternatively, there are two choices:

1. Centralized heating in a single apartment building is known as general house heating. It is activated by the House leadership. Such houses contain apartments that are not equipped with heating equipment. 2. Personal heating. There is a hot water regulator in the kitchen, restroom, or bathroom. Gas or electricity is used.

The country has two different electricity tariffs: full, which is applicable from 7:00 to 23:00, and preferential, which is applicable from 23:00 to 7:00 and is 1.5 times less. For many years, the state has encouraged residents to conserve energy in every manner possible. And not just with tariff policy’s assistance.

The same holds true for installing different types of environmentally friendly, energy-saving equipment, such as solar panels and gas and electric heaters with higher energy rendering. For their purchase, preferred loans are given to citizens. Regarding new housing, since 2008, all projects involving more than 1000 square meters have been subject to the new heat-insulation regulations. If not, it is returned for revision and is not accepted.


In a private residence, central heating enables you to do away with radiators in favor of heated floors. However, it is unacceptable to forgo the standard batteries in an apartment building and even to add a basic water circuit underneath the floor. This is forbidden by several local authorities’ rulings in addition to SNiP standards. Difficulties may arise with real estate transactions, device removal instructions, or even ending social employment contracts. It makes sense why: a warm floor throws off the equilibrium of your home’s heat supply and raises the possibility of flooding.

In severe situations, it can be portrayed by the regulatory bodies of a meticulously designed plan that will demonstrate the total lack of excess risks. However, since fewer documentaries use electric or infrared warming floors, mounting one is far more appropriate. Regarding the heating contours themselves, water that has reached a maximum temperature of 35 degrees can be used to heat stitched polyethylene pipes. Only professionals should mount polypropylene solutions. The majority of the time, using metal-plastic is advised; it is only subpar to more costly copper and stainless steel.

The following video will teach you how to install the radiator.

Pipping pipeline

As heat engineers debate the best heating plan for the House of Central Heating, the question of skillfully wiring the pipeline within the house comes up. One of two likely templates can be used to implement a heating wiring scheme in modern multi-story buildings.

One -pipe connection

When multi-story buildings are equipped with heating devices, the first template is the most commonly used option as it allows for a single-pipe connection with either the upper or lower wiring. Simultaneously, the return and filing location is not tightly regulated and is subject to change based on external factors such as the area in which the house is constructed, its layout, number of stories, and design. Additionally, there is a possibility of a change in the coolant’s direct path through the risers. There is a choice between the heated water moving from above-down or from the bottom-up.

One-pipe connections have several drawbacks despite being easy to install, reasonably priced, dependable, and having a long service life. Low performance indicators and the coolant’s temperature loss during contour movement are two of them.

In actuality, a number of tools can be employed to make up for the drawbacks of a single-pipe heating scheme; among these, the radial system may prove to be a useful fix. It is intended to be used with a collector to assist in regulating the temperature regimes.

Two -pipe connection

The second template option is the two-pipe connection. For instance, a five-story building’s two-pipe heating system has none of the drawbacks mentioned above and is entirely different in design from a single-pipe system. In order to carry out this plan, heated water from the radiator is sent straight through the check valve and into the boiler room instead of being transferred to the next heating device in the circuit. As a result, it is possible to prevent the coolant circulating along a multi-story building’s contour from losing temperature.

The challenge of connecting the apartment’s heating batteries suggests that this kind of heating will need to be implemented through a labor- and material-intensive procedure that will cost a lot of money. The low cost of system maintenance is likewise the same, but the high cost is offset by the house’s uniform and high-quality heating throughout all floors.

One benefit of using a two-pipe connection diagram for heating batteries is that it can be installed on each radiator and used as part of a special heat meter circuit. By using it in the apartment, the owner will see a significant reduction in the amount of money needed to pay for utilities because he will be able to independently regulate the heating system if needed. It also lets you control the temperature of the coolant in the battery.


Since the Soviet Union’s founding, multi-story residential buildings have had a centralized heat supply as part of their planned management legacy. This is still the most popular way to supply thermal energy to housing today.

The primary benefit of central heating is that homeowners don’t have to worry about fixing problems with machinery and pipelines. The city heat supply organization is in charge of the yearly launch and any necessary network overhauls. Individual components in centralized and autonomous heating systems can only be changed or repaired with approval from a heat supply organization.

Large heat losses in distribution networks, population reliance on the caliber of work performed by the heat supply organization, and incapacity to guarantee personal comfort levels are among the engineering systems’ drawbacks.

The estimated supply temperature in city networks can be between 90 and 115 °C, and in order to prevent potential burns, current equipment safety regulations forbid heating accessible hot surfaces above 60 °C.

As a result, an unique elevator node is installed at the building’s entrance. It brings the temperature down to the allowable level by combining hot coolant from the supply with chilled water from the consumer’s return. Employees of the heat supply organization are the only ones who perform element calculations, element maintenance, and elevator controller changes.

Document package to turn off the central heating.

Any owner of an apartment in an apartment building has the right to disconnect from central engineering communications, per Article 26 of the Russian Federation’s Housing Code. The following documents must be submitted by the coordinating bodies for this:

  • Statement. An arbitrary form of writing is allowed.
  • The technical passport of the apartment, which is planned to be disconnected from heating.
  • Package of title documents for the apartment.
  • Consent of all adult residents living in the apartment (in writing).
  • Conclusion on the possibility of conducting re -equipment.

A reconstruction project that is created by experts and approved by the appropriate authorities must also be attached.

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Features of heat supply of multi -storey buildings

The heating system of a multi-story structure

A multi-story building’s autonomous heating system should only be able to deliver coolant to each customer on time while maintaining the coolant’s technical specifications (temperature and pressure). The building must have a single distribution unit that can be regulated in order to accomplish this. Boilers are used in conjunction with it in autonomous systems.

An multi-story building’s heating system is distinguished by the way it is organized. It must include the following essential elements:

  • Distribution node. With its help, hot water is supplied along the highways;
  • Pipelines. They are designed to transport the coolant to separate rooms and the premises of the house. Depending on the method of organization, there is a single -pipe or two -pipe heating system of a multi -storey building;
  • Control and regulating equipment. Its function is a change in the characteristics of the coolant depending on external and internal factors, as well as its qualitative and quantitative accounting.

In reality, a residential multi-story building’s heating scheme is made up of multiple documents, including the calculated portion in addition to the drawings. Compiling it involves special design bureaus adhering to the most recent regulatory standards.

An essential component of a multi-story building is the heating system. When passing through the facility or carrying out planned inspections, its quality is examined. The management company bears responsibility for this.

What to do to the owners of country houses

How can a resident of a cottage village give up central heating? The question is, of course, perfectly valid. Ultimately, a great deal of individual homeowners live entirely unaware of the existence of a general heating system. Naturally, they are also able to install any boilers they choose, whether they run on wood, gas, or fuel oil. What makes you inferior to them, then? Is it really that hard to save money on this? The solution is achievable! There are two ways to accomplish this: either by an independent shutdown from the common pipe, or by the group of residents mentioned above who consent to rejecting it.

Indeed, you did hear correctly. If you reside in a private home, you have the option to reject central heating. This alone is completely unnecessary, as there are other ways to address the issue of insufficient heat in specific areas of the house. This is going to assist with pump insertion into the heating pipes. Increase is something you do on your own and doesn’t need permission to do. She will assist in resolving issues like slow temperature setbacks and cold pipes in specific rooms.

Centralized heating is simultaneously pros and cons of

The majority of residents in apartment buildings typically have central heating, which is a system that runs off of a shared network. Such a system functions in a variety of ways and differs greatly from the autonomous heating systems typically found in private homes.

Many contend that heating a home with centralized heat supply is incredibly inefficient. As a result, you should carefully examine the technical details of this heating option, as well as comprehend how to connect to the central heating system and how to save money.

How to switch to autonomous heat supply

In an apartment building, a general house assembly is held prior to the conversion to individual heat supply and the establishment of a separate boiler room.

Following a majority vote in favor of the decision, the required paperwork must be designed, equipment must be purchased, and the structure must be installed once permits have been obtained.

There shouldn’t be any issues with the documentation side of the matter if the house has been given in advance. If not, it might require more time and work.

A heating boiler with a closed combustion chamber must be purchased first. Installing the hot water circuit is required if there are recurring issues with the hot or cold water supply.

Any kind of boiler will do. The installation of a polypropylene model is the best possible solution.

In any event, it’s critical to take the house’s features into account. It is imperative to remember about the shut-off valves, which regulate the flow of hot water.

There are multiple ways to link apartment radiators to the heat supply system so that hot water circulates through each radiator.

Although one-pipe schemes are inexpensive, they are not always suitable for installation. Small rooms are intended to be heated using this method.

The most popular two-pipe system enables you to arrange water circulation so that hot water is always present in the coolant and directly in the radiators, and cooled water is removed via the return channel, or "return."

It’s also important to note another benefit: installing thermostats on a two-pipe water circuit enables you to control the radiator’s temperature, ensuring that each apartment has the appropriate amount of battery heating.

Another method of pipe wiring is radiation. Radiation heating’s primary benefit is that it lets you individually control the temperature of each radiator. This helps the boiler room save a significant amount of fuel, which lowers expenses.

Centralized systems

Note: While autonomous heating uses a home boiler room, central heating systems operate from a shared boiler room or thermal power plant. This is the primary distinction between the two types of heating systems.

This actually doesn’t matter for the typical user, but it needs to be taken into consideration when it comes to updates or overhauls.

Independent and dependent system

  • If the system is independent, then the powerful boilers of central heating supply the coolant not directly into the contours of residential or non -residential premises, but first to thermal points, where the redistribution occurs. That is, hot water with a thermal power plant or a powerful boiler room enters such TP through large diameter pipes, then, depending on the needs of the group of buildings, houses or entrance, it is distributed by the pressure of the coolant pressure. On such TPs, circulation pumps are installed, which, if necessary, can increase the flow power (for example, for a nine -story building).

  • In cases where the project is made according to the dependent scheme, the central heating system supplies hot water directly to the radiator contours of each residential or non -residential premises, without preliminary distribution of stream power. It should be noted that the circulation pump in its work does not affect the temperature of the coolant – with its help, the additional pressure required for the upper floors of high -rise buildings is created.

Single -circuit system

Although this kind of system is frequently employed, central heating (one-pipe) has a number of serious drawbacks because of the substantial heat loss that occurs during fluid transportation. Even though the system is under a lot of pressure to compensate them, you can frequently hear complaints from the occupants of these homes.

Essentially, this kind of system works like this: radiators for central heating are connected to the pipe via the input and output pipes, which carry the hot liquid. In other words, hot water circulated through the device’s ribs cools and then returns to the central distributing pipe.

Consequently, the liquid’s temperature will drop for the following battery, and so forth. Typically, no more than three, four, or possibly five devices can operate without losses.

However, issues with so many radiators on a single supply pipe occur in apartment buildings, and the cause is typically inadequate thermal insulation. Instead of insulating their windows, doors, and maybe even walls, residents start to add more sections to their radiators by hand—in some cases, more than 20!

Now, using simple math, if a five-story building’s riser contained five batteries of ten sections, which were used to calculate the design power, now there are twice as many; typically, only the first two floors are received here (either the upper or lower ones, depending on where the feed begins from).

The radiator has a bypass cut in front of it.

As you can see in the top photo, bypasses are frequently placed in front of radiators to reduce heat loss in these types of systems; the taps on them are typically left unattended. It turns out that if the hot flow does not fall entirely into the battery section, some of it can circulate with very little heat loss.

However, the crane that crashed there (into the bypass) when it was closed allowed you to reroute the water through the radiator with the least amount of temperature loss.

Double -circuit scheme

A double-circuit heating system, whether open or closed, can supply fluid in a continuous temperature mode for every floor; however, the installation and material costs are marginally more in this case than in a single-circuit system. Money is spent on central heating pipework.

Because they return the cooled liquid to the return pipe and this coolant enters the heating point (CHP or boiler room) without affecting the temperature of other batteries, central heating radiators in a dual-circuit system operate independently of one another. One pipe is also used to supply hot water.

Note: Cast iron radiators are provided for the project due to the high pressure of centralized systems. However, the instructions let you swap them out for steel or other materials that also maintain pressure well if you want to enhance the interior design.

One -pipe heating system

The primary drawback of an apartment building’s single-pipe heat supply is the considerable heat loss that occurs during the transportation of hot water. The coolant in this circuit is supplied from the bottom up, goes into the batteries, produces heat, and then exits the pipe again. Hot water used to reach end users living on the higher floors in a barely warm state.

There are times when the one -pipe system is further simplified, trying to increase the temperature of the coolant within radiators. For this, the battery is cut directly into the pipe. As a result, it seems that the radiator is its continuation. But only the first users of the system receive more heat from such a connection, and the water reaches the latter consumers almost cold (read also: “Acardic heating system is the characteristic“). In addition, a single -tube heat supply of an apartment building makes it impossible to adjust the radiators – after a decrease in the supply of coolant in a separate battery, the water flow is also reduced along the entire length of the pipe.

The inability to replace the radiator during the heating season without completely draining the system’s water supply is another drawback of this type of heat supply. Installing jumpers is required in these situations in order to turn off the battery and direct the coolant toward them.

Thus, installing a single-pipe heating system results in savings on the one hand, but also poses significant issues with heat distribution among apartments on the other. It’s winter there, and the people are freezing.

Heat supply of a multi -storey building

Distributing the apartment building’s heating unit

The functioning parameters of the system depend on the heating wiring in a multi-story building. But it’s also important to consider the heat supply’s characteristics.

Among them, the method of supplying hot water—autonomous or centralized—is crucial.

If the situation is particularly dire, connect to the central heating system. This enables you to lower the estimate of current heating costs for multi-story buildings. However, the quality of these services is still essentially very low. Therefore, autonomous heating of a multi-story building is preferred, if possible.

Autonomous heating of a multi -storey building

Heating a multi-story building autonomously

An independent heat supply system can be set up in contemporary multi-story residential buildings. It can be either a common house or an apartment. In the first scenario, a multi-story building’s autonomous heating system operates independently in each apartment. Installing a boiler and wiring pipelines independently will accomplish this (most often – gas). The boiler room installation is implied by the common house and comes with specific requirements.

Its organizational concept is exactly the same as one for a private country estate. Nonetheless, there are several crucial considerations that need to be made:

  • Installation of several heating boilers. Must one or more of them must perform a duplicate function. In case of failure of one boiler – the other must replace it;
  • Installation of a two -pipe heating system of a multi -storey building as the most effective;
  • Drawing up schedule of scheduled repair and preventive work. This is especially true for heating heating equipment and security groups.

Setting up an apartment heat metering system is essential given the characteristics of a specific multi-story building’s heating system. Energy meters must be installed for each incoming pipe coming from the central riser in order to accomplish this. For this reason, cutting current expenses is not a good use for a multi-story building’s Leningrad heating system.

Centralized heating of a multi -storey building

The elevator node’s chart

When an apartment building’s heating wiring is connected to a central heat supply, how can that wiring change? An elevator node, which serves as the system’s central component, normalizes the coolant’s parameters to allowable levels.

The central thermal highways span a considerable distance overall. As a result, they set the coolant parameters in the heating unit to minimize heat losses. In order to achieve this, raise the pressure to 20 atm, which raises the temperature of the hot water to +120 °C. However, it is not permitted to provide customers with hot water that has such qualities due to the features of the heating system in an apartment building. In order to standardize the coolant’s parameters, an elevator node is installed.

It can be made for multi-story buildings with either a one-pipe or two-pipe heating system. Its primary duties are:

  • Reducing pressure using an elevator. A special conical valve regulates the volume of the flow of coolant into the distribution system;
  • Reduced temperature level to +90-85 ° C. For this, the mixing node of hot and cooled water is intended;
  • Filtering of the coolant and a decrease in oxygen content.

The house’s single-pipe heating system’s primary balancing is also handled by the elevator node. It achieves this by offering a locking and regulatory reinforcement that can be temperature- and pressure-adjusted in an automatic or semi-automatic mode.

Additionally, keep in mind that an autonomous system will not perform the same way as a multi-story building’s estimated centralized heating system. These systems’ comparative features are displayed in the table.

Options Centralized Autonomous
Primary development costs Low – installation of an elevator. High – boilers, security and control group.
The cost of the coolant High tariffs The ability to regulate the parameters of the coolant
Quality of work Low – interruptions, temperature pressure surges High when installing control equipment
Service Small costs average cost

Considering the information above, selecting an independent heat supply system for an apartment building is advisable.

On the other hand, the boilers’ specifications and the expertly compiled heating plan require particular attention.

The video demonstrates how a multi-story building’s heating works on a basic level:

System Type Installation Process
Forced Air Ductwork installed throughout the house, connected to a furnace typically located in the basement or utility room.
Radiant Heating Installation involves embedding pipes or electric heating elements in floors, walls, or ceilings, which radiate heat into the space.

Selecting the ideal heating system for your house is essential for cost-effectiveness, comfort, and energy efficiency. To assist you in making an informed choice, we have examined the numerous categories of central heating systems and the installation factors that go into each one in this post.

Homeowners can determine which central heating system best meets their needs by being aware of the various types available, including forced air, radiant, and hydronic. Every system has pros and cons of its own, varying from energy efficiency to distribution techniques.

Your heating system’s longevity and efficiency are greatly influenced by the installation process. Whether you’re building a new home or retrofitting an old one, correct installation guarantees top performance and lowers the possibility of problems later on. It is strongly advised that installation be done by a qualified professional to guarantee safety and adherence to building codes.

When choosing a central heating system, factors like climate, fuel availability, financial constraints, and individual preferences should all be taken into account. Expert advice and in-depth research can assist homeowners in making well-informed decisions that suit their unique requirements and situation.

To sum up, central heating system installation and classification are critical components of keeping a cozy and energy-efficient house. Homeowners can enjoy dependable heating while reducing energy consumption and expenses over time by being aware of their options and spending money on professional installation.

Video on the topic

Types of heating systems. How to figure it out and choose with ease.

Two -pipe heating system. The loop of the Tichelman

How does it work. Heat supply system

Heating systems principle of operation

What type of heating you would like to have in your home?
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