All you need to know about smoke pumps for domestic solid fuel boiler

If your home is heated by a solid fuel boiler, you are undoubtedly aware of the significance of adequate ventilation and efficient combustion. The smoke pump is an essential part of this system. Knowing how smoke pumps function and how they contribute to maximizing the efficiency of your boiler is crucial, regardless of whether you’re new to solid fuel heating or looking to upgrade your current setup.

A smoke pump, sometimes referred to as a draft inducer or flue gas fan, is essential to maintaining adequate airflow through the flue system of your boiler. Its main job is to help extract combustion byproducts from the combustion chamber, like smoke and gases, and direct them through the chimney and out of your house safely.

Your boiler may find it difficult to maintain effective combustion and may even present safety hazards owing to insufficient ventilation if the smoke pump isn’t working. The purpose of contemporary smoke pumps is to minimize the possibility of backdrafting, which can result in a buildup of carbon monoxide in your home, improve combustion, and increase draft efficiency.

A number of considerations must be made when choosing a smoke pump for your residential solid fuel boiler, including the boiler’s size and type, the characteristics of the chimney, and any applicable local building codes or regulations. To ensure optimal performance, it is imperative to select a smoke pump that meets the specifications of your boiler and offers the required draft.

We’ll examine the many kinds of smoke pumps that are available, their features and advantages, installation considerations, maintenance advice, and common problem-solving techniques in this guide. This article will give you all the information you need to make well-informed decisions about effectively heating and ventilating your home, regardless of whether you’re in the market for a new smoke pump or are just looking to learn more about this important component.

Introduction What is a smoke pump and how does it work?
Benefits Advantages of using a smoke pump
Types Different types of smoke pumps available
Installation Steps to install a smoke pump for your solid fuel boiler
Maintenance Tips for maintaining your smoke pump
Efficiency How a smoke pump improves the efficiency of your boiler

Principle of operation and functions of smoke pumps for solid fuel boilers

Under the user’s supervision, the chimney damper and blower door in a traditional stove regulated the combustion of wood:

  • If the under-blower and chimney are strongly open, the fuel would burn without heating the stove;
  • if the under-blower is closed, the fuel burns slowly, the furnace warms up and warms the room;
  • if the damper is closed excessively, there is smoke in the room, and the owners have a headache from carbon monoxide;
  • If the damper is closed too early, before the carbon monoxide burns out (the color of the flame of smoldering coals changes from bluish to orange), it can be fatal.

The way the smoke evacuator works in contemporary solid fuel boilers is comparable to how the Russian stove’s draught control damper works.

Assume for the purposes of this discussion that the solid fuel boiler chimney was installed correctly, in accordance with SNiP and the equipment manufacturer’s recommendations. The unit produced the promised heat, is clean, serviceable, and supplied a natural draught for efficient combustion; however, there might be requirements before installing a smoke extractor:

  • changing fuel type or supplier;
  • building next to buildings that change the wind pattern or become a screen;
  • replacement of the boiler with a unit of higher capacity;
  • a simple deflector on the chimney head did not increase the draught.

Yes, and generally speaking, unless you stand over the boiler all day adjusting the draught, it is impossible to guarantee the most efficient combustion even under normal operating conditions. One of the smoke pump variants, a special fan, can be used to address the draught issue.

They are as follows, depending on the installation location and design:

  • axial fans to increase the draft inside the chimney;
  • flow-through smoke pumps at the boiler outlet or at the beginning of the chimney;
  • centrifugal draught fans on the chimney outlet parallel to the main pipe.

Supercharger fans, on the other hand, are most frequently utilized in domestic settings as smoke evacuators on the inlet (room air intake door).

When the smoke exhausters are turned off, their operating components must not obstruct the chimney’s natural draft and must only partially cover the duct’s cross-section. An adjustable motor is used for smooth regulation if the smoke evacuator is to be integrated into a flexible control system; otherwise, an ordinary asynchronous motor will work well when the smoke evacuator is in the manual "on-off" mode. A well-chosen and strategically positioned chimney pump will enable you to regulate the draft under all circumstances, prevent drastic chimney repositioning, and benefit from the boiler’s efficient operation with more consistent heat output throughout the combustion of the full charge.

The equipment in the smokebox operates in an environment that is highly heated and aggressive; the closer it is to the boiler, the more heat resistance the materials must have. Installing fans on chimneys with temperatures no higher than 600 degrees Celsius is one of the requirements. In terms of structure, this type of unit is made up of the same parts as a traditional fan, and how they are installed on the chimney determines how they work:

  • body (snail);
  • activator, in the form of blades or impeller;
  • set of fastening parts (frame, clamps, spigots);
  • electric motor.

The activator’s blade inclination controls the draft power and arranges the flow in either a forward or reverse direction. Direct (left) rotation is used on low-power boilers and long distances from the boiler; reverse (right) rotation is used on high-temperature installation sites for high-power boilers.

After all this technical stuff, I want to offer some practical guidance. First and foremost, it is imperative to consider that the smoke pump will require upkeep, cleaning, lubrication, and repairs. In the boiler room, particularly during the winter, it is simpler to complete. For a domestic boiler, the most sensible solution is to install a smoke pump on the air intake window. Strong smoke pump: even with anti-vibration mounts, its noise will not be enjoyable, so it makes more sense to install it outside the living room.

Installing the motor power supply on a different line with a separate RCD is preferable. The system console should be connected to the control, sensors, and any applicable alarms. When installing a smoke evacuator on the chimney head, it is necessary to prepare for year-round maintenance and to offer protection from inclement weather.

Smoke pumps designated "DN" are used for reverse draught smoke, and units labeled "D" are produced to create a direct draught in the chimneys of all types of boilers. The apparatus can be modified to incorporate extra features (such as ash catchers and automation mechanisms).

What kind and how of coal is best for stoking a home solid fuel boiler?

Reviews of the use of household supercharger fans: advantages and disadvantages

In a Russian stove, the blower door controls the amount of oxygen air that is supplied to the fuel while supercharger fans handle this function in modern boilers. When they are turned on, they force the furnace to fill with oxygen that is needed for combustion. Insufficient fan airflow prevents the boiler from meeting the specified parameters; excessive fan power causes the coolant to heat up too quickly and puts the engine in "start-stop" mode.

In order to maintain the boiler performance at a given level of coolant temperature, the fan is always controlled by a controller that analyzes various parameters from feedback sensors. The air from the fan is supplied through its own pipe, which is shut off when it is switched off. Its components do not come into contact with hot combustion products and do not require alloy steels. The electric motor is most often used adjustable, so that after reaching the set output level, the boiler works in the process maintenance mode.

When the boiler furnace is opened, smoke, sparks, or flames shoot out of it due to the overpressure that is created by blowing air into it. When using the boiler, this needs to be taken into account. A flexible system of draught and blow control from the computer is made possible by connecting the functions of the smoke evacuator and blowing fan for the boiler’s most efficient operation and to prevent various negative phenomena.

The supercharger fan cannot be manually operated without automation, and the smoke extractor can only be manually operated when there is an ignition or when smoke starts to appear in the room. I suggest reading one of our earlier articles before making any decisions, as we have already discussed the most popular and effective fan and automation combination.

Advantages Disadvantages
Asynchronous fan motor:
Reliable design; High starting current;
Easy to maintain;
Elementary control and protection circuitry.
Synchronous motor:
Small range of regulation; More often used for constant discharge in large systems;
Low starting torque; It can be heated at low speeds;
Low price.
Electronically Commutated Motors (EC):
The best option for flexible boiler control system because of the wide range of fan speed regulation Expensive in price, poorly compatible with domestic regulators and sensors

It’s important to know the ins and outs of smoke pumps for residential solid fuel boilers when it comes to heating and insulation your home. These pumps are essential for maximizing your heating system’s effectiveness and security. Smoke pumps improve combustion and reduce smoke emissions, which are two important aspects of smoke pump performance. The goal of this post is to demystify smoke pumps by going over everything from their types and functions to installation and upkeep advice. Understanding the fundamentals of smoke pumps can help you make informed decisions and make sure your home stays warm while being environmentally friendly, regardless of your level of experience with heating systems.

The best known manufacturers and models: characteristics and prices

The installation power of a blower fan and smoke evacuator is very small when compared to boiler power, and their combined cost is not very high. Nevertheless, even in the event of unanticipated circumstances and parameter changes, the combination of these devices enables the solid fuel unit to operate steadily and with the stated capacity and efficiency. They’ll cut expenses and fuel. While a blower fan can serve as a substitute for a smoke evacuator in a home setting, it is usually preferred.

WPA 120

The most widely used and reliable centrifugal blower fan for up to 60 kW of solid fuel boilers. Own power 83 W, maximum capacity 255 m 3 /h, installed in rooms between 0 and 40 °C in temperature and with a maximum humidity of 95%. featuring a motor that is speed-controlled and has built-in thermal protection. On the outlet spigot, a gravity damper is installed. Polish production.

Prices start at 4,800 rubles.

Boilers that can burn a single fuel charge for up to seven days


Up to 50 kW boilers can receive air supply from this fan model. The unit can operate with a motor power of 80 W, a productivity of up to 240 m 3 per hour, and dependability in temperatures ranging from -10°C to 40°C and relative humidity levels up to 92%. It is advised that the boiler control system be integrated. Very reliable, manufacturer Poland.

Prices start at 4,000 rubles.


An enhanced version of the fan WP 120 from KG Elektronik, another Polish manufacturer, features a 90 W motor, a maximum capacity of 380 m 3 / h, identical design and operating parameters, and weighs 2.1 kg.

5 660 rubles is the cost.

RR 152-3030 LH

Smoke pump for up to 30 kW of heat output from small domestic boilers. 235 m 3 /h of smoke at temperatures up to +250°C can be pumped. Stainless steel heat-resistant housing and blades with a 44 W motor are intended for indoor installation. Weight 1.0 kg, manufacturer M+M Poland, developer EWM Germany.

Starting price: 6,000 rubles.

Prices: summary table

Model Power Weight, kg Cost, rubles.
WPA 120, Poland, M+M 83 W, for boilers up to 60 kW 2,1 4 800
NWS-100, Poland 80 W, for boilers up to 50 kW 2,0 4 620
DP-120, Poland, KG Elektronik 90 W, for boilers up to 60 kW. 2,1 5 660
RR 152-3030 LH,Poland, M+M, developer – Germany, EWM. 44 W, for boilers up to 30 kW 1,0 6 000

Smoke pumps are essential to home solid fuel boilers operating efficiently. To guarantee the efficiency and safety of your heating system, you must be aware of how they operate and how to maintain them.

First and foremost, it’s critical to understand how a smoke pump works. In essence, it aids in the safe extraction of smoke and gases from the boiler during the burning of solid fuels like coal or wood. This keeps the air in your house clean and stops dangerous gases from building up.

There are a few things to take into account when selecting a smoke pump. These include the fuel you use, the size and type of boiler you have, and the design of your house. You can choose the best pump for your needs by speaking with a heating specialist.

Maintaining your smoke pump properly is also essential to its longevity and effectiveness. This entails routine cleaning to get rid of any soot or debris accumulation and inspecting for wear or damage. Neglecting maintenance duties can result in decreased efficiency and potentially dangerous situations.

To sum up, smoke pumps are essential parts of residential solid fuel boilers that guarantee the effective and safe operation of your heating system. You can have a warm and cozy home while reducing your impact on the environment and enhancing safety by being aware of how they work, choosing the best pump, and maintaining it correctly.

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Sergey Ivanov

I like to help people create comfort and comfort in their homes. I share my experience and knowledge in articles so that you can make the right choice of a heating and insulation system for your home.

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