An effective heating system is essential for keeping your house warm and comfortable during the winter. The single-pipe heating system is a popular kind of heating system that is renowned for its efficiency and ease of use. We’ll go into great detail about these systems’ inner workings and how to determine the right parameters for optimum performance in this article.

Let’s first review the fundamentals of a single-pipe heating system. Single-pipe systems, in contrast to more intricate ones, have a single pipe passing through each radiator or heating unit in your house. This pipe is filled with hot water, which warms the radiator and the air around it. Because of their simplicity, single-pipe systems are a popular option for many homeowners as they are relatively easy to install and maintain.

However, it’s crucial to precisely calculate a few factors to guarantee the efficient operation of your single-pipe heating system. The amount of heat output needed in each room or space of your home is one important factor. This computation considers a number of variables, including the room’s size, the ideal temperature, and the amount of insulation. Accurately calculating the required heat output will help you keep your house warm enough without wasting energy.

The rate at which hot water flows through the system is another crucial factor to take into account. The speed at which the water heats each radiator and, in turn, the efficiency of home heating is determined by the flow rate. The number and size of radiators, the diameter and length of the pipes, the temperature differential between the incoming and outgoing water, and other factors must all be taken into account when determining the ideal flow rate. Your heating system’s efficiency can be maximized by performing this calculation accurately.

Additionally, it’s critical to take your single-pipe heating system’s general layout and design into account. Variations in pipe sizing, insulation, and radiator placement can all affect how well the system works. A well-designed home guarantees consistent heating throughout and reduces the possibility of problems like cold spots or uneven heating.

To sum up, knowing how to figure out a single-pipe heating system’s parameters is crucial to making sure your house operates at its best and uses the least amount of energy. You can have a warm and cozy home while reducing energy waste and expenses by considering variables like heat output, flow rate, and system design.

Component | Description |

Boiler | The heat source that warms the water. |

Radiator | Device that releases heat into rooms. |

Pipe | Conducts hot water from boiler to radiator. |

Thermostat | Regulates temperature by controlling boiler. |

When planning a single-pipe heating system for your house, it’s important to balance cost-effectiveness and comfort. The computation process entails figuring out how much heat each room needs while taking insulation, space dimensions, and target temperature ranges into account. You may design a system that maximizes energy efficiency and provides uniform heat distribution throughout the house by carefully considering these variables and choosing the right pipe sizes, radiator kinds, and flow rates. An accurate calculation will ultimately result in a more comfortable and economical heating solution for your house by preventing problems like overheating, uneven heating, or excessive energy consumption.

- General information and purpose
- Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of this system are:
- The disadvantages are:
- Types of single -pipe heating systems
- Calculation and installation
- One -pipe heating system
- Design and principle of operation
- Why it is necessary to increase the size of each subsequent radiator?
- Increase the feeding line
- Disadvantages of a single -pipe heating system
- Similar notes:
- Calculation of heating of a private house
- Calculation of heat losses
- Calculation of hydraulics
- Pressure drops in
- The calculation of the circulation ring includes:
- Calculation of pipelines with
- Video on the topic
- Calculation of a single -pipe vertical heating system
- Calculation of a single -pipe heating system
- Calculation and design rules for a single -pipe heating system
- Calculation of a single -pipe heating system
- Calculation of a single -pipe heating system
- Single -pipe systems: calculation, comparison with two -pipe systems, connection schemes

## General information and purpose

In the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet Union developed a single-pipe heating system because it was the most cost-effective in terms of both labor and materials. The mass construction of affordable and expeditious residential buildings (also referred to as "Khrushchev") served as justification for the necessity of this development. The purpose of this development was to provide heating for newly constructed economy class residential buildings. In the future, panel multi-story buildings were also constructed using comparable systems based on standard projects.

Because the pipelines carrying coolant to heating devices and pipelines collecting coolant from the devices are split into a single trunk pipe, this system is known as one-pipe.

## Advantages and disadvantages

### The advantages of this system are:

- low cost due to the use of a smaller amount of materials;
- rapid installation due to the minimum number of connections, mounting openings, the number of pipelines;
- simplicity and visibility of operation;
- more aesthetic than, for example, in a two -pipe system, the appearance.

### The disadvantages are:

- the inability to adjust the duct of the coolant through the heating device, regardless of subsequent devices;
- the need for a circulation pump due to a high hydraulic resistance, or a system of a system with natural circulation;
- increased wear of heating elements due to the presence of excess pressure created by the circulation pump;
- the need to compensate for a decrease in the temperature of the coolant in each next device by increasing its heating surface.

## Types of single -pipe heating systems

Single-pipe heating systems can be categorized by type as follows:

- horizontal (used mainly for heating one -story buildings);

One-pipe heating system that is horizontal.

- vertical (used for heat supply of multi -storey buildings);

An apartment building’s closed single-pipe heating system schematic.

- open, expansion tank communicates with the atmosphere;

A circulation circuit for one student using an open-type expander.

- closed – expansion tank. As a rule, a membrane type is isolated from the atmosphere;

The heating system’s expansion tank.

- with natural circulation;
- with artificial circulation (created by a circulation pump);

First scheme: artificial circulation combined with a pine heating system.

- according to the type of coolant (in a single -pipe heating system of a private house, as a rule, the coolant is tap water, therefore antifreeze, oil and other types of possible coolants are not considered);
- By type of connection of heating devices (running, with adjustable and unregulated bypas).

Natural circulation system using a single pipe for heating.

A vertical open single-pipe water heating system with uncontrolled bypass and natural circulation is one example of a system that typically combines multiple of the aforementioned types.

## Calculation and installation

For heating schemes, even single-pipe ones, to function consistently and continuously, a detailed hydraulic calculation is required. By researching the required techniques online or getting in touch with the companies that perform these services, one can perform hydraulic and thermal calculations on their own.

However, when doing an independent calculation, the following elements need to be considered:

- The maximum height of the risers should be no more than 30 meters;
- An open expansion tank should be located at the highest point of the system, preferably right above the main riser, but not lower than 3 meters from the lower point of the system;
- In heating schemes with natural circulation, it is necessary to provide for the slopes of the main pipelines: the servant-from the boiler to the extreme riser with a slope of 3-5 degrees, the opposite-from the extreme riser to the boiler with a slope of at least 3-5 degrees; In circuits with artificial circulation, the slope should be at least 0.5 cm per 1 meter of pipes;
- The internal diameter of the main pipelines should be at least 25 mm, the diameter of the risers should be at least 20 mm.

Watch the following video to learn more about the hydraulic calculation of a single-pipe heating system:

Even with their antiquated technology, one-pipe heating systems are still effectively utilized today to heat low-rise residential buildings and structures.

## One -pipe heating system

The 20th century saw the greatest usage of single-pipe heating systems in a variety of buildings, ranging from private homes to office buildings and residential apartment complexes. Nonetheless, a single-pipe scheme is currently and frequently utilized. A private home’s vertical single-pipe water heating system.

## Design and principle of operation

One -pipe is one supplier pipeline, to which several radiators are consistently connected. Moving along the pipeline, the coolant enters the first radiator, gives him heat and already several chilled continues to move along the supplier, going into each subsequent radiator. The coolant enters the second radiator with lower temperature than in the first, thus, the first radiator gets the largest amount of heat, and the latter is the smallest. Uneven heating of radiators is one of the main disadvantages of a single -pipe heating system. To solve this problem in apartment buildings, a special jumper is used (the same diameter as that of the feeding line, or by a size smaller), through which, bypassing the radiator, the heated coolant is constantly circulating. Despite the use of a jumper, a single -pipe system, unlike two -pipe, is a colder. In the two -pipe system there is both a feed and reverse line, to which each radiator is connected simultaneously. In a two -pipe scheme, the coolant, according to the feeding line, enters the radiator, where heat transfer occurs. After that, the coolant leaves the radiator already along the feeding line, and not according to the supplier, as in a single -pipe scheme. Thus, in the two -pipe system, each radiator, regardless of its remoteness, heats up almost the same. Note! The most suitable condition for the use of a single -pipe heating system in a private house is a small heated area, t.e. The number of radiators used. If only 5 radiators need only 5 radiators for heating, then one -tube will be one of the best options. If 6-10 radiators are planned in the system, then its use will be carried out to the rise in the cost of the project (the need to install multi-section radiators and an increased supply pipeline). Horizontal one -pipe heating scheme of a private house with your own hands, diagonal connection.

## Why it is necessary to increase the size of each subsequent radiator?

Even with a properly mounted one -pipe heating system, its latest radiators will heat up weaker than the first. This is because each subsequent (in the direction of the coolant) the radiator will take about 10 ° C. Therefore, to increase the heat transfer of the latest heating devices, it is recommended to use multi -section radiators that have a higher heat transfer. This solution, of course, increases the cost of the entire system. For example, a single -pipe heating system is mounted so that the supply pipeline and eyeliners to radiators have the same diameter. As a result of higher angular resistance, less than half of the coolant will enter the radiator, about 45%, the rest will continue to move along the supply pipeline. If a coolant with a temperature of 60 ° C enters the first radiator, then at the exit from the radiator there will be 50 ° C. Further, the 60 ° C-coil in the supply line is mixed with 50 ° C leaving the radiator, as a result of this, a coolant with a temperature of about 55 ° C is obtained. Thus, with each subsequent radiator, the temperature of the coolant will decrease by about 4.5-5 ° C (about 7%). Accordingly, each subsequent radiator must be increased by 7% in relation to the previous. Lower connection scheme.

## Increase the feeding line

However, it is advised to increase the diameter of the supply pipeline (by one or two sizes larger than that of the eyeliner to radiators) so as not to significantly increase the number of sections of each subsequent radiator.

## Disadvantages of a single -pipe heating system

- Higher cost. In comparison with a two -pipe scheme, a one -pipe is more expensive, t.To. It is necessary to purchase each next in the direction of movement of the coolant radiator with an increased number of sections. In addition, a more “thick” pipe is necessary for the feeding highway than in a two -pipe.
- Not economical. Multivegeal radiators and a “thick” pipe of the feeding line increase the amount of coolant in the system. Accordingly, to heating it, you need to use more fuel.
- The complexity of installation. Compared to a two -pipe system, installation and calculation of a single -pipe system is a more complex process (see. The above reasons).

### Similar notes:

## Calculation of heating of a private house

The urgent need for heat in the house is due to the middle strip’s climate. Thermal stations, CHPCs, and district boiler rooms provide the solution to the problem of apartment heating. However, what about a private home’s owner? The installation of the heating equipment required for a comfortable living space in the home—an autonomous heating system—is the only solution. The installation of an essential autonomous station should be handled carefully and responsibly to avoid receiving a lot of scrap metal as a consequence.

## Calculation of heat losses

The room’s thermal losses must be determined in the first step of the computation. Heat loss can come from the floor, ceiling, amount of windows, type of wall material, presence of an interior or front door, and more.

Examine the following Corner room example, which has a 24.3 cubic meter volume:

- room area – 18 square meters. m. (6 m x 3 m)
- 1st floor
- ceiling 2.75 m high,
- External walls – 2 pcs. from a beam (thickness18 cm), sheathed from the inside with a gaper and pasted with wallpaper,
- window – 2 pcs. 1.6 m x 1.1 m each
- Paul – wooden insulated, from below – underput.

Surface computations:

- external walls minus windows: S1 = (6+3) x 2.7 – 2 × 1.1 × 1.6 = 20.78 kV. m.
- windows: s2 = 2 × 1.1 × 1.6 = 3.52 kV. m.
- floor: s3 = 6 × 3 = 18 kV. m.
- ceiling: s4 = 6 × 3 = 18 kV. m.

Now that we have all of the heat retreating area calculations, we can assess each one’s heat loss:

- Q1 = S1 x 62 = 20.78 × 62 = 1289 W
- Q2 = S2 x 135 = 3 × 135 = 405 W
- Q3 = S3 x 35 = 18 × 35 = 630 W
- Q4 = S4 x 27 = 18 × 27 = 486 W
- Q5 = Q+Q2+Q3+Q4 = 2810 BT

Whole. On the coldest days, the room loses 2.81 kW of heat in total. It is now known how much heat must be provided to the room in order for it to be at a comfortable temperature because this number is written with a minus sign.

## Calculation of hydraulics

We proceed to the most challenging and significant hydraulic calculation: OS work guarantees that are dependable and efficient.

The hydraulic system’s calculation units are:

- diameter pipeline in areas of the heating system;
- quantities pressures networks at different points;
- losses coolant pressure;
- Hydraulic Ward all points of the system.

System configuration must be chosen before calculating. pipeline type and reinforcement for locking and regulations. Next, choose the kind of heating and where to put it in the house. Draw a schematic of each heating system, including the numbers, calculated section lengths, and heat loads. Finally, pinpoint the primary circulation ring. comprising different pipeline sections directed toward the heating device (in the case of a two-pipe system) or the riser (in the case of a single-pipe system) and then back to the heat source.

It is imperative to guarantee the variety of work in all operating modes. When risers and highways lack stationary supports and compensators, temperature lengthening produces a mechanical noise. The heating system’s overall noise level is exacerbated by the use of steel or copper pipes.

Hydraulic noise is caused by the substantial turbulence of the flow that results from the increased movement of the coolant in the pipeline and the increased throttle of the water flow by the regulatory valve. Because of this potential for noise, it is essential to select the appropriate option for the specified starting conditions at every stage of hydraulic calculation and design, including the selection of pumps and heat exchangers, balancing and regulatory valves, and analysis of the temperature extension of the pipeline. Ideal reinforcement and equipment.

### Pressure drops in

The hydraulic computation takes into account the current pressure drops. At the heating system’s input:

- Diameters of the plots of CO
- regulatory valves that are installed on branches, risers and eyeliner of heating;
- dividing, bypass and mixing valves;
- Balance valves and their hydraulic settings.

The balance valves are adjusted to the parameters specified in the schematic when the heating system is turned on.

The heating plan shows The calculated thermal load of each heating device, Q4, is the same as the room’s calculated thermal load. When there are multiple devices, the load must be distributed among them.

Next, the primary circulation ring needs to be identified. The number of risers in a single-pipe system and the number of heating devices in a two-pipe system are equal to the number of rings. Every circulation ring has a balancing valve, so in a single-pipe system, the number of valves equals the number of vertical risers, and in a two-pipe system, the number of heating devices. They are mounted on the back of the heating device in a two-pipe with balancing valves.

### The calculation of the circulation ring includes:

- Passing water system. In single -pipe systems, the ring is located in the most loaded riser, in two -pipe – in the lower heating device of a more loaded riser;
- a system with a dead end movement of the coolant. In single -pipe systems, the ring is located in the most loaded and remote riser, in two -pipe – in the lower heating device of a loaded remote riser;
- horizontal system, where the ring is located in a more loaded branch of the 1st floor.

One must be chosen from two methods for calculating the main circulation ring’s hydraulics.

The specified water speed on each section of the main ring determines the diameter of the pipeline and the pressure loss in the circulation ring in the first direction of the calculation, which is followed by the selection of the circulation pump. The type of heating system determines the Pan PN pump, P.

- For vertical biflar and single -pipe systems: PH = ps. O. – Re
- For horizontal biflar and single -pipe, two -pipe systems:PH = ps. O. – 0.4re

- Ps.O – pressure losses in the main ring of circulation, PA;
- Re – natural circulation pressure, which occurs due to a decrease in the temperature of the coolant in the pipes of the ring and heating devices,.

To remove air from horizontal pipes, the coolant speed is measured at 0.25 m/s. The coolant should ideally move through copper, polymer, and steel pipes at a rate of up to 0.7 m/s.

Following the computation of the main ring of circulation, the other rings are calculated by ascertaining the known pressure within them, and the diameters are chosen based on an approximation of the specific losses of the RCR.

Systems with a local heat generator, dependent (low pressure in the heat system’s input), and independent connections to thermal sources all use directions.

Determining the diameter of the pipe in the calculation areas and the pressure loss in the circulation ring constitute the second direction of the calculation. computed using the circulation pressure value that was initially given. The RCR’s approximate specific loss of pressure is used to determine the diameters of the pipeline sections. This idea is used in calculations for heating systems with natural circulation and dependent connections to heating networks.

The value of the current circulation difference (PP pressure), where PP in a system with natural circulation equals PE, and in pumping systems, from the type of heating system, must be found for the first calculation parameter.

- In vertical one -pipe and biflar systems: PP = pH + re
- In horizontal single -pipe, two -pipe and bifILAR systems: PP = pH + 0.4.Re

### Calculation of pipelines with

The next hydraulic calculation task is to determine the pipeline’s diameter. The computation takes into account the thermal load and circulation pressure set for this CO. It is important to observe that in two CO units with a water coolant, the primary circulation ring is situated in the lower heating component, further away and more loaded than the riser’s center.

We calculate the average value of 1 meter of the pipes of the specific pressure of pressure from friction RCR, pa/m, using the formula RCR = β*?PP/∑L; PA/m.

- β – coefficient taking into account part of the loss of pressure on local resistance from the total amount of calculated circulation pressure (for C with artificial circulation β = 0.65);
- pr – available pressure in the accepted CO, PA;
- ∑L – the sum of the entire length of the calculated circulation ring, m.

It is essential to know how to calculate a single-pipe heating system if you want to make sure your house is as warm and efficient as possible. A homeowner can choose their heating system with knowledge if they take into account variables such as heat loss, the desired temperature, and the size of the space.

Calculating the building’s heat loss is a crucial step in the single-pipe heating system calculation process. This entails evaluating elements like the overall construction of the building, the quality of the windows, and the insulation levels. Homeowners can choose the right size and capacity of heating system to suit their needs by precisely calculating heat loss.

It’s also crucial to comprehend the fundamentals of hydronic heating and how they relate to single-pipe systems. To distribute heat evenly throughout a building, hydronic heating uses pipes to circulate hot water or steam. An accurate calculation guarantees that the system can minimize energy waste and efficiently provide warmth to every room.

An additional factor to take into account when calculating a single-pipe heating system is the kind of fuel or energy source that is available. Homeowners should select the energy source that best fits their needs—be it renewable energy, gas, oil, or electricity—while also taking the environment into consideration.

In general, knowing how to calculate a single-pipe heating system gives homeowners the power to decide how comfortable and energy-efficient their home will be. People can design a heating system that keeps their home comfortable while reducing expenses and environmental impact by taking into account variables like heat loss, hydronic principles, and energy sources.

## Video on the topic

### Calculation of a single -pipe vertical heating system

### Calculation of a single -pipe heating system

### Calculation and design rules for a single -pipe heating system

### Calculation of a single -pipe heating system

### Calculation of a single -pipe heating system

### Single -pipe systems: calculation, comparison with two -pipe systems, connection schemes

**What type of heating you would like to have in your home?**